Skip to main content

Full text of "Report of the Philippine commission to the secretary of war ... 1900-1915"

See other formats


ARRANGEMENT  OF  THE  ANNUAL  REPORTS  OF  THE  WAR  DEPARTMENT 
FOR  THE  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1903. 


Volume       I.  — Secretary  of  "War : 

Chief  of  Staff. 

Ad  j  utant-General. 

Inspector-General. 

Judge- Advocate-General. 
Volume     II. — Armament,  Transportation  and  Supply: 

Quartermaster-General. 

Commissary-General. 

Surgeon-General. 

Paymaster-General. 

Chief  of  Engineers,  Military  Affairs. 

Chief  of  Ordnance. 

Chief  Signal  Officer. 

Chief  of  Artillery. 

Board  of  Ordnance  and  Fortification. 
Volume  III. — Department  and  Division  Commanders: 

Department  of  California. 

Department  of  the  Colorado. 

Department  of  the  Columbia. 

Department  of  Dakota. 

Department  of  the  East. 

Department  of  the  Lakes. 

Department  of  the  Missouri. 

Department  of  Texas. 

Division  of  the  Philippines^— 

1.  Department  of  Luzon. 

2.  Department  of  the  Visayas. 

3.  Department  of  Mindanao. 

Volume   IV. — Military   Schools   and  Colleges;   Record   and  Pension  Office, 
Military  Parks,  and  Soldiers'  Homes: 
Military  Academy — 

1.  Board  of  Visitors. 

2.  Superintendent. 
Army  War  College. 

General  Service  and  Staff  College. 

School  of  Application  for  Cavalry  and  Field  Artillery. 

Artillery  School. 

School  of  Submarine  Defense. 

Chief  of  Record  and  Pension  Office. 

Commissioners  of  National  Military  Parks — 

1.  Chickamauga  and  Chattanooga. 

2.  Gettysburg. 

3.  Shiloh. 

4.  Vicksburg. 

Soldiers'  Home,  District  of  Columbia — 

1.  Board  of  Commissioners. 

2.  Inspection  of. 

Inspection  of  National  Home  for  Disabled  Volunteer  Soldiers. 
Volumes    V-VIII. — Reports   of  the  Philippine   Commission,   the   Chief  of 

Bureau  of  Insular   Affairs,   and  Acts   of  the   Philippine 

Commission. 
Volumes  IX-XIII. — Chief  of  Engineers,  River  and  Harbor  Improvements. 
Volume  XIV.— Report  of  Chief  of  Ordnance. 


CO^TEJSTTS. 


Paet  I. 

Page. 

Annual  report  of  the  Philippine  Commission 3 

Report  of  the  civil  governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands 13 

Conditions  as  to  tranquillity 25 

The  use  of  scouts  with  the  constabulary 33 

Reconcentration 34 

Bandolerismo  statute 34 

Dissolute  Americans  and  vagrancy  acts 37 

Friars'  lands  and  religious  questions 38 

Business  conditions 47 

Proposed  official  inspection  and  classification  of  hemp 50 

Sugar. 51 

Tobacco 54 

The  labor  question 54 

The  effect  of  labor  on  the  investment  of  capital 56 

Health 57 

Railroad  and  other  construction 57 

Schools 59X 

The  Philippine  exhibit  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition,  St.  Louis..  60 

The  census 62 

Opium 63 

Civil  service 63 

The  coastwise  laws 71 

The  insular  revenues 73 

Office  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent 75 

Provincial  and  municipal  governments 76 

The  government  of  the  Moro  province 76 

The  Christian  Filipino  provinces 82    J 

Municipalities 83 

Justices  of  the  peace 86 

The  city  of  Manila , 86 

The  port  works 90 

Executive  bureau 91 

Exhibit  A. — Resolutions  re  rice — Executive  order  64 — Acts  495,  517 — 

Proclamation  re  quick-growing  crops— Acts  817,  738,  786,  797,  828..  93 

Exhibit  B. — Annual  report  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent  for  the 

Philippine  Islands  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903 103 

Exhibit  C. — Report  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent  as  to  carabao,  to 

November  20,  1903 _ 127 

Exhibit  D. — Statement  showing  actual  expenditures  under  the  Con- 
gressional relief  fund 129 

Exhibit  E.— Reconcentration  act,  No.  781 140 

i 


II  CONTENTS. 

Report  of  the  civil  governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands— Continued.  Page. 

Executive  bureau — Continued. 

Exhibit  F. — Testimony  taken  at  Malacanan  Palace  February  16, 1902, 

relative  to  the  value  of  lands  owned  by  the  religious  orders 142 

Exhibit  G. — Detailed  and  summarized  statements  of  the  valuations  of 

the  friars'  estates  by  Senor  Villegas 199 

Exhibit  H. — Agreements  to  convey  the  friars'  lands  to  the  government 

of  the  Philippine  Islands 204 

Exhibit  I. — Report  on  religious  controversies 213 

Exhibit  J. — Report  of  Hon.  Luke  E.Wright,  Commissioner,  as  to  hemp,      351 
Exhibit  K. — Petition  of  agricultural  society  of  Panay  and  Negros  for 

abolition  of  duty  on  Philippine  sugar 353 

Exhibit  L. — Statement  of  Colonel  Colton,  collector  of  customs  at  Iloilo, 

as  to  necessity  for  removal  of  duty  from  Philippine  sugar 355 

Exhibit  M. — Statement  of  Governor  Wright  as  to  necessity  for  action 

by  Congress  in  removing  duty  on  sugar  and  tobacco 357 

Exhibit  N.— Report  of  an  investigation  made  by  James  Ross,  super- 
visor of  fiscals,  concerning  alleged  sufferings  and  deaths  among  certain 
laborers  sent  from  Manila  during  the  month  of  July,  1903,  to  work 

on  the  Benguet  road 358 

Exhibit  0. — Report  of  Capt.  A.  R.  Couden,  commandant  United  States 

Naval  Station,  Cavite,  on  Filipino  labor  employed  at  the  navy-yard.      392 

Exhibit  P. — Proposed  railway  lines  in  the  island  of  Luzon 399 

Exhibit  Q. — Annual  report  of  the  exposition  board 406 

Exhibit  R. — Third  annual  report  of  the  Philippine  civil  service  board 

for  the  year  ended  September  30,  1903 425 

Exhibit  S. — Acts  passed  by  the  legislative  council  of  the  Moro  prov- 
ince, Philippine  Islands 480 

Exhibit  T. — Report  of  General  Wood  as  to  abrogation  of  Bates  treaty.      489 
Exhibit  U. — Report  of  the  municipal  board  of  the  city  of  Manila  for 

the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1903 543 

Exhibit  A. — Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  board 563 

Exhibit  B. — Report  of  the  disbursing  officer 566 

Exhibit  C. — Report  of  the  engineer  in  charge  of  the  new  water 

system 573 

Exhibit  D. — Report  of  the  city  engineer,  Manila,  P.  I 584 

Exhibit  E.— Report  of  chief  of  police 617 

Exhibit  F. — Report  of  the  law  department 631 

Exhibit  G. — Report  of  the  chief  of  the  fire  department 637 

Exhibit  H. — Report  of  the  department  of  assessments  and  collec- 
tions   648 

Exhibit  I. — Report  of  the  city  superintendent  of  schools 667 

Exhibit  J. — Amended  report  of  the  municipal  board 671 

Exhibit  V. — Charter  Manila  street  railway 674 

Exhibit  W. — Report  of  the  officer  in  charge  of  the  improvement  of 

the  port  of  Manila  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1903 682 

Exhibit  X. — Annual  report  of  the  executive  secretary  to  the  civil 

governor 687 

Exhibit  Y. — Executive  orders  and  proclamations,  October  1,  1902,  to 
September  30,  1903 943 


CONTENTS.  Ill 

Part  II. 

Page. 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior _„.-.„.». 3 

Organization  of  the  department 3 

The  board  of  health  for  the  Philippine  Islands  and  the  city  of  Manila 3 

Rinderpest 4 

Health  work  in  Manila 4 

Death  rate  of  Manila 5 

Infant  mortality 5 

Death  rate  in  different  districts  of  the  city 6 

Lack  of  medical  attendance 6 

Birth  rate 6 

Need  of  public  bath  houses  and  laundries 6 

A  new  water  supply  an  imperative  necessity 7 

Foul  wells  in  Manila . 8 

Sewer  system 8 

Plan  for  improving  the  esteros 9 

Sunken  lands  in  Manila 9 

Disposal  of  garbage 10 

Disposition  of  night  soil 10 

Congestion  in  populous  districts 10 

The  floating  population  of  Manila 11 

Sanitary  markets  and  unsanitary  food  shops 11 

Need  of  a  general  hospital 12 

Contagious-disease  hospitals 13 

Need  of  insane  asylum 13 

Leper  colony , 13 

Free  dispensary 13 

New  morgue 13 

Loss  of  property  in  Trozo  fire 14 

L^nhealthful  condition  of  Bilibid  prison 14 

Board  of  health  supported  by  Manila  courts 14 

Sanitary  laws  not  satisfactory 14 

Legislation  drafted  by  the  board 15 

The  cholera  epidemic 15 

Bubonic  plague 17 

Smallpox 17 

Small  number  of  deaths  from  malaria 18 

Deaths  from  dysentery 18 

Number  of  lepers  in  the  Philippines 18 

Beriberi  in  Manila 18 

Inspection  of  animals 18 

Prevention  of  rinderpest 18 

Quarantining  of  imported  animals  necessary .' 19 

Locust  pest 19 

Sanitary  conditions  in  the  provinces 20 

The  quarantine  service 20 

The  civil  hospital 22 

The  civil  sanitarium  at  Baguio,  Benguet 23 

Change  in  rates  at  sanitarium 24 


TV  CONTENTS. 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page. 

The  civil  sanitarium  at  Baguio,  Benguet — Continued. 

Government  cottages  on  sanitarium  grounds 24 

Reorganization  of  sanitarium  employees 24 

New  sanitarium  buildings  needed 25 

Improvement  of  sanitarium  grounds* 25 

Work  of  the  sanitarium 25 

The  forestry  bureau 25 

Modifications  in  forestry  laws 26 

New  employees  of  the  forestry  bureau 26 

Visit  of  the  chief  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Forestry 26 

Division  of  inspection 27 

Division  of  forest  management 27 

Need  of  a  steamer  to  facilitate  inspection 28 

Licenses 28 

Fear  of  extensive  exploitation  of  Philippine  forests  by  lumber  com- 
panies groundless 28 

Special  privileges  granted  to  the  Army 29 

Work  of  the  timber-testing  laboratory 29 

Workshop  of  the  forestry  bureau 30 

Identification  of  woods  by  microscopic  sections 30 

Botanical  work 30 

Investigation  of  dyewoods 31 

Work  of  the  forest  reservation  in  Bataan 31 

Private  woodlands 31 

Amount  of  forest  products  from  public  lands  in  1902  and  1903 31 

Imports  and  exports  of  forest  products 32 

Expenses  of  forestry  bureau 32 

The  mining  bureau 32 

Reorganization  of  the  mining  bureau  to  facilitate  field  work  recom- 
mended    33 

Active  mining  operations  begun 33 

Mineralogical  map  of  the  Philippines 33 

Recommendations  of  chief  of  mining  bureau 33 

Field  trips 34 

Additions  to  collections 34 

Plan  for  exhibit  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition 34 

Bureau  of  government  laboratories 34 

Opening  of  laboratories  to  the  public 35 

Buildings 36 

The  serum  laboratory 36 

Library 38 

New  apparatus  and  supplies 38 

Assay  work 38 

Gas  supply 38 

Character  of  chemical  work  done '. , 38 

The  biological  laboratory 39 

Diagnostic  work 39 

Original  investigation 39 


CONTENTS.  V 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page. 

Bureau  of  government  laboratories — Continued. 
The  biological  laboratory — Continued. 

Acting  director  appointed 40 

Entomological  work  begun 40 

Botanical  work 40 

Sectioning  woods. 40 

Marine  biological  laboratory  recommended 41 

The  government  photographer 41 

Working  force 42 

Reorganization  of  the  bureau  needed 42 

The  bureau  of  public  lands 43 

Legislation  drafted  by  the  chief  of  the  bureau 43 

Plan  for  government  surveys 44 

Spanish  land  titles 44 

Draft  of  instructions  to  deputy  mineral  surveyors 44 

Administration  of  San  Lazaro  estate 44 

Congressional  legislation  needed 46 

The  bureau  of  agriculture 47 

Changes  in  working  force 48 

Work  of  the  clerical  force 49 

Publications  of  the  bureau 49 

Seed  and  plant  distribution 49 

Proposed  improvement  of  native  fruits 50 

Experiments  in  growing  coffee 50 

Fiber  investigations 50 

Experiment  station  at  Manila 50 

Government  farm  at  "San  Ramon 51 

Experiment  station  in  Batangas 51 

Experiments  at  Baguio,  Benguet „ 52 

Agricultural  college 53 

Animal  industry 53 

Care  of  carabaos  imported  by  the  government 54 

Government  rice  farm 54 

The  weather  bureau 55 

Weather  stations 56 

New  instruments 56 

Crop  service 56 

Establishment  of  storm  signals 56 

Publications  of  the  bureau 57 

Exhibit  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition 57 

Repairs  of  instruments 57 

Astronomical  work 58 

Magnetic  observatory 58 

Promotion  without  competitive  examination  authorized 58 

The  ethnological  survey  for  the  Philippine  Islands  _ 58 

Necessity  for  survey 59 

Transfer  of  the  chief  of  the  bureau 59 

Work  of  the  survey 59 


VI  CONTENTS. 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page. 

Appendix  A. — Report  of  the  commissioner  of  public  health 63 

Report  of  receipts 66 

Report  of  disbursements 66 

Department  of  sanitary  inspection 67 

Department  of  sanitary  engineering. _  _ _  _  67 

Death  rate . 67 

Infant  mortality 70 

Deaths  among  transients 72 

Deaths  without  medical  attendance 72 

Birth  rate 72 

Insanitary  habits 73 

Public  bath  houses  and  laundries 74 

Water  supply . 75 

Drainage 78 

Sewerage 78 

Esteros . 81 

Sunken  lands 83 

Mosquitoes 84 

Street  cleaning 85 

Collection  and  disposal  of  garbage  and  refuse 85 

Collection  and  disposal  of  human  excreta 85 

Pail  conservancy  system 86 

Habitations '. 87 

Overcrowding 88 

Interiors 90 

Boat  population 91 

Markets  and  food  tiendas 92 

Foods  and  drinks 93 

Offensive  trades 95 

Opium-smoking  establishments 96 

Need  for  general  hospital  . . 96 

San  Lazaro  Hospital 97 

Maternity  and  Women's  hospitals 97 

Hospitals  for  the  insane . 97 

Infectious-disease  hospitals 98 

Leper  colony  at  Culion 98 

Municipal  physicians 99 

Unqualified  medical  practitioners -     99 

Free  dispensary . 99 

Free  clinic 100 

Midwives „ 100 

Training  school  for  nurses. 100 

Morgue 100 

Cemeteries 101 

Burials  and  disinterments. 101 

Trozofire 101 

Bilibid  prison 102 

Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition 103 


CONTENTS.  VII 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued  Page. 
Appendix  A — Continued. 

Government  laboratories 103 

Sanitary  laws 103 

I  Asiatic  cholera 105 

I  Bubonic  plague 108 

Smallpox  and  vaccination 109 

Malarial  fevers L10 

j  Dysentery Ill 

i  Leprosy , - - - Ill 

Beriberi 111 

Veterinary  division 112 

Diseases  of  live  stock _ . 112 

Quarantine  station  for  live  stock 113 

Locusts 114 

Provincial  sanitary  conditions 115 

Special  sanitary  inspections  of  provinces 117 

Office  force 117 

.  Statistical  tables 118 

v  Beport  of  the  chief  health  inspector  for  the  Philippine  Islands 136 

Health  and  sanitary  stations 137 

Hospitals 138 

Morgue 139 

Crematory 139 

Corrals 139 

Storehouse 140 

Uniforms  adopted . 140 

Municipal  free  dispensary 140 

River,  water  front,  and  harbor  service 140 

Methods  directed  to  the  improvement  of  sanitary  conditions  and 

to  free  Manila  of  infectious  diseases 140 

Preventive  inoculation  against  plague. 141 

Rat  catching 141 

River,  water  front,  and  harbor  work 141 

Disinfection 141 

Investigation  as  to  continued  presence  of  cholera  in  Manila 141 

Procedures  in  vogue  regarding  the  disposition  of  persons  infected 

with  plague,  etc 141 

Provincial  health  inspections 142 

Cholera  work  in  the  provinces  of  Sorsogon  and  Albay 142 

Operations  in  the  Mariquina  Valley 142 

Health  publications 142 

Recommendations  made  to  the  board  of  health  during  the  year 

which  have  not  materialized 143 

Report  of  the  sanitary  engineer  for  the  Philippine  Islands 143 

Report  on  construction  of  the  Culion  Leper  Colony 146 

Report  of  the  sanitary  engineer  of  the  city  of  Manila 149 

Report  of  disbursing  officer,  board  of  health 160 

Report  of  cashier,  board  of  health 161 


VIII  CONTENTS. 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page, 
Appendix  A — Continued. 

Reports  on  the  operation  of  the  pail  conservancy  system  in  the  city 

of  Manila  and  the  town  of  Mariquina 162 

Report  of  physician  in  charge  San  Lazaro  Hospital 168 

Report  of  leper  hospital  at  Cebu,  Cebu 174 

Report  of  leper  hospital,  Palestina,  Ambos  Camarines 174 

Report  of  medical  superintendent,  Chinese  hospital  for  contagious 

diseases 176 

Report  of  the  surgeon,  Bilibid  Prison 177 

Special  report  on  bubonic  plague,  by  Dr.  E.  L.  Munson,  assistant  to 

the  commissioner  of  public  health 181 

Quarterly  report,  excluding  statistical  tables,  of  the  president  of  the 

provincial  board  of  health,  province  of  Pampanga 188 

Measures  taken  for  the  prevention  of  cholera „ 189 

Care  of  sick 189 

Disposal  of  dead 189 

Hygienic  and  sanitary  conditions 189 

Customs  and  habits  of  the  people 189 

Deaths  from  violence 189 

Of  economic  interest 190 

Locusts 190 

Measures  taken  for  the  prevention  of  rinderpest 190 

Recommendations 190 

Report  of  special  sanitary  inspection  of  the  province  of  Pangasinan, 

by  Dr.  F.  H.  Dudley,  special  inspector 190 

Organization 191 

Diseases  most  common  in  the  locality 191 

Epidemic  diseases , 191 

Leprosy 192 

Venomous  snakes 192 

Hygienic  and  sanitary  conditions 192 

Customs  and  habits  of  the  people  relative  to  health  and  sanitation.  192 

Epidemic  diseases  among  animals 193 

Economics 193 

Report  of  Tayabas  Province,  submitted  by  W.  H.  Cook,  provincial 

health  inspector. 194 

Pagbilao 195 

Tayabas 195 

Lucban 196 

Sariaya 196 

Candelaria 197 

Tiaon 197 

Sampaloc 197 

Mauban 198 

Lagiamanoc 198 

Antimonan 199 

Gumaga 199 

Lopez 199 


CONTENTS.  IX 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page. 
Appendix  A — Continued. 

Report  of  Tayabas  Province — Continued. 

Calaoag 200 

Guinayangan 200 

Alabat 200 

Silangan -  - 201 

Singinin - 201 

Boac,  Marinduque - 201 

Mogpoc,  Marinduque 202 

Gasan,  Marinduque 202 

Torrijos,  Marinduque 202 

Santa  Cruz,  Marinduque 203 

Unisan,  Tayabas 203 

Pitogo,  Tayabas 203 

Macalelos,  Tayabas 204 

Genoso,  Tayabas 204 

Catanauan,  Tayabas 204 

Mulanay,  Tayabas 204 

Bondog,  Tayabas 205 

San  Narciso,  Tayabas 205 

Remarks 205 

Report  on  Ambos  Camarines,  submitted  to  the  board  of  health  by 

W.  H.  Cook,  provincial  health  inspector,  district  D 206 

Ambos  Camarines — Nueva  C&ceres 206 

Ragay,  Camarines 207 

Lupi,  Camarines 207 

Spiocot 208 

Libmanan 208 

Cabusan 208 

Magarao 208 

Bombon 209 

Quipayo 209 

Calabanga 209 

Milaor " 210 

Minalabag 210 

San  Fernando 210 

Pasacao 210 

Pamplona 211 

Daet 211 

San  Vicente 211 

Labo 212 

Talisay 212 

Indan 212 

Basud 212 

Baao 212 

Iriga 213 

Buhi 213 

Nabua 214 


X  CONTENTS. 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior— Continued.  Page, 
Appendix  A — Continued. 

Report  on  Ambos  Camarines — Continued. 

Bato 214 

Remarks 214 

Report  of  sanitary  conditions  in  the  provinces  of  Rizal,  Laguna,  Cavite, 

and  Batangas,  by  Dr.  L.  B.  A.  Street,  special  medical  inspector 215 

Province  of  Rizal 215 

Diseases  of  animals . 216 

General  remarks  and  recommendations 216 

Province  of  Laguna 216 

Diseases  of  animals 217 

Remarks 217 

Province  of  Cavite. 217 

Diseases  of  animals 218 

Remarks 218 

Province  of  Batangas 218 

Diseases  of  animals 219 

Remarks 219 

Report  on  sanitary  conditions  in  the  provinces  of  Union,  Benguet, 
Ilocos  Sur,  Ilocos  Norte,  Abra,  Lepanto-Bontoc,  Cagayan,  and 

Isabela,  by  Dr.  Frank  Dubois,  special  sanitary  inspector 224 

General  hygienic  conditions  and  the  customs  and  habits  of  the 

people  relative  to  hygiene 224 

Principal  diseases  and  death  rate 225 

The  cholera  epidemic 226 

Smallpox 227 

Dysentery  and  tuberculosis 228 

Animal  diseases 228 

Economic  conditions 228 

The  work  of  the  boards  of  health 229 

Report  of  special  sanitary  inspection  of  the  islands  of  Cebu,  Bohol, 

Samar,  and  Leyte,  by  Dr.  Charles  W.  Hack,  special  inspector .  230 

Hygienic  and  sanitary  conditions  as  found 230 

Customs  and  habits  of  the  people  relative  to  health  and  sanitation .  230 

The  diseases  common  in  the  locality 231 

The  history  of  cholera 231 

Diseases  among  cattle  and  other  animals 233 

Boards  of  health 233 

Economic  conditions 235 

Report  of  special  sanitary  inspection  of  Capiz  Province,  Panay,  by  Dr. 

R.  E.  L.  Newberne,  special  inspector 235 

Report  relative  to  the  inoculation  of  cattle  against  rinderpest,  island 

of  Tablas,  by  Dr.  F.  M.  Owen,  veterinarian,  board  of  health 236 

Appendix  B.  — Report  of  the  chief  quarantine  officer 239 

Cholera 239 

Plague 241 

Smallpox.. 242 

Leprosy 242 


CONTENTS.  XI 

Eeport  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page. 
Appendix  B — Continued. 

Iloilo .—,..*. 244 

Cebu 244 

Mariveles  quarantine  station 244 

Manila 245 

Summary 245 

Appendix  C. — Report  of  officer  in  charge  Philippine  Civil  Hospital 265 

Appendix  D. — Report  of  the  acting  attending  physician  in  charge  of  the 

civil  sanitarium „ 273 

Appendix  E. — Report  of  the  chief  of  the  forestry  bureau 277 

Division  of  inspection 280 

Division  of  forest  management 284 

Timber- testing  laboratory  and  workshop 297 

Recommendations   on   policy,   organization,   and   procedure  for   the 

bureau  of  forestry  of  the  Philippine  Islands 315 

Forest  policy 315 

Organization 316 

Grades  and  pay 317 

Present  and  proposed  force 318 

Conduct  of  business 320 

!   Philippine  forest  school. 322 

Philippine  forest  exhibit 324 

Sketch  for  the  Philippine  forest  exhibit 324 

Appendix  F. — Report  of  the  chief  of  the  mining  bureau 327 

Vacation  of  mining  engineer 327 

Mining  industry  established  and  its  general  conditions 327 

Status  of  records  and  reorganization 329 

Temporary  reduction  of  employees 330 

Mineralogical  maps 330 

1 '  Minas  de  carbon  de  Batan  " 331 

Government  experiments 332 

Amendments  to  existing  mining  laws 334 

Charges  of  the  government  laboratories 334 

The  St.  Louis  Exposition 334 

Bulletin  No.  3 334 

Progress  of  the  year 335 

Yearly  expenses 335 

Recommendations- 335 

Report  of  the  mining  engineer 336 

Office  work 336 

The  museum 337 

Laboratory  work 338 

Field  work 338 

Mineral  exhibit  at  the  St.  Louis  Exposition 339 

Bulletin  No.  3 340 

Reorganization  of  the  mining  bureau 340 

Reports 340 

The  National  Academy  of  Sciences 341 

Recommendations 341 


XII  CONTENTS. 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page. 
Appendix  G. — Second  annual  report  of   the  superintendent  of  govern- 
ment laboratories 343 

Building  and  construction . 343 

Serum  laboratory 344 

Library 345 

Apparatus  and  supplies - 347 

Chemical  laboratory 348 

The  transfer  of  the  serum  laboratory  from  the  board  of  health 350 

Biological  laboratory 352 

Entomological  work  of  the  bureau  of  government  laboratories 354 

The  transfer  of  the  botanical  work  to  the  bureau  of  government  labo- 
ratories   355 

The  work  of  making  microscopical  sections  for  the  forestry  bureau  . .  356 

The  laboratory  of  weights  and  measures 357 

The  marine  biological  laboratory 357 

Scale  of  charges  for  laboratory  work 358 

The  clerical  force  of  the  laboratory 358 

A  bill  for  reorganizing  the  laboratory  and  for  providing  an  adequate 

force  for  the  same 359 

The  cooperation  of  the  bureau  with  scientific  surveys  in  the  United 

States 361 

The  work  of  the  government  photographer 361 

Dwelling  houses  for  government  employees 362 

The  relation  of  the  laboratory  to  the  general  hospital 362 

Exhibit  A. — Report  of  the  director  of  the  serum  laboratory,  by  James 

W.  Jobling 363 

Exhibit  B. — Report  of  the  chemical  laboratory,  prepared  by  Dr.  P.  L. 

Sherman,  chemist 387 

Exhibit  C. — Report  of  Dr.  Richard  P.  Strong,  director  of  the  biologi- 
cal laboratory 411 

Exhibit  D. — Report  of  Mr.  Charles  S.  Banks,  entomologist 594 

Appendix  H. — Annual  report  of  the  chief  of  the  bureau  of  public  lands  . .  623 

Area  of  public  domain 623 

Mining  claims 624 

Disposition  of  public  lands 625 

System  of  surveys 625 

Records  of  Spanish  land  titles 626 

Miscellaneous  work 627 

San  Lazaro  estate 628 

General  observations  and  suggestions 634 

Appropriations  and  expenditures 636 

Appendix  I. — Report  of  the  insular  bureau  of  agriculture 639 

General  progress  of  the  work  of  the  bureau 639 

New  lines  of  work  undertaken 639 

Personnel 640 

Records 640 

Translations 641 

Circulars  of  inquiry 641 


CONTENTS.  XIII 

Keport  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page. 
Appendix  I — Continued. 

Publications -  - 641 

Seed  and  plant  introduction 642 

Distributions  of  seeds -  - - 642 

Distributions  of  seed  rice - 643 

Native  fruits  and  vegetables - - 643 

Coffee  plantation 644 

Acknowledgments 644 

Botanical  investigations 645 

The  herbarium - 645 

Field  work... 645 

Forage  supply  of  Manila 646 

Soil  investigations 647 

Soils  of  Union  Province 647 

Soils  of  the  forest  areas 647 

Batangas  soils 647 

Plans  for  continuing  soil  work 648 

Importance  of  soil  surveys 649 

Fiber  investigations 649 

Bulletin  of  commercial  fibers 649 

Inspection  of  Manila  hemp 650 

Cost  and  income  from  abaca  production 651 

Maguey  or  sisal  hemp 652 

Experiment  station  in  Malate 653 

Station  grounds 653 

Insects 653 

Forage 653 

Sesamum 654 

Tobacco 654 

San  Bamon 656 

Method  of  preparing  a  cocoanut  plantation 656 

Cocoanut  nursery 657 

Plantation  of  5,000  cocoanut  trees 657 

Income  from  a  plantation  of  5,000  cocoanut  trees 657 

Method  of  preparing  copra 657 

Improvements  introduced  in  the  cultivation  of  cocoanuts 658 

Batangas  experiment  station 659 

Experiments  at  Baguio 660 

Agricultural  college  and  experiment  station  at  La  Carlota,  Western 

Negros 661 

Animal  industry 661 

Stock  farms 662 

Imports  and  exports 664 

Bice  farms 664 

Bat  guano 666 

Exposition  at  St.  Louis 666 

Work  of  the  bureau 666 

Publications  received 667 


XIV  CONTENTS. 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior — Continued.  Page. 
Appendix  I — Continued. 

Exhibit  A. — Philippine  agricultural  products,  with  brief  descriptions 
of  the  plants,  their  distribution  and  uses,  compiled  from  the  reports 

of  correspondents  of  the  bureau,  by  F.  Lamson-Scribner  _ . 668 

Exhibit  B. — Agricultural  conditions  relative  to  value  of  lands,  wages 

of  farm  laborers,  principal  crops,  etc.,  in  the  provinces 677 

Exhibit  C. — Report  of  William  S.  Lyon,  in  charge  of  division  of  plant 

industry - 697 

Exhibit  D. — Report  of  the  botanist 701 

Exhibit  E. — Report  of  the  expert  in  fiber  investigations 713 

Exhibit  F. — Report  of  the  superintendent  of  experiment  station  at 

Malate 720 

Exhibit  G. — Report  of  the  superintendent  of  San  Ramon  government 

farm  at  San  Ramon,  Zamboanga,  P.  I . 729 

Exhibit  H. — Report  of  the  superintendent  of  the  Batangas  experi- 
ment station . 730 

Exhibit  I. — Report  on  agricultural  experiments  in  Benguet  Province.  732 
Exhibit  J. — Report  of  the  director  of  the  College  of  Agriculture  and 

experiment  station  at  La  Gran j a  Modela,  La  Carlota,  P.  I 736 

Exhibit  K. — Report  of  the  director  of  animal  industry , 740 

Appendix  J. — Report  of  the  director  of  Philippine  weather  bureau 743 

Appendix  K. — Second  annual  report  of  the  chief  of  the  ethnological  survey 

for  the  Philippine  Islands  (formerly  the  bureau  of  non-Christian  tribes) .  769 

Part  III. 

Report  of  the  secretary  of  commerce  and  police. 3 

Telegraph  division 11 

Civil  supply  store 12 

Bureau  of  coast  guard  and  transportation 12 

Light-house  division 15 

Bureau  of  posts 15 

Bureau  of  engineering 15 

Pamsipit  River  improvement 17 

Tarlac  and  Pampanga  rivers 17 

Benguet  improvement  work 17 

Electric  power  for  Manila 20 

Highways 21 

Bureau  of  coast  and  geodetic  survey 21 

Annual  report  of  Brig.  Gen.  H.  T.  Allen,  chief  of  Philippines  Constabulary  . .  631 

Telegraph  division 34 

Native  operators 35 

New  lines 36 

Expenses  and  material 36 

Cables 36 

Disturbances 37 

Results  of  the  year's  work  and  other  statistics 44 

Native  contingent 46 

American  troops 49 


CONTENTS.  XV 

Annual  report  of  Brig.  Gen.  H.  T.  Allen — Continued.  Page. 

Instruction 49 

Prospective 51 

Report  of  the  first  district,  Philippines  Constabulary 51 

Abra 52 

Bataan 53 

Batangas - 53 

Bulacan 54 

Cavite 56 

Cagayan 57 

Isabela - 58 

Ilocos  Sur 60 

Ilocos  Xorte - 60 

Lepanto-Bontoc 61 

Laguna 64 

Xueva  Ecija 65 

Xueva  Yizcaya 66 

Painpanga 69 

Pangasinan 70 

Eizal 71 

Tarlac 73 

Union 74 

Zambales 76 

Benguet 78 

Report  of  the  second  district,  Philippines  Constabulary 90 

Conditions  July  1,  1903 _   90 

Conditions,  operations,  and  events 91 

Albay 91 

Ambos  Camarines 96 

Masbate 96 

Mindanao 96 

Paragua 98 

Romblon 98 

Sorsogon 98 

Tayabas 100 

Conditions  June  30,  1903 102 

Medical  division 102 

Organization  of  the  medical  division 103 

Report  of  the  third  district,  Philippines  Constabulary 113 

Conditions  July  1,  1902 113 

Events  during  the  year 114 

Subjects  of  public  interest . 120 

Pulajanism 120 

Ladrones 122 

Cholera 122 

Drought  and  famine 123 

Ex-insurgents 123 

Military 123 

Provincial  jails 123 

ii 


XVI  CONTENTS. 

Annual  report  of  Brig.  Gen.  H.  T.  Allen — Continued.  Page. 
Keport  of  the  third  district,  Philippines  Constabulary — Continued. 
Subjects  of  public  interest — Continued. 

Justices  of  the  peace 124 

The  constabulary If 

Supplemental  report  of  the  Philippines  Constabulary ] 

First  district  (Tagalo) 

Second  district  (Bicol) "... 

Third  district  ( Visayan) 

Fourth  district  (Ilocano) 

Fifth  district  (Moro) 

Office  of  the  chief  supply  officer 

Manila 

Exposition  battalion 3 

Summary 17 

Annual  report  of  the  director  of  posts  for  the  bureau  of  posts,  for  thf 

vear  ended  June  30,  1903 148 

Personnel  of  the  service .  148 

Revenues  and  expenditures 148 

Dead-letter  office 149 

Money-order  business . .  149 

Registry  business .     ..  150 

Interisland  transportation ...  150 

Mail  communication  with  the  United  States  and  foreign  cov               . 151 

Extensions  and  improvements 151 

Defalcations 

Conclusion 153 

Tables 154 

Annual  report  of  the  chief  of  the  bureau  of  coast  guard  and  transportation,  for 

the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1903 171 

Office  building 171 

Engineer  island 172 

Coaling  stations 172 

Postal  clerks 172 

Captains  commissioned  to  act  as  customs  officers 172 

Launches  transferred  from  the  Quartermaster's   Department  of   United 

States  Army  to  the  civil  government 172 

Vessel  repairs  at  Cavite  Navy- Yard,  etc 173 

Division  of  vessels 173 

Supplemental  report 183 

List  of  lights  of  the  Philippine  Islands 188 

List  of  buoys,  beacons,  and  daymarks  of  the  Philippine  Islands 195 

Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  report 207 

Annual  report  of  the  bureau  of  engineering  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  August 

31,  1903 210 

Annual  report  of  the  supervisor  of  Cebu 238 

Report  of  the  supervisor  of  the  province  of  Leyte 243 

Annual  report  of  supervisor,  Occidental  Negros 251 

Report  of  the  supervisor  of  the  province  of  Sorsogon 257 

Report  of  engineer  in  charge  of  Benguet  road 259 


CONTENTS.  XVII 

Page. 

Second  annual  report  of  the  secretary  of  finance  and  justice 265 

Administration  of  justice - 267 

New  legislation  relating  to  the  supreme  court  and  courts  of  first  instance  .  268 

The  court  of  customs  appeals  and  new  legislation  relating  thereto 270 

The  court  of  land  registration 272 

Attorney-general's  office 276 

Criminal  code 277 

Code  of  criminal  procedure 277 

Changes  in  the  personnel  of  the  courts 278 

Insular  cold  storage  and  ice  plant 279 

Currency 281 

Banks  and  banking 290 

The  treasury 291 

Seized  funds  and  special  deposits 297 

Insular  budget 297 

Budgev  of  the  city  of  Manila , 301 

The  customs  service  and  the  tariff 302 

Coastwise  laws 309 

Internal  revenue 312 

Financial  condition  of  the  provinces  and  municipalities 314 

Summary  showing  financial  condition  of  provinces 314 

Exhibit  1.—  Report  of  the  court  of  customs  appeals 684 

Exhibit  °    -Report  of  the  court  of  land  registration  of  the  Philippine 

islands  for  the  period  from  February  1  to  September  1,  1903 686 

Exhibit  3. — Report  of  the  department  of  justice  of  the  Philippine  Islands.  690 

Exhibit  4. — Annual  report  insular  cold  storage  and  ice  plant,  fiscal  year 

ending  June  30,  1903,  and  supplementary  report  for  July  and  August, 

1903 692 

Exhibit  5. — Report  of  the  auditor  for  the  Philippine  Islands  for  the  fiscal 

year  ended  June  30,  1903 372 

The  bookkeeping  division 372 

The  customs  division 375 

The  postal  division 377 

The  miscellaneous  division 379 

The  provincial  division 380 

The  property  division 383 

Purchase  of  supplies  in  the  United  States 384 

Administrative  and  field  examination  of  accounts 384 

Responsibility  of  disbursing  officers 386 

The  insular  salary  and  expense  fund 387 

The  new  Philippine  currency  .  - 388 

i 

I  Certificates  of  indebtedness 389 

[  Change  in  ratio  between  Mexican  or  local  currency  and  United  States 

currency 309 

Accounting  by  currencies  authorized  . 391 

Appropriated  moneys  undrawn  June  30,  1903 392 

Excessive  appropriations 393 

Defalcations,  embezzlements,  and  shortages 393 

Losses  by  theft  and  other  unavoidable  casualties 397 


XVIII  CONTENTS. 

Second  annual  report  of  the  secretary  of  finance  and  justice — Continued.  Page. 

Exhibit  5. — Report  of  the  auditor  for  the  Philippine  Islands — Cont'd. 

Treasury  statement 398 

General  revenue  account  of  the  treasurer . . . .  39 

Accounts  of  the  insular  treasurer  as  depositary 4 

Army  and  navy  disbursing  officers'  funds 

Warrants  issued  by  the  insular  government 

Insular  revenues 

Special  deposits 

Customs  refunds 

Customs  revenue  stamps , 

Chinese  registration 

Bureau  of  internal  revenue 3 

Department  of  the  interior 22 

Department  of  commerce  and  police 423 

Department  of  public  instruction 428 

Deposits    on   account  of   the   Hongkong-Manila   and    Vis? 

cessions .  430 

Undeposited  collections ..  430 

Insular  disbursements ...  431 

Undeposited  balances 445 

Comparative  statements  of  receipts  and  expenditures                    446 

Finances  of  the  city  of  Manila  under  its  charter 1  is 

The  city  of  Manila  in  account  with  the  government 

Islands,  June  30,  1903 

Reimbursable  expenditures 

Operations  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent 451 

Operations  of  the  constabulary  commissary 451 

Operations  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent  under  the  rice  appropri- 
ations    452 

War  emergency  rice  fund 452 

Insular  salary  and  expense  fund . 453 

Purchase  of  silver  bullion  and  alloy 453 

Invalid  money  orders 453 

Outstanding  liabilities 453 

The  money-order  system 454 

Fiscal  affairs  of  the  provinces 457 

Statement  of  forestry  tax  settlements,  fiscal  year  1903 459 

Refunds  of  forestry  taxes 460 

Refund  of  internal  revenue 460 

General  accounts  of  provincial  treasurers 460 

Old  balances 502 

Detailed  statements  of  the  expenditures 502 

Acknowledgments 502 

Appendix 503 

Exhibit  6. — Second  special  report  by  W.  Morgan  Shuster,   collector  of 
customs  for  the  Philippine  Islands,  from  September  1,  1902,  to  October 

8,  1903 510 

Port  of  Manila 514 


CONTENTS.  XIX 

Second  annual  report  of  the  secretary  of  finance  and  justice — Continued.  Page. 
Exhibit  6. — Second  special  report  by  W.  Morgan  Shuster—  Continued. 

Port  of  Iloilo 516 

Port  of  Cebu 516 

Quasi  consular  duties 516 

Statistic  work 517 

Hemp  refunds 517 

Coastwise  laws 518 

Ugnal  letters  and  official  numbers  for  vessels 522 

I  ocumentation  of  small  vessels  in  the  Philippines 522 

janiboat-inspection  service 523 

neasurement 523 

.  rigration  work,  including  Chinese  exclusion  laws 524 

1  of  protests  and  appeals 527 

g  vision  of  Government  vessels 528 

mity  of  appraisals . 529 

a 529 

■  ental 530 

ent  unloading  and  warehousing  of  imported  goods  at  Manila.  532 

rbor  regulations 533 

ports 533 

C                   districts 534 

"ion  districts 535 

se  ports 537 

md  protection  of  American  seamen 540 

Secret-service  work 540 

Criticism  of  the  customs  service 541 

Appendix  A. — Special  regulations  for  vessels  engaging  in  lighterage 
and  other  exclusively  harbor  business  at  ports  in  the  Philippine 

Archipelago 544 

Appendix  B. — Certificate  of  service  and  license  to  masters 547 

Appendix  C. — Customs  administrative  circular  Xo.  105 548 

Appendix  D. — Customs  administrative  circular  Xo.  223 549 

Appendix  E. — List  of  vessels  in  the  Philippine  Islands  with  certifi- 
cates of  protection  outstanding  June  30,  1903 567 

Appendix  F. — Chinese  and  immigration  circular  Xo.  85 619 

Appendix   A. — An  act  to  regulate  the  registration  of   Chinese, 

etc 631 

Appendix  G . — Comparative  statistical  summaries  . . 634 

Appendix  H. — Organization,  duties  of,  and  rules  for  the  arrastre  di- 
vision of  the  Manila  custom-house 650 

Appendix  I. — Customs  administrative  circular  Xo.   238,   publishing 

harbor  regulations  for  the  port  of  Manila 653 

Exhibit  7. — Report  of  A.  W.  Hastings,  acting  collector  of  internal  revenue.  659 

Second  annual  report  of  the  secretary  of  public  instruction 669 

Public  instruction  under  Spanish  rule 669 

Public  instruction  since  American  occupation 673 

Organization 675 

The  teaching  force 675 


XX  CONTENTS. 

Second  annual  report  of  the  secretary  of  public  instruction— Continued.  Page. 

Attendance 677 

Relations  of  American  teachers  to  the  people 679 

Schoolhouses 680 

Moro  Province 680 

The  work  accomplished  and  that  which  remains  to  be  done. .  +. 681 

Changes  of  supervisory  personnel 682 

Appropriations,  expenditures,  and  unexpended  balances 682 

Bureau  of  architecture  and  construction  of  public  buildings 683 

Office  personnel  and  other  employees 683 

Work  of  the  bureau  during  the  year 683 

Bureau  of  public  printing 685 

Bureau  of  archives,   including  the  bureau  of  patents,   copyrights,  and 

trade-marks ...  688 

American  circulating  library 689 

Museum  of  ethnology,  natural  history,  and  commerce 690 

Bureau  of  statistics ,. 691 

Census  bureau . 691 

The  official  gazette 693 

Exhibit  A. — Report  of  the  general  superintendent  of  education. 694 

Aims  of  primary  education  in  the  Philippines 694 

Exhibit  A. — Statement  of  the  attitude  of  the  Filipino  people  toward 
the  public  schools,  by  Mr.  Frank  R.  White,  assistant 

to  the  general  superintendent 705 

Exhibit  B. — Statistics  relating  to  the  work  of  the  bureau 713 

Exhibit  C. — Reports  of  division  superintendents  and  principals  of  the 

insular  normal,  trade,  and  nautical  schools 720 

Division  of  Manila 720 

Division  of  Albay  and  Sorsogon 724 

Division  of  Ambos  Camarines 728 

Division  of  Batangas 731 

Division  of  Bohol 740 

Division  of  Bulacan 742 

Division  of  Cagayan  and  Isabela 745 

Division  of  Capiz 748 

Division  of  Cavite 749 

Division  of  Cebu 753 

Division  of  Ilocos  Norte 755 

Division  of  Ilocos  Sur  and  Abra 757 

Division  of  Iloilo  and  Antique 760 

Division  of  Laguna 764 

Division  of  Union 765 

Division  of  Masbate 768 

Division  of  Mindanao  and  Jolo 770 

Division  of  Misamis 777 

Division  of  Nueva  Ecija 779 

Division  of  Occidental  Negros 781 

Division  of  Oriental  Negros 784 

Division  of  Pampanga  and  Bataan 787 

Division  of  Pangasinan 789 


CONTENTS.  XXI 

Second  annual  report  of  the  secretary  of  public  instruction — Continued.  page. 
Exhibit  A. — Report  of  the  general  superintendent  of  education — Cont'd. 
Exhibit  C. — Reports  of  division  superintendents,  etc. — Continued. 

Division  of  Rizal 798 

Division  of  Romblon 805 

Division  of  Surigao -  -  - 808 

Division  of  Tarlac 811 

Division  of  Tayabas - 817 

Division  of  Zambales 821 

Division  of  Paragua 822 

Insular  Nautical  School 823 

Insular  Normal  School 825 

rnsular  Trade  School 830 

I  • :  ^it  D. — Station  list  of  insular  teachers 833 

f,  E. — Circulars  issued  to  division  superintendents  and  teachers.  843 
F. — Minutes  of    the   superintendents'    convention    held    at 

Manila 852 

Exh.  ^port  of  the  chief  of  the  bureau  of  architecture  and  con- 

"ruction  of  public  buildings 924 

Office               ^el,  skilled  and  unskilled  laborers : .  924 

N-                 - 925 

.  -  ^.l  Baguio,  Benguet 925 

•n-house 926 

of  health 926 

bureau  of  government  laboratories 927 

Civil  Hospital 927 

Insular  cold  storage  and  ice  plant 928 

Philippine  public  printing  office 928 

Bureau  of  agriculture 928 

Bureau  of  coast  guard  and  transportation 928 

Ayuntamiento - 929 

Miscellaneous  small  work 929 

Municipal  building 929 

New  work  authorized 930 

Schoolhouses 933 

Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  buildings 934 

Property  department 934 

Conditions,  requirements,  and  recommendations 936 

Financial 938 

Exhibit  C. — Second  annual  report  of  the  public  printer 942 

Equipment 943 

Building 944 

Employees  of  the  bureau  of  public  printing 944 

Instruction  of  Filipinos 946 

Product  of  the  plant 947 

Provincial  printing 948 

System  of  records 948 

Exhibit  D. — Report  of  the  bureau  of  archives,  bureau  of  patents,  copy- 
rights, and  trade-marks 956 

Exhibit  Dl. — Lands  of  Arroceros  and  the  Aguadas 963 


XXII  CONTENTS. 

Second  annual  report  of  the  secretary  of  public  instruction — Continued.  Page. 

Exhibit  E. — Philippines  museum 976 

Exhibit  F.—  Editor  of  the  Official  Gazette 979 

Character  of  Gazette 979 

Establishment  of  office 979 

Printing 980 

Distribution ."___. 980 

Collections 981 

Exchanges 981 

Preliminary  number 982 

Conclusion „ 982 


ANNUAL  REPORT 


PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION 


SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 


Manila,  P.  L,  December  23,  1903. 

Sir:  The  Philippine  Commission  has  the  honor  to  submit  to  you  its 
fourth  annual  report,  which  is  accompanied  by  the  reports  of  the  civil 
governor,  the  secretary  of  commerce  and  police,  the  secretary  of 
finance  and  justice,  the  secretary  of  the  interior,  and  the  secretary 
of  public  instruction.  The  reports  were  delayed,  due  to  absence  and 
illness  of  two  or  three  of  the  Commission,  and  cover  varying  periods. 
The  report  of  the  Commission  extends  over  a  period  from  November 
1,  1902,  to  December  22,  1903. 

The  conditions  of  the  islands  as  to  tranquillity  are  quite  equal,  so  far 
as  peace  and  good  order  are  concerned,  to  what  they  were  at  any  time 
during  the  Spanish  regime.  There  are  centers  of  disturbance  in  the 
Moro  country,  but  the}T  do  not  offer  any  difficulty  in  their  removal. 
The  conditions  in  the  Jolo  group  are  shown  in  the  special  report  of 
Major-General  Wood,  governor  of  the  Moro  Province,  and  in  the 
report  of  the  civil  governor.  The  Commission  concurs  in  the  recom- 
mendation of  the  civil  governor  and  General  Wood  that  the  sultan  and 
datos  signing  the  so-called  Bates  treaty  be  notified  that  its  terms  are 
no  longer  binding  on  the  United  States  or  the  Philippine  government, 
and  that  the  Jolo  group  and  all  its  inhabitants,  including  the  sultan  of 
Jolo  and  the  signing  datos,  are  entirely  subject  to  the  Philippine  gov- 
ernment act  and  laws  passed  in  accordance  therewith. 

The  condition  as  to  the  food  supply  in  the  Archipelago  has  been 
dealt  with  at  length  by  the  civil  governor  in  his  report  to  the  Com- 
mission, and  it  is  sufficient  to  say  that  the  13,000,000  voted  by  Con- 
gress were  exceedingly  useful  in  aiding  the  islands  to  meet  emergencies 
which  grew  much  more  serious  than  they  were  supposed  to  be  at  the 
time  the  appropriation  was  made.  The  recovery  from  the  disastrous 
loss  of  cattle  through  the  rinderpest  must  of  necessity  be  slow,  and  it 

3 


4  REPOKT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

can  not  be  said  as  yet  that  the  Commission  has  reached  a  satisfactory 
solution  of  the  difficulty,  or  that  it  can  be  certain  that  with  the  remain- 
der of  the  $3,000,000  it  may  greatly  alleviate  the  embarrassment  in 
agriculture  due  to  the  absence  of  draft  cattle.  Still,  experiments  will 
be  continued,  and  it  may  be  that  a  remedy  will  be  found.  The  civil 
governor  in  his  report  to  the  Commission  has  set  forth  at  length  the 
dispositions  which  have  been  made  of  the  money  which  has  been 
expended  or  appropriated  out  of  the  $3,000,000  relief  fund.  The  law 
requires  that  the  civil  governor  should  give  an  account  of  this  expend- 
iture to  the  Secretary  of  War.  There  is  appended  to  the  report  of 
the  civil  governor  to  the  Commission  a  detailed  statement  of  expendi- 
tures by  the  auditor  so  far  as  it  can  be  made  down  to  the  date  of  his 
report.  In  order  to  prevent  a  duplication  of  matter  which  was  prop- 
erly part  of  the  Commission's  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  it  is 
hoped  that  the  report  of  the  civil  governor  with  the  auditor's  statement 
will  be  regarded  as  a  sufficient  compliance  with  the  law. 
s  The  revenues  of  the  islands  were  maintained  for  the  last  fiscal  year, 
and  the  balance  of  trade  for  the  year  with  respect  to  the  islands  was 
much  more  favorable.  The  balance  of  trade  against  the  islands  in 
merchandise  was  a  little  over  $8,000,000  for  the  fiscal  year  ending 
June  30,  1902.  For  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1903,  it  was  about 
$150,000  in  favor  of  the  islands,  and  this  in  spite  of  the  importation 
of  $10,000,000  gold  of  rice,  an  increase  of  nearly  four  millions  over 
last  year's  importation. 

The  conditions  with  respect  to  sugar  and  tobacco  continue  to  be  very 
unfavorable,  and  the  arguments  in  favor  of  a  reduction  of  the  Dingley 
tariff  upon  these  articles,  to  25  per  cent  of  the  rates  of  that  tariff  on 
sugar  and  tobacco  from  the  Philippines,  grow  stronger  instead  of 
weaker. 

-  On  the  22d  of  December,  1903,  contracts  were  signed  with  the 
owners  of  the  so-called  friars'  lands  and  by  the  civil  governor,  with 
the  approval  and  consent  of  the  Commission  and  the  Secretary  of  War, 
by  which,  for  a  lump  sum  of  $7,239,000,  more  or  less,  all  the  agricul- 
tural holdings  of  the  friars  in  the  Philippines  were  agreed  to  be  trans- 
ferred to  the  Philippine  government,  except  about  10,000  acres,  the 
reason  for  the  exception  of  which  is  stated  in  the  report  of  the  civil 
governor.  By  these  contracts,  when  consummated,  something  more 
than  400,000  acres,  three-fifths  of  which  have  been  highly  cultivated 
land  and  are  thickly  inhabited  by  thousands  of  tenants,  will  be  trans- 
ferred to  the  Government.  This  step  has  been  recommended  by  the 
Commission  in  its  previous  reports,  by  the  Paris  Peace  Commission, 
and  by  the  Schurman  Commission  as  important  in  producing  perma- 
nent tranquillity  in  the  islands.  Many  of  the  tenants  have  urged  the 
purchase  upon  the  Government. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  5 

The  Commission  is  in  a  position  to  say  that  the  number  of  Spanish 
friars  in  the  islands  is  being  gradually  reduced,  so  that  out  of  more 
than  1,000  that  were  here  in  1898  there  were  but  370  on  December  1, 
1902,  and  now  there  are  but  246;  that  of  these  a  number  are  infirm 
and  unable  to  do  parish  work,  and  that  83  Dominicans  have  renounced 
parish  work  altogether  with  the  Holy  See,  and  that  the  policy  of  the 
church,  therefore,  in  not  sending  back  to  the  parishes  Spanish  friars 
where  it  can  be  avoided,  or  where  they  will  not  be  well  received  by 
the  people,  has  been  sufficiently  shown  by  the  facts.  The  intention  of 
the  Roman  Catholic  Church  to  Americanize  the  church  in  the  Philip- 
pines is  also  shown  by  the  appointment  of  American  Catholic  bishops 
and  one  Filipino  bishop  to  fill  the  episcopal  see  of  the  islands.  Not 
one  Spanish  friar  bishop  remains.  It  is  also  understood  from  the  cor- 
respondence with  Cardinal  Rampolla  and  subsequent  information 
received,  that  of  the  money  to  be  paid  under  the  purchase  to  the 
religious  orders  by  present  owners,  a  large  part  will  be  devoted  to 
church  purposes  in  the  islands  by  the  supreme  authority  of  the  church. 
It  can  be  safely  stated,  therefore,  that  the  most  important  of  the  mat- 
ters which  the  President  and  the  Secretary  of  War  proposed  to  adjust 
by  sending  the  civil  governor  to  Rome  to  confer  concerning  matters  of 
difference  between  the  Roman  Church  and  the  Philippine  government 
have  been  adjusted,  or  are  on  a  fair  way  to  satisfactory  settlement. 

There  still  remain  the  fixing  of  the  amount  due  for  rent  of  and 
damages  to  buildings  belonging  to  the  church,  occupied  by  United 
States  troops,  from  the  United  States  Government,  and  the  adjust- 
ment of  certain  trusts,  the  character  of  which,  as  to  being  secular  or 
religious^  is  in  dispute. 

The  disposition  of  the  friars'  lands  agreed  to  be  purchased  will  entail 
a  very  heavy  burden  upon  the  Philippine  government,  but  it  is  thought 
that  in  the  course  of  ten  or  fifteen  years  the  distribution  of  the  lands 
can  be  successfully  effected  to  those  now  lawfully  in  possession  as 
tenants.  The  histor}^  of  the  negotiations  for  the  purchase  are  fully  set 
forth  in  the  report  of  the  civil  governor. 

The  income  from  customs  and  other  regular  taxes  has  been  falling 
off  for  the  last  six  months,  and  there  is  some  reason  to  expect  that  the 
income  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1901,  will  be  considerably  less 
than  that  for  the  }^ear  ending  June  30,  1903.  Much  of  the  money 
which  has  been  expended  during  the  current  eighteen  months  has  been 
applied  to  permanent  improvements  or  to  extraordinary  expenditures 
like  the  cholera  ($300,000),  the  census  ($694,000),  and  the  St.  Louis 
Exposition  ($575,000);  $2,500,000  have  been  expended  or  are  under 
appropriation  for  extensive  port  works.  It  is  quite  possible  that  with 
the  pressure  for  enlargement  in  the  branches  of  public  education  and 
in  other  bureaus  which  call  for  expansion  there  will  be  a  deficit  dur- 


b  KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

ing  a  period  of  reduced  income,  due  to  the  depressed  condition  of  agri- 
culture. If  provision  should  be  made  by  which  the  Commission  could 
issue  bonds  to  pay  for  permanent  improvements,  like  port  works  or 
the  construction  of  heavy  bridges  or  other  works  of  great  utility 
usually  paid  for  under  other  governments  by  bond  issues,  the  embar- 
rassment of  a  deficit  could  certainly  be  avoided.  It  is  thought  that  it 
would  not  be  extending  too  great  power  to  the  Commission,  with  the 
consent  of  the  President  of  the  United  States  and  the  Secretary  of 
War,  from  time  to  time  to  issue  bonds  not  exceeding  in  the  aggregate 
$5,000,000  to  pay  the  cost  of  permanent  improvements  like  the  con- 
struction of  port  works  or  bridges  or  of  large  provincial  or  city  school- 
houses.  For  the  latter  purpose,  that  of  schoolhouses,  two  or  three 
millions  of  dollars  might  easily  be  spent  and  not  one  dollar  wasted. 
The  crying  need  throughout  the  islands  is  school  capacity,  and  the 
chief  cause  for  the  fact  that  only  about  10  per  cent  of  the  children  of 
school  age  attend  the  public  schools  is  the  limitation  upon  the  school- 
room. The  erection  of  handsome,  permanent,  airy,  and  healthy  school- 
houses  would  have  an  excellent  effect  both  in  enlarging  the  school 
capacity  and  in  giving  ocular  demonstration  of  the  importance  which 
the  government  attaches  to  the  general  system  of  education. 
Section  66  of  the  so-called  Philippine  act  of  Congress  provides: 

That  for  the  purpose  of  providing  funds  to  construct  sewers,  to  furnish  adequate 
sewer  and  drainage  facilities,  to  secure  a  sufficient  supply  of  water,  and  to  provide 
all  kinds  of  municipal  betterments  and  improvements  in  municipalities,  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Philippine  Islands,  under  such  limitations,  terms,  and  conditions  as  it 
may  prescribe,  with  the  consent  and  approval  of  the  President  and  the  Congress  of 
the  United  States,  may  permit  any  municipality  of  said  islands  to  incur  indebted- 
ness, borrow  money,  and  to  issue  and  sell  ( at  not  less  than  par  value  in  gold  coin  of 
the  United  States)  registered  or  coupon  bonds  in  such  amount  and  payable  at  such 
time  as  may  be  determined  by  the  government  of  said  islands,  with  interest  thereon 
not  to  exceed  five  per  centum  per  annum  :  Provided,  That  the  entire  indebtedness 
of  any  municipality  under  this  section  shall  not  exceed  five  per  centum  of  the  assessed 
valuation  of  the  property  in  said  municipality,  and  any  obligation  in  excess  of  such 
limit  shall  be  null  and  void. 

It  seems  to  the  Commission  that  section  66  ought  to  be  amended  by 
striking  out  the  words  "and  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,"  con- 
tained in  the  seventh  line  thereof,  and  that  with  the  continuance  of 
the  limitation  that  the  bond  issue  shall  not  exceed  5  per  cent  of  the 
assessed  valuation  of  the  property  in  the  municipality,  the  require- 
ment that  the  Commission  and  the  President  shall  approve  the  bond 
issue  before  it  can  be  made  will  be  a  quite  sufficient  barrier  against 
abuse  of  the  power.  The  cumbersomeness  of  the  requirement  that 
Congress  shall  be  applied  to  for  the  issuing  of  bonds  for  any  one  of 
the  nine  hundred  different  towns  of  the  Archipelago,  will,  it  seems  to 
us,  at  once  strike  the  impartial  observer.     The  limitation  of  5  per  cent 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  7 

upon  the  assessed  valuation  is  of  itself  a  very  great  one,  and  in  many 
instances  will  prevent  the  making  of  useful  improvements  by  means 
of  a  bond  issue,  but  such  as  the  authority  is,  it  ought  not  to  be 
restricted  by  a  further  burdensome  requirement  that  we  should  go  to 
Congress  for  assistance  in  the  case  of  each  municipality.  It  is  sincerely 
hoped  that  there  are  many  municipalities  in  which,  by  a  bond  issue  of 
this  sort,  a  healthful  water  supply  could  be  obtained  either  by  gravity 
or  sunken  wells,  and  the  Commission  is  earnestly  desirous  of  beginning 
this  work  as  soon  as  possible. 

Attention  was  called  in  the  last  report  of  the  Commission  to  the  fact 
that  in  the  case  of  the  bonds  to  be  issued  in  the  payment  of  the  friars' 
lands,  their  exemption  was  made  to  extend  not  only  to  Federal  and 
Philippine  taxes,  but  also  to  the  taxation  of  States,  counties,  and 
municipalities  of  the  United  States,  and  that  by  this  means  it  was 
made  possible  to  secure  a  very  much  lower  rate  of  interest  than  with- 
out the  exemption  from  State,  municipal,  and  county  taxation  in  the 
United  States.  With  respect  to  the  bonds  to  be  issued  to  pay  for  the 
sewer  and  water  supply  systems  in  Manila,  the  exemption  did  not 
include  that  from  State,  county,  and  municipal  taxation.  As  the  whole 
effort  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States  in  these  islands  is  a 
national  one,  it  does  not  appear  to  the  Commission  why  a  distinction 
should  be  made,  and  it  is  again  urgently  recommended  that  all  bonds 
to  be  issued  by  virtue  of  the  Philippine  act  should  be  exempt  not 
only  from  Federal  and  Philippine  taxation,  but  also  from  State,  and 
municipal,  and  county  taxation. 

The  operation  of  the  coastwise  trade  laws  of  the  United  States,  in 
respect  to  trade  between  the  islands  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago  and 
to  trade  between  those  islands  and  the  mainland  of  the  United  States, 
have  been  suspended  by  act  of  Congress  until  July  1,  1904.  If  Con- 
gress were  to  take  no  action  and  to  allow  the  coastwise  navigation 
laws  to  become  applicable  to  the  interisland  trade  of  these  islands  and 
to  the  trade  between  the  islands  and  the  United  States  as  they  novr 
are,  most  disastrous  results  would  follow.  It  is  earnestly  recommended 
that  the  regulation  of  the  coastwise  trade,  so  far  as  it  relates  to  the 
trade  between  the  islands  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  be  left 
wholly  to  the  discretion  of  the  Philippine  Commission,  subject  to  the 
approval  of  the  Secretary  of  War  and  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  and  that  the  trade  between  the  islands  and  the  mainland  of  the 
United  States  be  continued  as  at  present  by  suspending  the  application 
of  the  trading  laws  of  the  United  States  for  five  years  longer,  to  wit, 
until  July  1,  1909.  The  reasons  for  this  recommendation  will  be 
found  set  forth  in  the  report  of  the  civil  governor,  and  still  more  in 
detail  in  the  reports  of  the  secretary  of  finance  and  justice  and  the 
reports  of  the  insular  collector  of  customs,  Mr.  W.  Morgan  Shuster. 


8  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Since  the  above  was  written,  it  has  come  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
Commission  that  a  bill  has  been  introduced  in  Congress  applying  the 
coastwise  law  to  trade  between  the  islands  and  the  mainland  of  the 
United  States.  The  danger  from  this  of  increasing  the  freight  rates 
and  thus  imposing  an  additional  burden  upon  the  trade  of  the  islands 
must  be  obvious  to  anyone  who  has  examined  the  facts  with  respect  to 
the  percentage  of  the  business  now  done  between  the  islands  and  the 
mainland  of  the  United  States  in  American  bottoms.  The  Commission, 
of  course,  can  not  present  any  objection  to  legislation  which  shall  unite 
more  closely  the  Philippine  Islands  with  the  United  States  in  bonds  of 
amity  and  mutually  beneficial  business  relations,  but  it  most  urgently 
and  earnestly  invites  your  attention,  and  that  of  Congress,  to  the  great 
injustice  Which  will  be  done  to  the  islands  if  the  law  which  limits  the 
means  of  communication  to  American  bottoms  between  the  United 
States  and  the  Philippine  Islands  does  not  at  the  same  time  and  as  a 
consideration  for  this  interference  with  the  natural  laws  of  trade  and 
the  necessaiy  increase  of  freight  rates,  strike  down  the  tariff  wall  made 
by  the  Dingley  tariff  in  the  matter  of  the  importation  of  sugar  and 
tobacco  from  the  islands  to  the  mainland.  The  people  of  the  islands 
may  well  ask,  "What  advantage  are  we  to  get  out  of  association  with 
the  United  States  in  a  business  way,  if  our  trade  is  to  be  used  only  for 
the  purpose  of  increasing  the  business  of  American  ships  while  the 
limitation  of  the  coastwise  laws  by  increasing  the  freight  rates  will 
reduce  the  business  that  we  now  have  with  that  country  ? " 

Does  not  every  consideration  of  justice  require  that  if  the  Philip- 
pine Islands  are  to  be  treated  as  a  part  of  the  United  States  and  sub- 
ject to  the  coastwise  laws,  they  should  enjoy  the  same  freedom  of 
trade  with  the  United  States  which  is  enjoyed  by  every  other  part  of 
the  United  States  to  which  those  coastwise  laws  are  made  applicable? 

We  respectfully  urge,  therefore,  that  as  a  condition  and  as  a  con- 
sideration for  making  the  trade  between  the  islands  and  the  United 
States  coastwise  trade,  the  duty  on  sugar  and  tobacco  should  be 
reduced  to  not  more  than  25  per  cent  of  the  Dingley  rates. 

Now  that  conditions  of  tranquility  have  been  completely  restored  to 
the  islands,  the  time  has  arrived  for  the  material  improvements  in  the 
islands  by  great  works  of  construction,  and  especially  the  building  of 
railroads.  In  tropical  countries  the  cost  of  construction  and  main- 
tenance of  a  railroad  is  much  less  in  comparison  with  that  of  the  con- 
struction and  maintenance  of  a  wagon  road  than  in  the  temperate  zone. 
The  effect  of  the  torrential  rains  on  wagon  roads  is  so  destructive  that 
their  maintenance  each  year  is  almost  equal  to  their  original  cost  of 
construction  in  many  places  in  the  Philippine  Islands  where  good  road 
material  is  difficult  to  obtain.  It  becomes  therefore  more  important 
in  these  islands  to  have  railroads  than  wagon  roads,  and  we  believe 


KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  9 

sincerely  that  the  stimulation  of  the  construction  of  railroads  by  Gov- 
ernment guaranty  of  a  certain  income  is  fully  warranted. 

We  are  opposed  to  the  granting  of  lands  as  a  subsidy  for  the  con- 
struction of  roads,  and  favor  the  definite  fixing  of  the  Government  lia- 
bility by  guaranty  of  the  income  on  a  fixed  investment.  In  this  way 
we  feel  certain  that  the  construction  of  a  large  part  of  the  needed 
trunk  lines  in  the  islands  can  be  brought  about.  In  our  view  a 
guaranty  of  income  not  exceeding  ±  per  cent  is  all  that  is  required, 
and  in  many  instances  a  grant  of  less  than  that  will  supply  the  needed 
capital.  We  think  that  the  making  of  such  guaranties  might  well  be 
left  to  the  Commission,  with  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  War 
and  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

The  Commission  retains  its  opinion  already  expressed  that  the 
limitation  upon  the  holding  of  land  in  the  islands  by  corporations 
to  2,500  acres  is  a  needless  hindrance  to  the  development  of  the 
islands,  and  that  the  limitation  ought  either  to  be  removed  entirely  or 
to  be  increased  so  as  to  allow  the  acquisition  of  at  least  25,000  acres  of 
land.  In  cases  in  which,  in  order  to  justify  the  expenditure  of  the 
amount  of  capital  required  to  conduct  sugar  and  other  agricultural 
industries  on  a  paying  basis,  a  very  large  amount  of  money  is  needed, 
the  restriction  of  corporations  to  the  ownership  of  2,500  acres  is  prac- 
tically prohibitory  upon  such  enterprises. 

Again,  the  chief  of  the  mining  bureau  and  the  secretary  of  the 
interior  recommend  that  the  provision  of  the  present  mining  laws 
which  prevents  the  location  of  more  than  one  claim  by  a  single  indi- 
vidual or  association  upon  a  lode  or  deposit  should  be  stricken  out. 
The  Commission  entirely  concurs  in  this  view.  Attention  is  also 
called  to  the  fact  that  that  part  of  the  Philippine  act  which  relates  to 
mining  needs  some  amendments  of  smaller  importance,  but  which  are 
quite  necessary.  Thus,  both  standards  of  measurement  are  used  in  the 
act,  whereas  the  metric  system  alone  ought  to  be  used.  Again,  the 
recording  of  mining  claims  is  forbidden  without  certain  requisites. 
The  chief  of  the  bureau  is  strongly  of  opinion  that  all  such  claims 
ought  to  be  recorded,  and  then  their  legal  effect  after  recording  should 
be  left  to  the  courts.  He  thinks  the  present  provision  intrusts  too 
much  power  to  the  recording  officer. 

The  Commission  therefore  has  the  honor  to  recommend  that  Con- 
gress be  requested  to  enact  legislation  as  follows: 

First.  Legislation  which  shall  reduce  the  tariff  on  sugar  and  tobacco 
imported  from  the  Philippine  Islands  to  not  more  than  25  per  cent  of 
the  present  Dingley  rates  on  tobacco  and  sugar  imported  from  foreign 
countries. 

Second.  Legislation  authorizing  the  Philippine  Commission,  with 
the  approval  of  the  President  and  the  Secretary  of  War,  to  issue  bonds 


10  REPOPT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

from  time  to  time,  which  shall  not  in  the  aggregate  sum  exceed 
$5,000,000,  for  the  making  of  future  permanent  improvements. 

Third.  An  amendment  to  section  66  of  an  act  entitled  "An  act 
temporarily  to  provide  for  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  civil 
government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  other  purposes,"  by 
which  the  consent  of  Congress  to  issue  the  bonds  therein  provided  for 
may  not  be  required. 

Fourth.  Legislation  providing  that  all  bonds  authorized  to  be  issued 
by  the  Philippine  government  or  any  provincial  or  municipal  govern- 
ment thereof  by  act  of  Congress  shall  be  made  exempt  not  only  from 
Federal  and  Philippine  taxation,  but  from  State,  county,  and  municipal 
taxation  in  the  United  States. 

Fifth.  That  control  over  the  shipping  in  the  trade  between  the 
islands  shall  be  left  wholly  to  the  discretion  of  the  Philippine  Com- 
mission, subject  to  the  approval  of  the  President  and  the  Secretary  of 
War. 

Sixth.  That  the  application  of  the  United  States  coastwise  naviga- 
tion laws  to  the  trade  between  the  Philippine  Islands  and  the  mainland 
of  the  United  States  be  postponed  by  Congressional  action  until  July  1, 
1909;  or,  in  the  alternative,  that  the  coastwise  laws  of  the  United 
States  be  not  made  applicable  to  the  trade  between  the  islands  and  the 
mainland  of  the  United  -States,  except  with  a  proviso  or  condition  that 
the  rates  upon  imports  from  the  Philippine  Islands  into  the  United 
States  shall  not  pay  duty  in  excess  of  25  per  cent  of  the  rates  on  such 
merchandise  imposed  by  the  Dingley  tariff. 

Seventh.  That  authority  be  given  by  Congressional  act  to  the 
Philippine  Commission,  with  the  approval  of  the  President  and  the 
Secretary  of  War,  to  encourage  the  investment  of  capital  in  the  con- 
struction of  railroads  for  the  Philippine  Islands  by  accompanying 
the  grants  of  franchises  to  build  railroads,  in  cases  where  it  is  deemed 
necessary,  with  a  guaranty  by  the  Philippine  government  of  income 
on  the  amount  of  the  investment  to  be  fixed  in  advance  in  the  act  of 
guaranty,  the  amount  of  income  guaranteed  not  to  exceed  annually 
4  per  cent  of  the  fixed  principal. 

Eighth.  That  the  amount  of  land  which  may  be  acquired,  owned, 
and  used  for  agricultural  purposes  in  the  Philippines  by  any  individual 
or  corporation  shall  be  extended  to  25,000  acres. 

i  Ninth.  That  the  clause  which  forbids  the  filing  of  more  than  one 
mining  claim  by  the  same  individual  or  association  upon  a  lode  or 
deposit  be  repealed.    " 

Tenth.  That  the  provisions  of  the  Philippine  act  entitled  "An  act 
temporarily  to  provide  for  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  civil 
government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  other  purposes,"  which 
apply  to  mining  claims,  and  the  procedure  in  filing  them,  shall  be  so 
amended  that  only  the  metric  system  of  distances  shall  be  used,  and 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  11 

shall  also  be  so  amended  that  mining  claims  shall  be  filed  whether 
property  executed  according-  to  law  or  not,  the  effect  of  their  execution 
and  record  to  be  left  to  future  adjudication. 
Respectfully  submitted. 

Wm.  H.  Taft,  President.  . 
For— 

Dean  C.  Worcester, 
Luke  E.  Wright, 
Henry  C.  Ide, 
T.  H.  Pardo  de  Tavera, 
Benito  Legarda, 
Jose  Luzuriaga, 
James  F.  Smith, 

Commissioners. 
The  honorable  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Washington,  D.  C. 


REPORT  OF  THE  CIVIL  GOVERNOR  OF  THE 
PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS 

FOE  THE  PERIOD  ENDING  DECEMBER  23,  1903. 


13 


LIST  OF  EXHIBITS   TO   REPORT   OF  CIVIL   GOVERNOR  FOR  THE 

YEAR  1903. 

Exhibit  A. — Resolutions  re  rice.     Executive  order  64.     Acts  495,  517. 

Proclamation  re  quick-growing  crops.     Acts  817,  738, 

786,  797,  828. 
B. — Report  insular  purchasing  agent. 
C. — Report  insular  purchasing  agent  carabao  to  November 

20,  1903. 
D. — Expenditures  Congressional  relief  fund. 
E. — Reconcentration  act  No.  781. 

F. — Stenographic  report  Villegas  hearings  (Washington). 
G. — Summarized  statement  valuations  religious  estates. 
H. — Contracts  for  sale  friars'  lands. 

I.— Statement  showing  executive  action  religious  matters. 
J. — Report  Governor  Wright — Hemp. 

K. — Petition  agricultural  society  Panay  and  Negros — Sugar. 
L. — Colton's  statement  re  sugar. 

M. — Governor  Wright's  statement  re  sugar  and  tobacco. 
N. — Supervisor  fiscal  report  labor  Benguet  road. 
O. — Labor  report,  Captain  Couden,  U.  S.  Navy. 
P. — Report  Norton  and  Drew. 
Q. — Report  exposition  board. 
R. — Report  civil  service  board. 
S. — Acts  of  the  Moro  Province. 
T. — Report  General  Wood,  Bates  treaty. 
U. — Report  of  municipal  board. 
V. — Charter  Manila  Street  Railway. 
W. — Improvement  of  port. 
X. — Report  executive  secretary. 
Y. — Executive  orders  and  proclamations. 

15 


REPORT    OF    THE    CIVIL   GOVERNOR   FOR  THE  PERIOD  ENDING 

DECEMBER  23,  1903. 

Manila,  P.  I.,  November  15,  1903. 

Gentlemen:  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  a  report  to  you  on  the 
general  conditions  in  the  islands  and  on  the  affairs  of  the  bureaus 
which  by  law  are  under  the  direct  supervision  of  the  civil  governor. 
The  report  of  last  year,  upon  the  subjects  treated  in  this  report  gen- 
erally, covered  a  period  ending  October  1,  1902.  I  shall  attempt  to 
make  this  report  cover  the  period  ending  December  23,  1903. 

This  has  been  a  year  of  considerable  suffering  among  the  people  of 
the  Philippine  Islands.  The  depressing  causes  referred  to  in  my  last 
report  united  to  bring  on  in  July  and  August  last  a  short  food  supply. 
The  worst  has  passed,  and  while  the  immediate  future  is  not  as  bright 
as  it  might  be,  I  believe  that  we  are  beginning  an  era  in  the  history  of 
the  islands  which,  with  the  assistance  of  proper  tariff  reduction  in  the 
United  States  and  proper  navigation  laws  for  the  islands,  will  be  one 
of  decided  material  development. 

In  November,  1902,  the  price  of  rice  rose  rapidly  in  Manila  and  the 
provinces,  and  authentic  information  reached  the  Commission  that  a 
syndicate  had  been  formed  by  certain  merchants  of  Manila  and  else- 
where to  effect  a  corner  in  this  food  of  the  people  and  to  control  its 
price.  The  situation  warranted  extraordinary  action  to  prevent  hard- 
ship and  suffering.  On  the  4th  of  November,  1902,  therefore,  the 
Commission  passed  Act  No.  495,  a  copy  of  which  is  appended  under 
Exhibit  A,  appropriating  $2,000,000  Mexican  to  defray  the  expense 
of  buying  and  distributing  rice  at  a  reasonable  price  to  the  inhab- 
itants of  those  provinces  in  which  the  market  price  was  too  high.  By 
the  terms  of  the  law  the  rice  was  bought  under  direction  of  the  civil 
governor  and  was  distributed  under  the  orders  of  the  same  officer  for 
cash  and  at  a  price  which  would  cover  cost  and  all  expenses.  Subse- 
quently the  restriction  as  to  price  was  repealed.  In  attempting  to 
buy  rice  in  Saigon,  the  source  of  rice  supply  nearest  to  the  Philip- 
pines, the  Commission  was  informed  that  the  supply  from  there  was 
exhausted.  Thereupon  application  was  made  to  the  consul  at  Bang- 
kok for  Siam  rice  and  also  to  the  consul  at  Calcutta  for  Calcutta  rice. 

war  1903— vol  5 2  17 


18  KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

It  was  found  necessary  to  go  into  these  distant  markets  because  the 
syndicate  evidently  controlled  the  Saigon  market. 

The  purchases  of  rice,  with  the  cost  of  storing,  distribution,  and 
wastage,  did  not  prove  to  be  profitable  as  a  mere  investment.  An 
especially  severe  loss  was  suffered  in  the  rice  purchased  at  Calcutta. 
We  bought  there  what  was  called  "first-class  famine  rice."  On 
arrival  this  proved  to  be  an  inferior  quality  of  red  rice,  which  soon 
developed  weevils  and  in  its  deteriorating  condition  had  to  be  sold  at  a 
considerable  loss.  It  was  probably  necessary  to  go  as  far  as  Calcutta 
to  break  the  corner,  but  it  would  have  been  wiser  to  buy  a  better 
quality  of  rice. 

None  of  the  rice  in  question  was  given  away;  it  was  held  in  Manila 
and  sent  to  the  various  provinces  as  word  was  received  from  the  gov- 
ernors that  the  local  dealers  were  raising  the  price  of  rice  beyond 
what  was  reasonable.  Our  purchases  in  Siam  and  Calcutta  broke  the 
corner,  and  rice  fell  in  price.  It  then  became  necessary  to  dispose  of 
the  rice  on  hand  to  dealers  in  Manila  and  in  other  parts  of  the  Archipel- 
ago at  such  price  as  could  be  obtained.  A  large  part  of  the  Calcutta 
purchase  was  sold  to  a  firm  having  control  of  certain  small  coastwise 
steamers  of  small  draft  which  plied  from  port  to  port  and  peddled  out 
cargoes  of  the  poor  rice  through  Chinamen.  The  contract  of  sale 
forbade  under  bond  penalty,  disposition  of  the  rice  at  a  price  greater 
than  $6.50  Mexican  per  picul  of  137i  pounds,  plus  actual  cost  of  freight. 
This  was  not  an  unreasonable  price  for  that  quality  of  rice  in  the 
provinces. 

The  purchases  of  rice  under  Act  No.  495  in  Mexican  money  amounted 

to $1,  815,  974.  81 

And  the  sales  amounted  to 1,  567,  642.  00 

Loss  from  wastage  and  poor  Calcutta  rice 248,  332.  81 

The  details  of  these  Government  transactions  can  be  seen  by  refer- 
ence to  the  report  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent,  made  an  exhibit 
hereto,  marked  Exhibit  B.  On  the  purchase  under  Act  495  the  loss 
to  the  Government,  at  the  then  prevailing  rate,  was  thus  about  $100,000 
gold.  Considering  that  by  this  action  rice  at  a  reasonable  price  was 
secured  to  six  millions  of  people  for  one  season  when  they  were  threat- 
ened with  starvation  prices,  the  money  was  not  badly  spent.  The 
losses  sustained  hy  the  syndicate  who  attempted  the  corner  was  suffi- 
cient to  prevent  another  combination  of  the  kind.  It  will  be  noted 
that  the  money  spent  under  Act  No.  495  was  appropriated  from  the 
general  funds  of  the  insular  treasury,  and  did  not  come  out  of  the 
three  millions  appropriated  by  act  of  Congress  for  relief  of  the  dis- 
tress in  the  islands,  subsequently  passed. 

Anticipating  that  the  small  rice  acreage,  due  to  the  absence  of  cattle 
and  other  causes,  would  not  be  sufficient  to  furnish  food  enough  for 


KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  19 

the  inhabitants  during  the  year  1903,  the  Commission  passed  an  act 
to  provide  against  the  danger  of  famine  dated  November  12,  1902, 
and  numbered  517.  By  this  act  it  was  made  the  duty  of  municipal 
presidents  in  all  the  towns  of  the  islands  to  call  meetings  of  the  people 
of  their  respective  towns,  and  to  urge  them  at  once  to  take  steps  to 
secure  the  necessary  seed  and  to  plant  quick-growing  crops  of  corn, 
camotes  (i.  e.,  sweet  potatoes),  rice,  and  other  food  plants.  Each 
president  was  authorized  temporarily  to  allot  public  land  within  his 
town  to  citizens  of  the  town  for  the  purpose  of  planting  seed  and  of 
reaping  the  crop.  The  act  further  authorized  provincial  boards  to  buy 
seed  and  sell  it  where  needed  to  the  towns,  to  be  sold  again  to  the 
inhabitants,  with  authority  to  furnish  the  indigent  with  seed  and  to 
collect  the  equivalent  of  the  same  from  the  crop.  Monthly  reports  of 
their  proceedings  under  the  act  were  required  from  the  municipal 
presidents  and  provincial  governors.  The  civil  governor  was  required 
to  bring  the  terms  of  the  act  to  the  attention  of  the  people  by  procla- 
mation. 

The  proclamation  was  issued  in  accordance  with  the  act,  and  reports 
from  the  various  provinces  justify  the  statement  that  the  act  stim- 
ulated the  planting  of  many  different  kinds  of  food-making  plants  and 
prevented  much  of  the  suffering  which  would  have  been  caused  by  the 
short  food  supply.  In  parts  of  the  islands  the  municipal  councils 
exceeded  their  authority  and  made  the  failure  to  plant  crops  criminal 
offenses,  and  punished  persons  by  imprisonment  in  jail  for  failure  to 
attend  to  the  provisions  of  this  act  and  to  raise  the  crops  as  the  coun- 
cils thought  they  ought.  Executive  action  had  to  be  taken  to  prevent 
such  abuses.  From  the  1st  of  January  until  late  in  August  there  was 
a  drought  in  the  islands  of  unusual  length,  which  interfered  with  the 
successful  reaping  of  many  of  the  crops  planted  under  Act  No.  517; 
and  with  the  drought  a  pest  of  locusts  came  that  bade  fair  to  consume 
every  part  of  the  food  supply  that  grew  above  the  ground.  Locusts 
have  visited  some  provinces  in  the  islands  for  two  or  three  years  past, 
but  during  this  year  every  province  seems  to  have  been  afflicted  with 
them.  In  a  normal  state  of  agriculture,  with  the  acreage  of  planted 
crops  what  it  was  before  1896,  every  hacendero  or  farmer,  the 
moment  that  locusts  appeared,  had  the  strongest  motive  for  uniting 
all  the  people  in  the  suppression  of  the  pest.  If  locusts  are  promptly 
attacked,  driven  into  ditches  and  burned  before  their  wings  are  grown, 
and  when  they  are  what  are  called  "loctones"  or  hoppers,  they  can 
be  destroyed  and  the  losses  which  they  cause  as  flying  insects  may 
be  avoided.  The  difficulty  during  the  past  year  has  been  that  com- 
paratively so  little  of  the  land  has  been  cultivated  that  the  motive  for 
the  influential  hacendero  and  landowner  to  make  great  efforts  to 
kill  the  locusts  has  not  existed.  The  Commission  became  convinced 
from  official  reports  received  that  some  radical  action  must  be  taken 


20  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

to  rouse  the  people  to  suppress  the  locusts.  Accordingly  Act  No.  817, 
declaring  the  presence  of  locusts  to  be  a  public  emergency  and  making 
provision  for  their  suppression,  was  enacted  on  the  3d  of  August,  1903. 
By  this  act  a  board  for  the  suppression  of  locusts  was  provided  in  each 
province,  to  consist  of  the  three  members  of  the  provincial  board  and 
three  agriculturalists.  In  each  province  in  which  locusts  appeared, 
every  able-bodied  inhabitant,  with  a  few  necessary  exceptions,  was 
declared  liable  for  service  under  regulations  of  the  board,  which  might 
require  the  inhabitants  to  assemble  "en  masse"  to  suppress  the  pest,  or 
might  make  it  the  duty  of  each  inhabitant  to  deliver  to  an  agent  of  the 
board  a  certain  number  of  bushels  of  locusts  a  day.  The  municipal  offi- 
cers were  made  subject  to  the  orders  of  the  board,  and  they  were  required 
at  once  to  give  notice  of  the  presence  of  locusts  in  any  barrio  of  a 
town  to  the  agents  of  the  board.  The  board  was  authorized  to  dis- 
tribute rice  to  those  engaged  in  the  work  of  suppressing  locusts  who 
were  unable  to  support  themselves  during  their  service,  and  this  rice, 
it  was  provided,  the  civil  governor  should  purchase  at  the  expense  of 
the  Congressional  relief  fund  and  distribute  to  the  various  provinces. 
Any  person  failing  to  comply  with  lawful  regulations  of  the  board 
was  made  subject  to  prosecution  and  a  fine  of  $10  or  ten  days  imprison- 
ment, or  both.  The  board  was  also  authorized  to  procure  from  the  civil 
governor  sheets  of  galvanized  iron  to  be  distributed  to  each  town,  and 
to  be  used  as  a  means  of  obstructing  the  escape  of  locusts  and  of 
driving  them  into  prepared  ditches.  These  sheets  of  iron  were  also 
to  be  paid  for  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund. 

Money  has  been  drawn  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  by  vir- 
tue of  Acts  Nos.  738,  786,  and  797,  and  under  resolutions  of  the  Com- 
mission adopted  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the  last  act. 
The  three  acts  and  the  resolutions  passed  are  appended  to  this  report 
under  Exhibit  A.  It  was  thought  wise  to  buy  rice  and  distribute  it 
in  the  provinces  to  be  used  not  only  to  pay  for  the  destruction  of 
locusts,  but  also  for  the  payment  of  labor  on  the  roads,  for  the  labor 
in  the  erection  of  barrio  schoolhouses  and  other  public  works,  the 
construction  of  which  in  districts  where  the  food  supply  was  short 
would  furnish  means  of  living  to  the  poor  and  indigent.  Rice  for 
this  purpose  proved  generally  to  be  better  than  money,  because  money 
earned  and  paid  was  too  often  lost  in  gambling,  the  prevailing  vice 
among  the  Filipino  people,  whether  rich  or  poor.  Rice  generally 
reached  the  mouths  it  was  intended  for. 

We  have  purchased  under  Acts  786  and  797  from  Congressional 
relief  funds,  rice  amounting  to  16,552,487  pounds,  costing  $732,790.13 
Mexican  currency,  and  8,455,524  pounds,  costing  $348,931.93  Philip- 
pine currency.  Of  this  19,994,565  pounds  have  been  distributed  down 
to  November  30  of  this  year,  and  we  have  on  hand  5,013,446  pounds. 
Probably  no  more  than  this  will  be  needed  for  the  present  year. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


21 


The  following  table  shows  the  provinces  to  which  the  rice  has  been 
distributed  and  the  purposes  to  which  it  has  been  devoted: 


Province. 

Piculs  (137* 

pounds  to 

picul ) . 

Days  wages 
in  driving 
and  de- 
stroying 
locusts. 

Repair- 
ing and 

con- 
structing 
roads. 

For  sale 
to  pre- 
vent ex- 
orbitant 
prices. 

Barrio 
school- 
houses. 

Iron  for 
locusts 
(sheets). 

Netting 
for  catch- 
ing 
locusts. 

2,000 
5,000 
4,500 
1,250 

1,000 
500 

1,000 

400 

4,500 

3,000 

500 

1,500 

750 

500 
100 
300 

12, 000 

500 

10, 000 

4,000 

3,000 

500 

8,000 

5,000 

2,000 

500 
100 
500 
100 
1,000 

1,000 

5,000 
6,000 
5,000 
9,700 
2,000 
12, 500 

820 
2,000 

103 
1,000 
5,000 
3,500 

100 
8,000 
8,500 
4,500 

1,000 
1,000 

3,000 
5,000 
5,000 
6,200 

1,000 

Cebu 

1,000 
2,000 
2,500 
820 
1,000 
51 

2,500 

500 

1,500 

100 

500 

Iloilo      

10, 000 

1,000 

52 

1,000 
3,000 
3,000 
100 
4,000 

2,000 

500 

500 

4,000 
4,000 
2,000 

1,600 
500 

1,000 
500 
600 
100 

3,000 

1,500 

2,500 

5,000 

100 

400 

2,000 

2,000 

4,000 

84 

4,000 

8,050 

5,400 

1,000 
100 

4,000 

Rizal 

400 

2,000 

2,000 
4,000 

34 

1,000 

3,000 

400 

Tarlac 

3,000 
4,500 
2,000 

a  100 

450 
3,000 

450 
100 

139, 957 

33, 655 

82, 252 

7,100 

16, 950 

11,450 

1,000 

a  Provincial  buildings. 

The  only  gratuitous  distribution  of  rice  permitted  was  as  follows: 

Piculs. 

Mariquina  fire  sufferers  182 

Indigent  poor,  town  of  Capiz,  Panay 25 

Relief  inhabitants  of  Canaman,  Magarao,  Bombon,  Quipajo,  Ambos  Camarines 
(50  piculs  each  town) 200 

Total : 407 

Under  date  of  September  18,  1903,  provincial  board  of  Occidental  Negros  was 
authorized  to  furnish  2  cavanes  of  rice  per  week  to  lepers  at  Macalol,  Bacolod.  (To 
be  taken  from  rice  shipped  under  Act  786.) 

It  was  supposed  for  some  time  to  be  possible  to  destroy  the  locusts 
by  infecting  some  of  them  with  a  disease  from  a  poisonous  fungus 
and  allowing  the  infected  ones  to  escape  to  their  fellows  and  thus 
spread  destruction  through  all  of  them.  In  exceptional  instances 
this  remed}T  was  effective,  but  during  the  dry  season  it  failed  utterly, 
and  it  is  so  likely  to  fail  at  all  times  that  it  has  not  been  deemed  wise 
to  devote  any  further  attention  to  it.  The  destruction  by  locusts  dur- 
ing the  months  of  April,  May,  and  June  and  earlier,  was  very  great, 


22  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

but  it  is  thought  that  the  steps  since  taken  for  the  protection  of  the 
crops  which  were  seeded  in  July  and  August  have  been  quite  effective 
to  prevent  serious  loss.  The  offer  of  rice  for  work  in  suppressing  the 
locusts,  with  the  provisions  of  the  law  referred  to,  summoned  the 
entire  population— men,  women  and  children — and  the  result  justifies 
the  plan. 

The  road  work  done  at  the  expense  of  the  relief  fund  has  been 
chiefly  that  of  repairing  former  roads  under  the  control  and  direction 
of  the  provincial  supervisors.  The  consulting  engineer  has  been  busy 
preparing  plans  and  specifications  for  the  construction  of  what  may 
well  be  called  " insular"  roads,  because  they  will  lead  from  one  prov- 
ince to  another  or  from  one  side  of  an  important  island  to  another, 
and  are  too  expensive  to  be  built  under  the  auspices  of  the  provincial 
government. 

Rice  has  also  been  used  in  Ilocos  Norte,  in  Tayabas,  and  in  Cavite, 
and  possibly  it  will  be  used  in  other  provinces  for  work  done  in  the 
erection  of  barrio  schoolhouses.  Almost  the  entire  cost  of  these  school- 
houses  is  in  labor,  and  the  use  of  rice  therefore,  for  the  construction 
of  such  houses,  is  very  convenient.  Under  the  laws  and  executive 
orders  safeguarding  the  expenditure  of  the  rice,  set  forth  in  the  appen- 
dix and  already  referred  to,  the  objects,  places  of  expenditure,  the 
amount  of  work  done,  the  price  at  which  it  was  done,  will  all  be  shown 
by  accounts  filed  by  supervisors  of  the  provinces  with  the  auditor,  but 
it  is  impossible  at  the  present  time  to  submit  such  accounts,  for  the 
reason  that  sufficient  time  has  not  elapsed  for  their  submission  and 
audit. 

The  stimulus  given  to  the  cultivation  of  the  ground  this  year  by  legis- 
lation and  the  efforts  of  the  authorities  has  led  to  what  is  probably  a 
greater  acreage  for  the  planting  of  rice  and  other  food  supplies  than 
any  year  since  1889.  Of  course  much  difficulty  has  been  found  in  the 
absence  of  draft  cattle,  but  the  pinch  of  hunger  and  the  instruction  of 
municipal  authorities  has  led  to  the  use  of  the  existing  carabao  by  many 
different  farmers  and  to  some  plowing  by  hand.  The  prospect  is  that 
we  shall  have  a  better  rice  crop  in  nearly  all  the  provinces,  except,  pos- 
sibly, Batangas,  than  we  have  had  for  years.  It  was  at  first  thought 
that  all  the  crops  would  be  destroyed  by  the  continuance  of  the  drought, 
but  after  August  rain  fell  all  over  the  islands,  and  the  rice  which  has 
seemed  to  be  in  a  failing  condition  developed,  and  now  gives  prospect 
of  producing  a  fair  amount  of  grain. 

No  cases  of  actual  starvation  have  been  brought  to  the  notice  of  the 
Government.  In  the  provinces  of  Ambos  Camarines,  Iloilo,  and 
Batangas  it  has  been  reported  that  there  was  much  suffering  from 
lack  of  food  and  this  was  doubtless  true,  but  the  people  have  always 
found  enough  camotes  or  tubers  and  other  food  roots  to  avoid  starva- 
tion.    Such  food  not  properly  cooked  is  indigestible  and  unhealthy, 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  23 

and  while  there  were  no  deaths  from  starvation  there  were  diseases 
incident  to  bad  and  insufficient  food  which  carried  off  many.  Among 
people  thus  badly  nourished,  cholera,  too,  found  many  victims. 

The  absence  of  draft  cattle  is  likely  to  produce  a  change  in  the 
amount  of  rice  production  in  these  islands  under  normal  conditions. 
In  a  number  of  provinces  hemp  is  being  planted.  The  hemp  crop 
does  not  need,  except  for  purposes  of  transportation,  the  carabao. 
The  hemp  culture  is  increasing  very  rapidly  in  Laguna,  in  Batangas, 
in  Cavite,  in  the  Camarines,  in  Union,  and  in  other  provinces  where 
rice  was  the  chief  product.  The  importation  of  rice  for  the  year  end- 
ing June  30,  1903,  exceeded  that  of  the  previous  year  by  about  three 
and  one-half  millions  of  dollars  gold,  and  reached  as  a  grand  total 
something  over  ten  millions  of  dollars  gold.  It  is  hoped  that  no  such 
amount  of  rice  will  need  to  be  imported  next  year,  but  it  should  be 
said  that  if  the  culture  of  hemp,  copra,  sugar,  and  tobacco  pays  better, 
the  importation  of  some  rice  as  food  may  not  necessarily  indicate  a 
lack  of  prosperity  in  the  countiy. 

One  of  the  chief  objects  of  the  Congressional  relief  fund  was  the 
restocking  of  the  islands  with  draft  animals.  By  Act  No.  738  the  sum 
of  $100,000  was  appropriated  for  the  preliminary  expenses  in  the  pur- 
chase of  draft  cattle.  The  acting  insular  purchasing  agent  and  a  cattle 
expert,  taken  from  the  agricultural  bureau,  were  sent  to  every  coun- 
try in  the  Orient  whence  exportation  to  the  Philippines  was  possible. 
The  purchasing  agent  advertised  in  Manila  for  bids  at  which  5,000 
carabao,  immunized  from  rinderpest,  would  be  delivered  in  Manila, 
but  the  uncertainty  as  to  the  percentage  of  cattle  that  would  survive 
the  process  of  immunization  prevented  our  securing  a  contract  from 
responsible  cattle  importers  in  Manila.  The  process  of  temporary 
immunization  consists  in  injecting  into  the  circulation  of  the  animal  a 
serum  which  will  render  the  animal  immune  from  rinderpest  some  four 
or  five  months.  Permanent  immunization  is  only  effected  by  a  simul- 
taneous injection  of  the  serum  and  virulent  rinderpestic  blood  drawn 
from  a  victim  of  the  disease.  The  inoculators  of  the  board  of  health 
of  the  islands  have  inoculated  many  carabao  in  provinces  revisited  by 
rinderpest,  to  prevent  a  spread  of  the  disease,  and  the  loss  has  not 
averaged  three  per  cent  of  the  animals  inoculated.  It  was  hoped  that 
the  same  result  might  attend  inoculation  of  animals  purchased  in  China 
and  subjected  to  inoculation  at  Shanghai.  Accdrdingly,  the  acting 
insular  purchasing  agent  made  a  contract  with  the  firm  of  Keylock  & 
Pratt,  of  that  city,  for  the  delivery  in  Manila  of  10,000  immunized 
carabao  at  the  price  of  88  Mexican  pesos  a  head;  an  agent  of  the  insu- 
lar government  to  examine  and  reject  carabao  before  inoculation  at 
Shanghai  and  to  supervise  the  process,  and  the  insular  government  to 
share  the  risk  of  loss  by  paying  40  pesos  for  each  head  dying  on 
account  of  it.     The  percentage  of  loss  from  the  treatment  became  so 


24  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

great  at  Shanghai  that  both  parties  to  the  contract  were  glad  to  modify 
its  terms  by  a  new  contract  under  which  Keylock  &  Pratt  agreed  to 
deliver  10,000  carabao  of  certain  weight  and  age  in  Manila  at  79 
Mexican  pesos  a  head,  temporarily  immunized  in  China  and  subject  to 
inspection  at  Manila.  Thus  far  it  can  not  be  said  that  the  contract 
has  been  successful.  The  truth  is  that  the  imported  animals  seem  to 
be  peculiarly  susceptible  to  many  other  diseases  than  rinderpest  after 
they  are  brought  here.  We  have  lost  nearly  an  entire  herd  of  200 
from  hemorrhagic  septicaemia,  quite  a  number  from  surra,  and  others 
from  a  union  of  rinderpest  and  foot-and-mouth  disease.  In  addition 
to  this,  we  received  word  through  the  State  Department  at  Washing- 
ton that  the  Chinese  Government  would  forbid  the  exportation  of 
more  than  1,000  animals.  Our  latest  information,  however,  is  that 
the  Chinese  authorities  will  not  interfere  with  the  fulfillment  of  the 
present  contract.     The  following  table  shows  the  carabao  transactions : 

Statement  November  20,  1903. 

Shanghai  cur- 
rency. 

Total  number  purchased  under  old  contract 649,  at  $75. .     $48,  675.  00 

Total  number  dying  at  Shanghai  after  inoculation 435,  at    40 . .       17,  400.  00 

Total  number  purchased  under  new  contract 721,  at    79. .       56,  979.  00 


Total 1,805 $123,054.00 

or  Philippine  currency $118,  805.  45 

Total  number  accepted  alive 1,  370 

Dispositions: 

Sale  by  purchasing  agent 91 

23,  at  $100 $2,300 

68,  at      70 7,060 


$9,  360 
Transfer  to  provinces — 

Rizal 105 

Bataan 230 

Laguna 51 

Occidental  Negros 20 

Zamboanga 33 

On  hand  in  Manila 406 

Missing 3 

Died  since  acceptance 429 


1,370 


The  Commisson  passed  Act  828  (a  copy  of  which  is  appended  under 
Exhibit  A)  for  the  purpose  of  prescribing  a  method  of  disposing  of 
the  carabao  purchased  in  the  provinces  where  they  were  most  needed. 
The  insular  purchasing  agent  is  authorized  by  the  act  to  send  carabao 
purchased  to  any  province  the  provincial  board  of  which  shall  request 
it,  upon  approval  of  the  Commission.  Sales  are  conducted  under  the 
auspices  of  the  provincial  board.  The  minimum  price  at  cash  sales  is 
fixed  at  70  Philippine  pesos.  The  privilege  of  choice  is  to  be  put  up 
for  public  bidding.     Sales  partly  on  time  are  allowed,  but  preference 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  25 

is  given  in  choice  to  those  buying  wholly  for  cash.  The  terms  of 
partly  credit  sales  are  93  pesos — 31  pesos  cash  and  the  balance  in  one 
and  two  }rears  secured  by  chattel  mortgage  on  the  animal.  It  has  also 
been  the  custom  of  the  Commission  to  authorize  the  purchasing  agent 
to  sell  in  small  numbers  carabao  at  100  Philippine  pesos  a  head  for  cash, 
with  the  privilege  of  choice  to  any  bona  fide  hacendero  or  farmer 
coming  to  Manila  to  buy.  Of  course  the  prices  fixed  will  not  pay  the 
cost  of  the  carabao,  but  it  was  not  the  purpose  of  the  Commission  to 
charge  full  cost.  The  Commission  understands  the  intention  of  Con- 
gress to  be  to  relieve  the  scarcity  of  cattle  by  furnishing  them  to  farmers 
at  a  low  price. 

If  we  assume  that  the  carabao  shown  to  be  on  hand  and  sold  at  the 
time  of  the  preparation  of  the  statement  given  above  will  continue  in 
life,  they  have  cost  the  insular  government  126.65  Philippine  pesos  a 
head,  without  counting  forage  and  other  expenses  of  maintenance, 
which  would  perhaps  increase  the  expense  to  150  pesos.  This  is  not 
encouraging,  but  experience  will  doubtless  enable  us  to  reduce  the  cost. 
The  attitude  of  the  Chinese  Government  makes  it  improbable  that  we 
can  procure  from  China  more  than  the  10,000  already  contracted  for 
there.  It  seems  likely,  though  experiment  will  only  make  it  certain, 
that  it  would  be  wiser  for  us  to  import  the  so-called  Indian  bulls  and 
cows  used  now  in  the  Straits  Settlements  in  Java  and  in  India  for  rice 
culture,  because,  though  not  so  strong,  they  are  hardier  than  the  carabao 
and  quite  as  good  workers.  I  append  hereto  a  statement  as  to  carabao 
transactions  to  November  20,  1903,  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent, 
as  Exhibit  C. 

I  also  append  a  statement  from  the  auditor  showing  the  actual 
expenditures  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  as  Exhibit  D.  From 
this  statement  it  appears  that  of  the  total  sum  of  1*6,000,000,  appro- 
priated by  Congress,  the  sum  of  ^=2, 69 1,000  has  been  appropriated  or 
allotted  by  the  Philippine  Commission  for  the  purposes  of  the  act,  and 
that  net  withdrawals  from  such  allotments  have  been  made  amounting  to 
^1,312,162.12,  leaving  a  balance  to  the  credit  of  the  allotments  amount- 
ing to  ?1, 378, 837. 58.  There  was  in  the  treasury  on  December  1  to 
the  credit  of  the  Congressional  relief  fund  a  balance  unappropriated 
of  ^3,309,000,  and  a  balance  of  the  original  fund  in  the  treasury, 
allotted  and  unallotted,  amounting  to  ^1,687,837.58,  or  $2,313,918.79. 

CONDITIONS   AS   TO   TRANQUILLITY. 

The  conditions  with  respect  to  tranquillity  in  the  islands  have  greatly 
improved  during  the  last  year,  and  I  think  it  fair  to  say  that  at  no 
time  in  the  history  of  the  islands  has  there  been  less  ladronism  than 
as  when  this  is  written,  December  10,  1903.  At  the  time  of  writing 
my  last  report  the  provinces  of  Rizal  and  Bulacan,  in  the  immediate 
neighborhood  of  Manila,  were  disturbed  by  marauding  bands,  which 


26  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

are  said  to  have  derived  considerable  support  from  persons  in  Manila. 
They  were  under  the  command  of  one  San  Miguel,  who  professed  to 
be  the  appointee  of  a  junta  representing  the  Filipino  Republic.  He 
drew  his  forces  from  the  purlieus  of  Manila  and  from  well-known 
ladrones,  thieves,  and  other  criminals  to  be  found  in  the  towns  of  the 
two  provinces.  So  active  did  the  marauders  become  that  the  forces 
of  the  constabulary  of  the  two  provinces  were  not  enough  to  guard 
the  towns  against  their  attacks  and  at  the  same  time  to  chase  the  rob- 
bers to  their  hiding  places.  Accordingly,  use  was  made  of  the  scouts 
under  the  constabulary  act,  and  this  with  very  good  effect.  In  two 
engagements,  one  with  the  constabulary  and  the  other  with  a  company 
of  scouts,  the  ladrones  suffered  most  severely,  losing  in  the  latter  of 
the  two  engagements  more  than  60  men  by  death,  including  their 
leader,  San  Miguel.  Shortly  before  the  death  of  San  Miguel,  Apoli- 
nario  Mabini  landed  in  these  islands  from  Guam,  after  taking  the  oath 
of  allegiance.  Upon  his  landing  a  note  from  San  Miguel  was  handed 
him,  asking  for  advice.  To  this  note  Mabini  responded  by  writing  on 
his  visiting  card  that  he  had  not  been  long  enough  in  the  islands  to 
answer,  but  that  he  would  advise  him  later.  The  card  of  Mabini  was 
found  on  the  dead  body  of  San  Miguel  and  was  delivered  to  me  by  the 
chief  of  the  constabulary.  I  sent  the  card  to  Mabini  by  the  hand  of 
Pedro  A.  Paterno,  expressing  surprise  that  so  soon  after  taking  the 
oath  he  should  open  communication  with  men  in  arms  against  the 
Government.  He  replied  by  sending  to  me  a  copy  of  a  letter  which 
he  had  sent  San  Miguel,  but  which  did  not  reach  him  before  his  death. 
The  letter  was  as  follows: 

Manila,  March  27,  1903. 

Sir:  Since  you  ask  me  my  opinion  concerning  your  action,  I  will  clearly  inform 
you  in  accordance  with  my  method  of  thinking. 

I  do  not  consider  that  the  liberty  enjoyed  to-day  in  this  Archipelago  can  be  fol- 
lowed by  independence  through  means  of  arms  at  the  present  time.  The  people  do 
not  move  because  they  have  no  arms,  and  even  if  they  had  them  they  would  have 
nothing  to  eat.  Although  you  might  find  another  nation  that  would  like  to  furnish 
arms  and  supplies,  this  nation  also  would  like  to  annex  this  territory,  and  if  this 
should  happen  our  misfortune  would  be  still  greater. 

If  we  should  proceed  gradually,  as,  in  fact,  you  are  doing,  the  war  would  continue 
and  possibly  our  nation  never  would  enjoy  prosperity,  because  the  war  would  finally 
turn  into  a  poisonous  disease  which  would  greatly  increase  our  weakness.  Under- 
stand well  that  we  are  now  killing  each  other. 

It  seems  to  me  that  at  the  present  time  we  should  endeavor  to  secure  independence 
through  the  paths  of  peace.  Let  us  cease  that  the  people  may  rest,  that  it  may  work 
to  recover  from  its  recent  proprietary  losses.  Let  us  conform  to  the  opinion  of  the 
majority,  although  we  may  recognize  that  by  this  method  we  do  not  obtain  our 
desires. 

This  is,  I  believe,  the  surest  and  most  fit  method  in  obtaining  the  welfare  of  all. 

Let  us  deliberate  and  hold  an  assembly  to  treat  of  these  matters.  In  case  you  are 
in  conformity  with  this  and  return  to  peace,  determine  upon  the  necessary  condi- 
tions that  you  should  ask  in  order  to  save  yourselves  from  any  whatever  vexations, 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  27 

and  if  you  think  that  I  should  transmit  your  petition  to  the  constituted  authorities 
I  am  disposed  to  comply  at  any  time. 

There  are  those  who  say  that  your  procedure  is  the  cause  of  many  abuses  and 
methods  which  are  unfavorable  to  the  country,  but  I  believe  that  the  remedy  for 
this,  if  it  were  true,  is  not  comparable  to  the  great  poverty  which  would  be  born  of 
of  a  war  apparently  interminable.  I  believe  that  as  long  as  the  Filipinos  do  not 
endeavor  to  liberate  themselves  from  their  bonds  the  period  of  their  liberty  will  not 
arrive. 

Excuse  me  for  telling  you  this.  If,  perchance,  you  are  not  in  accord  with  my 
opinion,  this  will  not,  as  far  as  I  am  concerned,  be  a  motive  for  destroying  our  for- 
mer friendship  and  companionship. 

Order  your  humble  servant  whenever  you  see  fit. 


Ap.  Mabini. 


General  Luciano  Sax  Miguel. 


Subsequently  to  this,  Mabini  addressed  to  me  a  letter  in  terms 
following: 

Manila,  P.  I. ,  April  9,  1903. 

Honorable  Sie:  A  few  days  after  my  arrival  at  this  capital,  I  received  a  message 
from  the  late  San  Miguel,  sending  greetings  of  welcome,  and  requesting  my  opinion 
in  regard  to  his  attitude.  In  reply  I  sent  him  a  card,  thanking  him  for  his  welcome 
and  informing  him  that  I  had  not  as  yet  formed  any  opinion,  since  I  had  only  just 
arrived  and  did  not  know  the  conditions. 

Weeks  after,  when  I  had  acquired  some  knowledge  of  the  true  state  of  affairs,  I 
wrote  a  letter,  in  which  I  endeavored  to  prove  that  armed  contention  is  ruinous  to 
the  country  and  that  the  present  condition  of  things  permits  only  of  a  pacific  con- 
tention for  the  political  ideals  that  one  might  strive  after.  I  prepared  this  letter 
against  the  time  when  San  Miguel  should  ask  me  for  the  second  time  for  my  opinion. 
On  the  morning  of  the  27th  of  March  last  a  messenger  came  for  the  said  opinion, 
and  I  gave  him  the  letter.  But  on  the  following  day  the  messenger  came  back  to 
inform  me  that  the  letter  had  not  reached  the  hands  of  San  Miguel,  who  had  been 
killed,  but  had  been  delivered  to  an  officer  of  his  band  for  him  to  deliver  to  the  sec- 
ond in  command.  Later  I  turned  over  the  rough  copy  of  the  letter  to  Mr.  Pedro  A. 
Paterno,  in  order  that  he  might  inform  you  in  regard  to  the  contents. 

I  have  just  been  informed  that  the  letter  is  in  the  possession  of  Faustino  Gui- 
llermo,  chief  of  a  band,  who,  with  his  people,  is  disposed,  so  they  say,  to  follow  the 
counsels  given  in  the  said  letter.  But  there  exists  another  and  larger  band,  under 
the  command  of  Alejandro  Santiago  and  Apolonio  Samson;  this  Alejandro  Santiago 
is,  according  to  reports,  the  successor  of  San  Miguel.  These  chieftains  have  not 
received  the  letter  yet,  for  the  reason  that  the  frequent  expeditions  and  patrols  of 
the  constabulary  render  communication  very  difficult;  no  one  dares  to  search  for 
them,  for  fear  of  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  officers  of  public  order.  They  tell  me 
that  it  is  necessary  that  the  persecution  should  not  be  so  active,  if  only  for  a  few 
days,  for  them  to  secure  an  opportunity  to  hold  intercourse;  or  that  a  safe  conduct 
should  be  furnished  them,  so  that  they  can  send  a  person*  to  look  for  them  and 
deliver  the  letter. 

I  must  confess  frankly  that  the  late  San  Miguel  was  an  old  acquaintance  and  even 
friend  of  mine;  but  the  chiefs  above  mentioned  I  do  not  know  personally,  and  I  am 
not  acquainted  with  their  antecedents. 

With  these  data,  I  await  your  determination,  signing  myself  your  humble  and 
obedient  servant. 

Mabini. 

Mr.  William- H.  Taft, 

Civil  Governor  of  the  Philippines. 


28  KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

To  which  I  made  the  following  reply,  which  ended  the  correspond- 
ence: 

Baguio,  Benguet,  April  18,  1903. 
My  Deak  Sir:  I  have  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  your  letter  of  April  9,  1903,  and 
to  apologize  for  my  delay  in  answering  the  same.  The  letter  was  delivered  to  me  just 
before  I  left  Manila  for  Benguet,  and  I  had  to  delay  answer  until  reaching  here,  and 
until  the  letter  could  be  translated.  I  have  also  read  the  copy  of  your  letter  to  San 
Miguel  which  you  sent  me  by  Senor  Paterno.  I  thank  you  much  for  interesting 
yourself  in  the  maintenance  of  law  and  order  in  the  islands  and  in  presenting  as 
cogently  as  you  do  the  necessity  for  peace  and  tranquillity.  If  I  have  understood 
your  letter  to  me  and  its  request,  you  have  in  mind  a  surrender  of  the  persons  to 
whom  you  have  directed  your  letter,  on  condition  of  their  receiving  immunity  from 
ordinary  prosecutions  under  the  law.  Could  I  be  assured  that  this  leniency  would 
secure  quiet,  and  freedom  from  robbery  and  invasion  to  the  good  people  of  Bulacan, 
Bizal,  and  Cavite,  whose  welfare  we  both  have  at  heart,  I  should  be  glad  again  to 
offer  immunity  to  those  to  whom  you  desire  your  letter  to  be  conveyed;  but  the 
difficulty  is,  my  dear  senor,  that  purely  out  of  consideration  for  the  welfare  of  the 
people  of  the  three  provinces,  I  ran  the  risk  of  allowing  many  criminals  to  go 
unwhipt  of  justice  and  did  authorize  an  offer  of  immunity  to  these  very  persons 
should  they  come  in  and  surrender  all  their  arms — an  offer  which  remained  open  for 
some  six  weeks  from  October  1  to  November  15  of  last  year.  Reports  came  from 
time  to  time  that  the  offer  was  to  be  accepted,  but  finally  nothing  was  done.  There 
was  for  a  time  suspension  of  the  police  expeditions  in  order  to  permit  a  general 
surrender.  The  only  effect  of  this  was  to  exaggerate  in  the  eyes  of  the  poor  people 
of  the  towns  of  Rizal  and  Bulacan  the  prestige  of  those  to  whom  the  offers  of 
immunity  were  made,  enabling  them  the  better  to  terrorize  such  people,  and  to  give 
to  the  individuals  in  arms  an  excessive  idea  of  their  own  importance.  The  negotia- 
tion fell  through  chiefly  because  the  men  who  made  up  the  bands  of  these  various 
individuals  belonged  to  the  criminal  classes,  were  confirmed  ladrones  and  escaped 
fugitives  from  justice,  whom  their  leaders,  even  if  they  desired  to  do  so,  could  not 
control  to  the  extent  of  compelling  them  to  give  up  their  arms  which  they  needed 
for  their  life's  profession.  They  were  all  bent  on  a  lawless  life,  were  outlaws  and 
bandits,  and  would  continue  to  be  so  whatever  the  government  at  Manila.  True 
they  received  reenforcement  from  time  to  time  from  the  idle  and  worthless  of 
the  neighboring  towns  and  doubtless  had  assistance  from  some  of  the  municipal  offi- 
cials, who,  acting  from  motives  of  fear  or  gain,  reaped  a  benefit  from  their  complic- 
ity and  assistance.  After  this  experience,  and  after  a  conference  with  the  members 
of  the  Commission,  I  reached  the  definite  conclusion  that  patience  with  them  had 
ceased  to  be  a  virtue,  and  that  the  worst  possible  course  to  pursue  with  them,  having 
regard  to  the  welfare  of  the  Filipino  people  of  the  three  provinces,  was  to  temporize, 
negotiate,  or  offer  immunity  to  them.  Most  of  them  were  criminals  and  had  been  so 
since  the  Spanish  times,  and  it  could  not  reasonably  be  expected  that  they  would, 
even  if  they  surrendered,  return  to  paths  of  peace,  fan  Miguel  was  selected  as 
nominal  leader  and  figurehead  because  the  real  leaders  were  jealous  of  each  other. 
Santiago,  a  very  obscure  person,  with  facility  only  for  intrigue,  has  been  selected  on 
the  same  principle.  Apollonio  Samson,  Faustino  Guillermo,  Julian  Santos  (now 
under  sentence  of  death),  Manilang  (now  dead),  Felizardo,  Montiilon,  and  Contre- 
ras  were  the  real  leaders  and  they  always  have  been  robbers,  kidnapers,  and  cara- 
bao  thieves,  and  Guillermo,  Santos,  and  Manilang,  and  possibly  some  of  the  others, 
were  fugitives  from  justice  under  charge  of  murder.  They  are  unworthy  of  either 
the  encouragement  or  sympathy  of  any  Filipino  of  honor  and  integrity,  no  matter 
what  his  views  as  to  the  present  civil  government,  or  the  independence  of  the 
islands.  It  is  difficult  for  those  who  are  sincerely  irreconcilable  not  to  sympathize 
with  any  disturbance  involving  attacks  upon  the  peace  and  order  of  the  community, 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  29 

because  they  can  hardly  repress  the  hope  that  such  disturbance,  whatever  the  motive, 
may  embarrass  the  present  government  and  ultimately  germinate  into  a  new  insur- 
rection. In  the  blindness  of  their  zeal  they  are  willing  to  sacrifice  their  own  people — 
for  it  is  only  their  own  people  who  suffer  by  such  outlawry — to  a  vague  hope  that  out 
of  pure  ladronism,  murder,  and  robbery  may  grow  a  successful  revolution  based  on 
patriotic  sentiment.  Those  whose  duty  it  is,  however,  to  keep  informed  as  to  the 
character  and  nature  of  these  persons  who  keep  up  such  disturbances  know  that 
while  these  persons  may  receive  encouragement  and  even  material  assistance  from 
irreconcilable  persons  of  respectability,  they  are  essentially  only  robber  bands, 
thieves,  murderers,  and  kidnapers  for  ransom,  determined  to  live  on  their  neigh- 
bors and  willing  to  sacrifice  any  number  of  Filipinos  to  the  enjoyment  of  an  outlaw 
life.  They  masquerade  at  times  as  ' '  revolucionarios ' '  in  order  to  win  the  assistance 
just  mentioned,  but  they  are  nothing  but  ladrones  and  should  be  punished  only  as 
violators  of  the  law.  Were  there  established  in  these  islands  a  self-respecting  and 
responsible  independent  Filipino  government,  almost  its  first  duty  would  be  the 
suppression  and  punishment  of  exactly  this  class  of  persons,  who  in  their  hearts 
recognize  no  law  and  wish  no  condition  of  affairs  save  that  of  violence  and  rapine, 
for  in  no  other  can  they  acquire  a  livelihood,  or  attain  the  position  of  prominence  or 
influence  which  their  vanity  demands. 

I  have  written,  my  dear  Senor,  to  you  with  great  frankness,  not  with  the  idea  of 
publishing  our  correspondence,  but  merely  to  show  you  my  exact  attitude  and  to 
explain  why  it  is  that  I  can  not  facilitate  communication  between  you  and  the  per- 
sons whom  you  name,  whose  past  history  you  say  you  do  not  know,  because  if  I 
were  to  do  so,  it  would  lend  support  to  the  view  that  I  am  willing  to  offer  immunity 
in  case  of  their  surrender. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  sentiments  of  very  great  respect, 
Very  sincerely,  yours, 

Wm.  H.  Taft,  Civil  Governor. 

Sefior  Don  A.  Mabini, 

Manila,  P.  I. 

Within  a  few  weeks  after  this  Mabini  died  of  cholera.  My  letter 
to  Mabini  states,  with  as  much  care  as  I  can  state  it,  the  character 
of  the  men  who  were  engaged  in  disturbing  the  peace  and  tran- 
quillity of  Bulacan  and  Rizal  provinces  last  winter.  Subsequent  to 
the  defeats  in  the  field  a  secret  service  was  established,  in  the  two 
provinces  and  in  Manila,  which  gradually  obtained  evidence  against 
the  persons  who  had  been  part  of  the  ladrone  forces.  Alejandro 
Santiago  and  Faustino  Guillermo  have  been  among  those  captured. 
All  the  persons  were  brought  to  trial,  and  now  most  of  them  are  in 
Bilibid,  either  under  sentences  for  long  terms  or  awaiting  execution. 
The  same  result  is  being  brought  about  in  Cavite,  where  conditions 
have  much  improved  since  last  year,  though  the  two  ladrone  chiefs, 
Montillon  and  Felizardo,  have  thus  far  avoided  capture.  The  prov- 
ince has  been  thoroughly  policed,  and  more  than  150  ladrones  have 
been  arrested  and  are  on  their  way  to.  the  penitentiary.  Arms  are 
being  brought  in  every  day  and  the  government  is  receiving  aid  from 
the  people  in  its  work. 

The  arrest,  trial,  and  punishment  of  certain  criminals  in  Surigao 
led  to  their  being  sentenced  for  long  terms.  This  rendered  the  pris- 
oners desperate,  and  in  their  desire  to  escape  they  communicated  with 


30  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

some  confederates  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  province,  who  at  a  cer- 
tain time  came  into  town  to  assist  the  prisoners.  The  prisoners 
awaited  a  good  opportunity  while  the  constabulary  were  at  their 
meals,  seized  all  their  guns,  killed  the  American  Captain  Clark,  and 
with  the  only  guns  in  the  town  of  Surigao  took  the  town,  except  the 
provincial  building.  This  was  occupied  by  the  treasurer,  Captain 
Kelly,  and  the  other  American  officials,  who  bravely  held  out  against 
the  lawless  band.  From  the  provincial  building  telegraphic  commu- 
nication was  had  by  the  besieged  with  Iligan,  the  nearest  military  sta- 
tion on  the  north  coast  of  Mindanao,  and  the  dispatch  was  forwarded 
to  Cebu  and  Manila.  A  small  force  of  15  or  20  men  started  by  a 
small  boat  at  once  from  Iligan  to  Surigao.  Colonel  Taylor,  the  assist- 
ant chief  of  constabulary,  was  reached  by  telephonic  message,  and  he, 
with  a  coast  guard  boat,  took  a  force  of  men  from  Leyte  to  Surigao, 
reaching  there  about  twelve  hours  after  the  detachment  of  soldiers. 
The  criminal  malcontents  had  deserted  the  town  before  Taylor  reached 
it.  In  view  of  the  remoteness  of  the  province  and  the  nearness  of  a 
military  post  thereto,  I  concluded  to  turn  the  province  over  to  the 
military,  and  the  general  commanding,  General  Lee,  at  once  visited 
Surigao  with  a  sufficient  force  to  restore  complete  confidence  in  our 
power  to  suppress  lawlessness.  In  a  few  weeks  all  the  criminals 
except  Concepcion,  the  leader,  were  captured,  and  all  the  guns  with 
the  exception  of  four  or  five  were  recovered.  It  is  possible  that  had 
prompt  steps  not  been  taken  the  trouble  might  have  spread,  but  as  it 
was  it  was  nothing  more  than  a  breaking  of  jail  b}^  a  lot  of  desperate 
prisoners  and  their  escape  with  the  arms  of  their  captors.  It  never 
took  on  the  aspect  of  an  uprising  of  the  population  or  an  insurrection. 
In  Misamis  the  taking  of  the  census,  in  which  the  enumeration  of 
cattle,  hogs,  chickens,  and  other  animals  was  required,  aroused  the 
suspicions  of  the  people  against  the  census  enumerators  because  they 
thought  that  these  statistics  were  being  taken  as  a  basis  for  taxation, 
and  in  the  island  of  Camiguin,  a  part  of  Misamis,  there  was  a  rising 
among  the  people,  which  was  quickly  suppressed,  however,  by  one  of 
the  scout  companies.  For  the  same  reasons  Avhich  obtained  in  the  case 
of  Surigao,  I  requested  the  aid  of  the  military  commander  in  Misamis. 
The  scouts  and  the  constabulaiy  worked  together  under  the  military 
commander  in  Misamis  as  in  Surigao,  and  subsequently  all  the  lawless 
elements  were  captured  or  killed  and  the  living  are  now  in  Bilibid. 
Both  the  provinces  of  Misamis  and  Surigao  are  entirely  quiet,  and  the 
people  are  pursuing  their  usual  vocations  without  disturbance.  At 
one  time  during  the  winter  there  was  a  disturbance  in  the  island  of 
Cebu.  The  pulajanes,  who  are  a  band  of  religious  fanatics  in  the 
mountains,  attacked  the  civilized  towns  and  succeeded  in  defeating  a 
small  force  of  constabulaiy  and  in  killing  two  of  its  officers.  Colonel 
Taylor,  together  with  100  men,  inflicted  such  a  severe  defeat  on  them 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  31 

that  their  leaders  were  killed  and  their  power  was  broken.  Many  of 
the  most  violent  were  arrested  and  are  now  confined  in  the  state's 
prison.  They  present  a  curious  combination  of  religion  and  robbery 
and  can  hardly  be  regarded  as  of  the  civilized  tribes.  Cebu  is  entirelv 
quiet  now.  Occasional  reports  of  ladronism  in  the  provinces  of  Iloilo 
andOipiz,  on  the  border  between  the  two  provinces,  indicate  that  all  the 
guns  have  not  been  captured,  but  the  conditions  in  the  two  provinces 
are  on  the  whole  quite  satisfactory. 

The  most  serious  trouble  of  this  kind  has  been  in  the  province  of 
Albay,  which,  due  to  its  hemp  production,  is  the  richest  province  in 
the  entire  archipelago.  When  the  insurgents  in  command  of  the 
forces  in  1901  surrendered  in  Albay,  two  of  the  subordinates  named 
Toledo  and  Saria  with  a  very  small  force  remained  in  the  mountains 
with  a  few  guns,  but  were  unable  to  create  substantial  disturbance  in 
the  province  until  a  former  insurgent  named  Ola,  said  to  be  a  Tagalog, 
left  the  town  of  Guinobatan  because  of  a  quarrel  with  a  presidente 
who  had  threatened  to  prosecute  him  for  burning  his  house  during  the 
previous  insurrection  while  Ola  was  an  insurgent  soldier.  Ola  sur- 
rounded himself  with  a  number  of  malcontents,  whose  objection  seems 
to  have  been  not  to  the  insular  government  or  to  the  American  Gov- 
ernment, but  to  the  political  rule  of  the  wealthy  hemp  growers  in 
municipal  governments  in  the  province  of  Albay.  It  was  the  custom 
there  to  elect  rich  men  to  the  presidencias  in  the  province,  and  there 
may  have  been  some  abuse  of  power.  At  any  rate,  Ola's  career  began 
as  a  protest  against  municipal  tyranny  and  awakened  the  sympathy  of 
the  poor  masses.  After  he  went  into  the  mountains  he  was  soon 
joined  by  Toledo  and  Saria  and  there  was  begun  a  regular  campaign 
of  collecting  contributions,  which  was  so  profitable  in  the  rich  prov- 
ince that  the  forces  of  Ola  continued  to  grow.  At  the  town  of  Ola 
some  of  Ola's  followers  were  able  to  secure  assistance  from  the 
townspeople  and  also  from  the  municipal  police  in  surprising 
the  constabulary  who  were  there  and  taking  away  about  40  guns. 
This  of  course  was  a  great  aid  to  Ola's  force,  and  the  disturbance  soon 
spread  to  the  entire  province.  It  is  undeniable  that  there  was  both 
s}mipathy  on  the  part  of  the  poor  people  with  Ola's  cause  and  there 
was  also  fear  of  vengeance  at  his  hands  sufficient  to  induce  inaction  by 
the  people.  In  consequence  a  reign  of  terror  was  inaugurated  through 
the  province  which  it  was  necessary  to  meet  by  radical  measures. 
Accordingly,  authority  was  given,  by  section  6  of  the  act  of  the  Com- 
mission numbered  728,  and  a  resolution  of  the  Commission  (copies  of 
which  are  appended)  to  the  governor  and  the  constabulary  authorities 
to  bring  the  people  from  the  outlying  barrios,  where  they  were  exposed 
to  the  invasion  of  ladrones,  nearer  to  the  populated  portions  of  their 
respective  towns.  Under  the  law  it  became  the  duty  of  the  provin- 
cial board  to  see  to  it  that  the  people  thus  brought  in  were  properly 


32  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

fed  and  not  subjected  to  unnecessary  privations.  For  a  time  the 
action  did  not  have  any  effect.  No  guns  were  being  obtained,  and 
while  the  number  of  attacks  by  the  ladrones  was  very  much  reduced 
substantial  progress  did  not  seem  to  be  making.  The  province  was 
visited  by  Vice-Governor  Wright  and  Commissioner  Tavera,  who 
talked  to  the  people  on  the  subject  of  their  dut}r  to  suppress  this  dis- 
order. The  effect  of  the  visit  of  these  gentlemen  and  the  policy 
adopted  of  depriving  those  in  the  mountains  of  means  of  support  was 
finally  crowned  with  success  when  Ola  and  his  entire  body  of  follow- 
ers with  all  their  guns  came  into  Guinobatan  and  surrendered  uncon- 
ditionally. They  were  in  a  most  ragged  and  pitiable  condition.  Later 
on  Toledo  with  his  small  body  of  followers  came  in,  and  most  of 
Saria's  men  having  been  captured,  there  is  complete  peace  and  quiet 
in  Albay.  All  the  prisoners  are  being  tried.  Some  have  been  sen- 
tenced to  death  for  particular  murders.  The  remainder  will  doubtless 
be  sent  to  state's  prison  for  long  terms. 

The  effect  of  the  disturbance  has  produced  substantial  financial  loss 
in  the  province.  The  governor  estimates  that  hemp  production  and 
sale  have  been  interfered  with  to  the  extent  of  some  ten  or  twelve 
millions  of  dollars  Mexican.  Still  the  province  is  rapidly  recovering 
from  the  effect  of  the  disturbed  conditions.  By  telegram  of  December 
8  Governor  Betts  advises  me  that  "the  clearances  of  hemp  in  this 
province  for  the  month  of  November  exceeded  any  previous  month  in 
the  history  of  the  province." 

Ola  could  have  been  induced  to  surrender  some  months  earlier  had 
the  authorities  been  willing  to  grant  immunit}T  from  prosecution.  As 
it  had  now  become  the  settled  policy  of  the  government  to  treat  per- 
sons in  arms  in  their  proper  light,  as  ladrones  and  outlaws,  and  not  to 
accept  them  as  prisoners  of  war  or  to  grant  them  immunity  from  ordi- 
nary or  criminal  prosecutions,  permission  was  not  granted  to  extend 
immunity.  The  reason  which  actuated  the  government  in  insisting 
upon  this  course  is  that  surrenders  made  with  promises  of  immunity 
do  not  ordinarily,  when  the  dealings  are  with  the  criminal  class,  result 
in  anything  but  a  temporary  cure,  for  as  soon  as  the  hard  effects  of 
the  campaign  have  worn  off  the  criminal  thus  pardoned  in  advance 
feels  a  longing  for  his  old-time  business  and  returns  to  the  woods  and 
mountains,  there  to  begin  again  the  practice  of  his  profession  of  a 
ladron.  The  confinement  of  the  leaders,  and  all  the  rank  and  file, 
under  long  sentences  of  confinement  in  the  penitentiary  has  a  much 
more  permanently  tranquilizing  effect. 

In  Nueva  Ecija  and  Tarlac  a  man  named  Felipe  Salvador,  who  pro- 
fesses to  exercise  miraculous  and  supernatural  power,  has  been 
attempting  to  rouse  the  people  of  his  neighborhood  to  resistance  to 
lawful  authority  and  association  with  him  in  a  kind  of  religious  rite. 
Their  religious  character,  however,  does  not  prevent  Salvador  and 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  33 

his  friends  from  constituting  a  ladrone  band  preying  on  the  neighbor- 
ing country.  Salvador  has  made  one  or  two  raids  on  towns,  but  he 
has  been  punished  severely  in  several  engagements  with  the  constab- 
ulaiy,  and  has  now  withdrawn  into  an  obscure  part  of  Nueva  Ecija. 

As  an  instance  of  the  character  of  people,  that  in  the  mountain  dis- 
tricts of  these  islands  are  reported  as  insurrectos  sometimes,  asladrones 
at  other  times,  as  Pulajanes  at  other  times,  and  as  mere  ordinary  out- 
laws at  others,  I  copy  a  report  from  Lieutenant  Guild  in  regard  to  the 
action  of  three  ladrones  in  Capiz.     The  report  is  as  follows: 

Oalivo,  Panay,  October  12,  1903. 

Sir:  I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  on  the  29th  day  of  September  two  ladrones, 
by  name  Ompong  and  Tuest,  accompanied  by  one  unknown,  entered  the  barrio  of 
Ilijan,  of  Navas,  and  murdered  13  women  and  children.  The  constabulary  of  Ibajay 
were  notified  the  same  afternoon,  and  at  once  set  out  for  the  scene  of  the  crime.  On 
arriving  at  the  barrio,  no  trace  of  the  ladrones  could  be  found,  nor  could  any  informa- 
tion be  gotten  from  the  inhabitants,  as  they  seemed  terror  stricken.  The  only 
information  of  any  value  at  all  was  that  the  leader  of  the  ladrones,  Ompong,  had  a 
Remington  rifle  and  20  rounds  of  ammunition,  but  that  his  companions  had  only 
spears  and  bolos.  As  far  as  can  be  learned,  the  killing  was  not  done  for  the  sake  of 
gain,  but  for  the  sake  of  one  of  the  customs  of  the  mountaineers.  The  child  of 
Ompong  having  died  of  cholera,  he,  as  is  their  custom,  went  out  and  had  these  others 
killed  so  his  might  have  company  and  servants  in  the  other  world.  The  killing  was 
all  done  with  the  bolos  and  spears,  Ompong  simply  threatening  the  men  of  the 
barrio  with  his  gun  while  the  women  and  children  were  being  murdered.  The 
killing  of  the  people  could  never  have  occurred  had  the  men  of  the  barrio  interfered, 
instead  of  looking  on  and  doing  nothing.  The  country  has  been  thoroughly 
searched,  but  no  trace  of  the  ladrones  found,  and  it  is  generally  believed  that  they 
returned  to  Antique  Province,  where  they  live. 

Very  respectfully,  James  J.  Guild, 

Third  Lieutenant,  Philippine  Constabulary, 

Commanding  Second  Section. 

The  Senior  Inspector,  Capiz,  Capiz,  P.  I. 

THE  USE  OF  SCOUTS  WITH  THE  CONSTABULARY. 

The  act  of  Congress  authorizing  the  use  of  the  native  scout  com- 
panies under  the  command  of  those  constabulary  officers  who  were 
detailed  from  the  Regular  Army  has  worked  exceedingly  well.  Gen- 
eral Davis  and  General  Wade  have  both  acted  with  the  utmost  dispatch 
in  responding  to  the  call  of  the  civil  governor  for  scout  companies, 
and  there  have  been  in  use  during  the  last  year  from  three  to  five 
thousand  native  scouts  operating  with  the  constabulary.  This  arrange- 
ment presents  some  anomalies  which  seem  greater  to  the  military  com- 
mander than  to  the  civil  government;  but  however  unsymmetrical  the 
union  of  the  two  forces  under  a  constabulary  officer  may  seem  to  be, 
it  has  had  the  immense  advantage  of  enabling  the  civil  government, 
with  native  troops,  to  suppress  disorder,  It  is  of  the  utmost  political 
importance  that  the  regular  soldier}7,  under  a  command  more  or  less 
independent  of  the  civil  government,  should  not  be  called  in  to  sup- 

wak  1903— vol  5 3 


34  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

press  disorders  and  to  maintain  the  authority  of  the  civil  government 
until  all  the  forces  of  natives,  whether  constabulary  or  scouts,  should 
be  used  for  this  purpose.  Nothing  could  be  further  from  the  truth, 
nothing  could  be  more  unfounded  or  unfair,  than  the  inference  that 
the  use  of  scouts  in  association  with  the  constabulary  for  the  suppress- 
ing of  disorder  is  a  reflection  upon  the  military  establishment  or  upon 
those  who  are  in  command  thereof;  but  we  know  in  our  own  country 
how  loth  governors  of  States  are  to  call  out  militia,  and  how  loth  the 
President  is  to  summon  the  Regular  Army  in  the  suppression  of 
domestic  disorder.  In  this  country  it  is  politically  most  important 
that  Filipinos  should  suppress  Filipino  disturbances  and  arrest  Filipino 
outlaws. 

RECONCENTRATION. 

With  reference  to  the  act  of  the  ^Commission  which  authorized,  upon 
resolution  of  the  Commission,  the  provincial  governors  to  withdraw 
the  outlying  barrios  of  towns  to  their  respective  centers  of  population 
and,  in  a  sense,  to  reconcentrate  the  residents  of  the  outlying  barrios, 
it  may  be  said  that  this  course  is  justified  by  the  peculiar  character  of 
the  country  and  the  wonderful  opportunity  that  it  offers  a  compara- 
tively small  body  of  men  to  terrorize  an  entire  province  and  to  allow 
persons  to  evade  the  utmost  efforts  of  large  bodies  of  constabulary. 
The  act  is  appended  hereto  as  Exhibit  E.  So  effective  is  this  system 
against  ladrones,  if  carried  on  properly,  and  so  comparatively  easy  is 
it  for  the  people  in  this  country,  without  great  suffering  or  incon- 
venience, to  move  from  one  part  of  the  country  to  another,  erecting 
temporary  houses  of  light  material,  that  in  Tayabas,  which  at  one 
time  was  much  afflicted  with  ladrones  under  a  man  named  Rios,  to 
whom  I  referred  in  my  last  annual  report  and  who  has  now  expiated 
his  crimes  on  the  gallows,  the  so-called  reconcentration  was  used  vol- 
untarily by  the  towns  that  were  invaded  by  Rios  and  carried  to  a 
successful  conclusion  before  the  central  authorities  were  advised  of 
the  methods  pursued. 

BANDOLERISMO    STATUTE. 

The  treatment  of  ladrones  by  criminal  prosecution  has  been  most 
effective.  A  statute  known  as  the  u  bandolerismo  statute  "  was  enacted 
in  November  of  last  }^ear  to  meet  an  emergency  which  then  seemed  to 
be  great.     The  statute  is  as  follows: 

Section  1.  Whenever  three  or  more  persons,  conspiring  together,  shall  form  a  band 
of  robbers  for  the  purpose  of  stealing  carabao  or  other  personal  property  by  means  of 
force  and  violence,  and  shall  go  out  upon  the  highway  or  roam  over  the  country 
armed  with  deadly  weapons  for  this  purpose,  they  shall  be  deemed  highway  robbers 
or  brigands,  and  every  person  engaged  in  the  original  formation  of  the  band,  or  join- 
ing it  thereafter,  shall,  upon  conviction  thereof,  be  punished  by  death,  or  imprison- 
ment for  not  less  than  twenty  years,  in  the  discretion  of  the  court. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  35 

Sec.  2.  To  prove  the  crime  described  in  the  previous  section,  it  shall  not  be  neces- 
sary to  adduce  evidence  that  any  member  of  the  band  has  in  fact  committed  robbery 
or  theft,  but  it  shall  be  sufficient  to  justify  conviction  thereunder  if,  from  the  circum- 
stances, it  can  be  inferred  beyond  reasonable  doubt  that  the  accused  was  a  member 
of  such  an  armed  band  as  that  described  in  said  section. 

Sec.  3.  Persons  guilty  of  the  crime  denned  in  section  one  may  be  punished  therefor 
in  the  court  of  first  instance  in  any  province  in  which  they  may  be  taken  or  from 
which  they  may  have  fled. 

Sec  4.  Every  person  knowingly  aiding  or  abetting  such  a  band  of  brigands  as  that 
described  in  section  one  by  giving  them  information  of  the  movement  of  the  police 
or  constabulary,  or  by  securing  stolen  property  from  them,  or  by  procuring  supplies 
of  food,  clothing,  arms,  or  ammunition,  and  furnishing  the  same  to  them  shall,  upon 
conviction,  be  punished  by  imprisonment  for  not  less  than  ten  years  and  not  more 
than  twenty  years. 

The  difficulty  of  proof  against  persons  known  to  be  ladrones  in  fixing 
upon  them  particular  acts  of  violence  or  robbery  and  the  necessity 
for  severe  punishment  led  to  the  enactment  of  this  statute.  It  is  fre- 
quently very  easy  of  proof  to  show  that  the  persons  captured  have 
been  members  of  an  armed  band  running  about  the  country,  commit- 
ting or  attempting  to  commit  robberies  and  murder,  but  to  prove  that 
individuals  were  present  at  particular  robberies  is  entirely  impossible. 
The  act  was  therefore  drawn  to  permit  the  proof  of  the  existence  of 
the  band  and  the  membership  in  the  band,  beyond  reasonable  doubt,  as 
establishing  the  crime  of  ladronism.  It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that 
the  act  has  been  most  effective  in  securing  convictions  and  ridding  the 
various  provinces  of  this  pest  of  centuries.  The  courts  have  had  an 
immense  amount  of  labor  to  perform  in  hearing  the  various  cases,  but 
they  have  responded  with  energy  and  with  justice  to  the  call,  and  both 
Filipino  and  American  judges  have  exercised  much  firmness  in  impos- 
ing suitable  penalties  when  the  proof  required  conviction. 

During  the  year  several  members  of  the  Hongkong  junta  have  come 
to  Manila.  They  have  been  required  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  to 
the  government  and  after  that  have  not  been  disturbed.  I  am  in  receipt 
of  a  verbal  communication  from  Senors  Apacible  and  Agoncillo,  the  two 
most  prominent  members  of  the  junta.  They  have  signified  their  inten- 
tion of  coming  to  Manila  if  they  are  not  to  be  subjected  to  prosecution. 

They  distinctly  repudiate  having  had  any  communication  with  San 
Miguel  or  the  recent  ladrone  leaders,  whom  they  characterize  as  cattle 
thieves  and  not  worthy  the  support  of  men  who  have  been  actuated 
by  other  motives.  I  have  assured  them  that  should  they  return  to 
Manila  they  would  simply  be  required  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance, 
and  if  they  thereafter  lead  lawful  lives  and  take  no  part  in  the  insur- 
rection movements  they  will  be  wholly  undisturbed.  (December  18. 
Since  writing  the  above,  Doctor  Apacible  has  presented  himself  and 
taken  the  oath.) 

There  is  one  Filipino,  named  Ricarte,  who  was  at  the  head  of  the 
plot  to  explode  dynamite  bombs  during  the  Lawton  funeral  in  Manila, 


36  IfcEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

and  also  set  on  foot  a  number  of  conspiracies  to  burn  the  city.  He 
was  subsequently  sent  to  Guam,  and  then  on  his  return  from  there 
declined  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance  and  went  on  to  Hongkong.  It 
is  reported  that  he  has  quarreled  with  the  other  members  of  the  junta 
and  that  he  continues  his  plotting.  There  is  also  said  to  be  a  social- 
istic or  anarchistic  society  which  has  its  headquarters  at  Paris,  directed 
to  the  establishment  of  a  universal  democratic  Filipino  republic,  on 
socialistic  lines,  but,  so  far  as  we  are  advised,  they  have  attempted 
nothing  in  the  way  of  actual  operations,  though  they  occasionally  favor 
the  mails  with  their  publications. 

Dominador  Gomez  y  Jesus  was  born  in  the  Philippines  and  subse- 
quently went  to  Spain  where  he  studied  medicine  and  was  graduated 
as  a  surgeon.  He  entered  the  Spanish  army  as  a  surgeon  and  served 
in  Spain  during  the  two  revolutions  of  1896  and  1898.  He  appears 
to  have  been  a  member  of  the  junta  of  Madrid,  organized  to  oppose 
American  sovereignty  in  the  islands  after  1898,  and  to  have  written 
articles  for  a  paper  published  in  Madrid,  called  the  "Filipinas  ante 
Europa."  After  peace  had  been  completely  restored  in  the  islands, 
Doctor  Gomez  came  to  Manila.  His  cooperator,  Isabelo  de  los  Reyes, 
had  organized  a  working  man's  union,  called  the  "Union  Obrera 
Democratica,"  but  having  been  arrested  and  subjected  to  criminal 
prosecution  for  an  illegal  connection  with  a  strike,  he  resigned  the 
presidency  and  Doctor  Gomez  was  elected  to  take  his  place  at  the 
head  of  the  union.  Subsequently  Doctor  Gomez  also  became  the  presi- 
dent of  the  Nationalist  party.  By  contributions  from  the  members  of 
the  Union  Obrera,  he  was  able  to  publish  a  newspaper  called  the  aLos 
Obreros."  He  was  a  man  of  considerable  power  of  speech  and  able  to 
arouse  audiences  of  the  lower  class  of  Filipinos  by  his  grandiloquence. 
It  soon  became  evident  that  there  were  members  of  the  Union  Obrera 
and  of  the  Nationalist  party  who  were  very  strongly  in  sympathy  with 
the  ladrone  bands,  headed  by  San  Miguel,  then  operating  in  Rizal 
and  Bulacan.  Doctor  Gomez  recommended  to  me  in  his  newspaper 
that  as  a  solution  of  the  difficulties,  we  invite  all  the  ladrones  to  come 
in  and  surrender  their  arms  on  the  agreement  that  we  should  guarantee 
them  immunity  and  insure  them  food  or  labor  for  one  year.  Subse- 
quently Doctor  Gomez  applied  to  me  for  the  pardon  in  advance  of 
Faustino  Guillermo,  second  in  command  in  Rizal,  one  of  the  most 
noted  desperadoes  and  ladrones  in  the  islands,  a  man  since  captured 
and  now  under  sentence  of  death  for  murder,  It  was  reported  that 
Doctor  Gomez  was  using  the  Union  Obrera  as  a  means  of  collecting 
money  to  run  his  newspaper,  and  to  enrich  his  own  pocket.  This  led 
to  the  passage  of  a  law,  denouncing  as  embezzlement  the  diversion  of 
funds  collected  in  such  societies  from  the  purpose  for  which  the 
society  was  organized  and  for  which  the  funds  were  contributed. 
Prosecution   of  Doctor   Gomez  was   begun  under  several  different 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  37 

charges.  Under  the  first  charge  of  organizing  an  illegal  association 
he  has  been  convicted  and  sentenced  for  four  years  to  Bilibid.  There 
are  other  charges  against  him  for  which  he  will  be  tried,  including 
embezzlement  and  aiding  and  abetting  ladrones.  His  prosecution  has 
much  assisted  in  bringing  about  the  present  satisfactory  condition 
throughout  the  Archipelago. 

DISSOLUTE   AMERICANS   AND   YAGRANCY  ACTS. 

One  of  the  great  obstacles  that  this  government  has  to  contend 
with  is  the  presence,  in  a  large  majority  of  the  towns  of  the  Archi- 
pelago, of  dissolute,  drunken,  and  lawless  Americans  who  are  willing 
to  associate  with  low  Filipino  women  and  live  upon  the  proceeds  of 
their  labor.  They  are  truculent  and  dishonest.  They  borrow,  beg, 
and  steal  from  the  native.  Their  conduct  and  mode  of  life  are  not 
calculated  to  impress  the  native  with  the  advantage  of  American  civili- 
zation. When  opportunity  offers,  however,  they  are  loudest  in 
denunciation  of  the  Filipinos  as  an  inferior,  lying  race.  To  rid  the 
country  of  this  class  of  Americans  the  Commission  passed  two  acts. 

The  first  of  these  is  No.  519,  "An  act  defining  vagrancy  and  provid- 
ing for  punishment  therefor,"  and  reads  as  follows: 

Section  1.  Every  person  having  no  apparent  means  of  subsistence,  who  has  the 
physical  ability  to  work  and  who  neglects  to  apply  himself  or  herself  to  some  lawful 
calling;  every  person  found  loitering  about  saloons  or  dramshops  or  gambling  houses 
or  tramping  or  straying  through  the  country  without  visible  means  of  support;  every 
person  known  to  be  a  pickpocket,  thief,  burglar,  ladron,  either  by  his  own  confession 
or  by  his  having  been  convicted  of  either  of  said  offenses,  and  having  no  visible 
or  lawful  means  of  support  when  found  loitering  about  any  gambling  house,  cockpit, 
or  in  any  outlying  barrio  of  a  pueblo;  every  idle  or  dissolute  person  or  associate  of 
known  thieves  or  ladrones  who  wanders  about  the  country  at  unusual  hours  of  the 
night;  every  idle  person  who  lodges  in  any  barn,  shed,  outhouse,  vessel,  or  place 
other  than  such  as  is  kept  for  lodging  purposes,  without  the  permission  of  the  owner 
or  person  entitled  to  the  possession  thereof;  every  lewd  or  dissolute  person  who  lives 
in  and  about  houses  of  ill-fame;  every  common  prostitute  and  common  drunkard,  is 
a  vagrant,  and  upon  conviction  shall  be  punished  by  a  fine  of  not  exceeding  one  hun- 
dred dollars  or  by  imprisonment  not  exceeding  one  year  and  one  day,  or  both,  in  the 
discretion  of  the  court. 

The  second  is  as  follows: 

Section  1.  Upon  the  conviction  of  any  citizen  of  the  United  States  under  act  num- 
bered five  hundred  and  nineteen,  entitled  "An  act  defining  vagrancy  and  providing 
for  punishment  therefor,"  the  court  may  suspend  sentence,  conditioned  upon  the 
convict  leaving  the  Philippine  Islands  and  not  returning  thereto  for  a  period  of  not 
more  than  ten  years;  and  the  fulfillment  of  this  obligation  shall  be  deemed  as  an 
extinguishment  of  the  prescribed  sentence. 

Sec  2.  In  such  cases  the  court  or  judge  may  order  the  removal  of  the  convict  to 
Bilibid  Prison,  in  the  city  of  Manila,  there  to  remain  in  custody  until  he  can  be 
placed  upon  a  steamer  returning  to  the  United  States.  This  order  shall  be  executed  in 
the  manner  prescribed  by  the  civil  governor  in  each  case. 

Sec.  3.  There  is  hereby  appropriated,  out  of  any  funds  in  the  insular  treasury  not 
otherwise  appropriated,  an  amount  sufficient  to  pay  the  actual  and  necessary  expen- 
ses in  carrying  out  the  provisions  of  this  act. 


38  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

The  former  of  the  two  acts  has  also  been  useful  in  enabling  towns 
to  rid  themselves  of  Filipinos  suspected  of  complicity  with  ladrones, 
who  have  no  visible  means  of  support  and  who  are  probably  spies  of 
the  ladrones  for  the  purpose  of  enabling  them  to  make  lucrative  raids. 

FRIARS'   LANDS   AND   RELIGIOUS   QUESTIONS. 

As  early  as  1898,  the  Peace  Commission,  which  negotiated  the  treaty 
of  Paris,  became  convinced  that  one  of  the  most  important  steps  in 
tranquilizing  the  islands  and  in  reconciling  the  Filipinos  to  the  Amer- 
ican Government  would  be  the  governmental  purchase  of  the  so-called 
friars'  agricultural  lands  in  the  Philippines,  and  the  sale  of  these 
lands  to  the  tenants  upon  long,  easy  payments.  The  same  policy 
was  recommended  by  the  first  or  Schurman  Commission  after  an 
investigation  by  it,  and  in  the  first  report  of  the  present  Philippine 
Commission  much  time  was  devoted  to  the  political  phases  of  the  rela- 
tions of  the  four  great  religious  orders  to  the  people  and  the  wisdom 
of  buying  the  agricultural  lands  and  selling  them  to  the  tenants  was 
much  commented  on  and  approved.  The  Secretary  of  War  and  the 
President  concurred  in  the  recommendations  of  the  Commission. 
Accordingly  in  May,  1902,  the  writer,  as  civil  governor  of  the  Philip- 
pine Islands,  was  directed  by  the  Secretary  of  War  to  visit  Rome  and 
to  confer  with  the  Pope  or  such  agents  as  he  might  designate  in 
respect  to  the  question  of  buying  the  friars'  agricultural  lands  and 
other  questions  of  a  similar  character  which  were  pending  between 
the  Roman  Catholic  Church  and  the  Government.  The  negotiations 
which  were  had  on  this  subject  in  Rome  were  set  forth  in  the  corre 
spondence  published  by  the  Secretary  of  War  in  his  report  to  Con- 
gress for  last  year.  In  a  word,  the  Pope  approved  the  purchase  of 
the  agricultural  lands  of  the  three  great  religious  orders  that  owned 
agricultural  lands  in  the  islands  and  appointed  an  apostolic  delegate 
with  as  full  powers  as  he  could  be  invested  with  to  bring  about  this 
result. 

The  apostolic  delegate,  Monsignor  Jean  Baptiste  Guidi,  arch- 
bishop of  Staurpoli,  reached  the  islands  in  the  fall  of  1902,  and 
negotiations  were  at  once  begun.  In  one  of  the  letters  written  by 
Cardinal  Rampolla,  contained  in  the  correspondence  already  referred 
to,  he  stated  on  behalf  of  the  Holy  See  that  the  resources  of  the 
religious  orders  would  be  taken  into  charge  by  the  supreme  authori- 
ties for  the  benefit  of  the  church  in  the  Philippines,  and  it  at  first 
seemed  that  the  religious  orders,  with  little  prospect  of  reaping  much 
pecuniary  benefit  from  the  sale  of  the  lands  under  this  arrangement, 
were  not  anxious  to  further  the  proposed  purchase.  Probably  this 
inference  did  an  injustice  to  the  religious  orders  in  view  of  the  event. 
It  turned  out  upon  examination  that  the  agricultural  lands  which  had 
originally  belonged  to  the  three  religious  orders  of  the  Philippines, 


BEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  39 

to  wit,  the  Dominicans,  the  Augustinians,  and  the  Recoletos,  aggre- 
gated 420,000  acres.  The  Commission  in  1901  had  directed  a  survey 
to  be  made  by  a  Filipino  surveyor  or  agrimensor,  skilled  both  in 
surveying  agricultural  land  and  in  estimating  its  value,  by  name  Juan 
Yillegas.  He  surveyed  between  1901  and  1903  all  the  agricultural 
holdings  of  the  three  religious  orders,  except  an  estate  belonging  to 
the  Augustinians  in  the  province  of  Isabela  and  an  estate  belonging  to 
the  Recoletos  in  the  province  of  Mindoro.  He  classified  the  lands 
and  placed  a  value  upon  the  differing  classes,  giving  data  from  which 
it  was  possible  to  estimate  the  total  value  of  the  lands,  except  the  two 
estates  in  Isabela  and  Mindoro,  respectively,  already  mentioned,  the 
value  of  which  was  determined  by  the  agents  of  the  Commission 
from  other  sources.  The  event  proved  that  the  Dominicans  had  con- 
veyed their  holdings,  amounting  to  60,461  hectares,  to  one  Andrews, 
an  Englishman  living  in  Manila,  under  a  promoter's  contract;  that 
Andrews  organized  a  company,  under  the  supposed  existing  laws  of 
the  Philippines,  known  as  the  "Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Developing 
Company  (Limited),"  to  which  he  conveyed  all  the  Dominican  lands, 
with  the  exception  of  a  small  estate  known  as  San  Juan  Del  Monte, 
containing  156  hectares,  which  was  held  under  such  trust  restrictions 
as  to  prevent  its  sale.  Investigation  showed  that  the  Augustinian 
order  as  far  back  as  1893  or  1894  had  conveyed  to  a  Spanish  corpo- 
ration, known  as  the  "Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar,"  all  of  its  agri- 
cultural holdings.  It  further  appeared  that  the  Recoletos  had  con- 
veyed the  estate  of  Imus,  or  rather  the  estates  of  San  Juan  and  San 
Nicolas,  known  as  the  "Imus  estate,"  containing  18,419  hectares,  to  a 
company  organized  under  the  laws  of  Hongkong  or  Great  Britain. 
The  Mindoro  estate  remained  in  title  and  possession  with  the  Recoleto 
order  of  the  Philippines.  It  became  necessary  therefore  to  deal  with 
the  representatives  of  the  title  holders  to  the  lands.  The  Domin- 
ican lands,  the  title  to  which  was  in  the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates 
Development  Company  (Limited),  were  represented  by  Senor  Don 
Francisco  Gutierrez,  a  stockholder  and  managing  director  of  the  com- 
pany. The  Augustinian  lands  owned  by  the  Sociedad  Agricola  de 
Ultramar  were  represented  by  the  attorney  in  fact  of  the  compan}^,  an 
Augustinian  friar,  Padre  Juan  M.  Yanez.  The  Imus  estate,  conveyed 
to  the  British  Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  was  represented 
by  a  }7oung  Englishman  named  Marcus  McGregor.  The  Mindoro 
estate  of  the  Recoletos  was  represented  by  the  procurator  of  the 
Recoleto  order  in  the  Philippines. 

In  order  to  determine  the  value  of  the  estates,  the  representatives 
of  the  various  companies  and  other  interests  were  invited  to  attend  a 
hearing,  when  various  witnesses  were  called  to  testify.  The  apostolic 
delegate  was  also  present.  A  stenographic  report  of  these  hearings 
is  hereto  attached  and  marked  "  Exhibit  F." 


40  REPORT    OF    THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

In  addition  to  the  hearings  written  statements  were  made  by  experts 
for  each  interest  and  were  filed  with  the  apostolic  delegate  and  with 
me.  The  representatives  of  the  various  interests  were  not  disposed  at 
first  to  welcome  the  presence  in  the  conference  of  the  apostolic  dele- 
gate. It  was  vigorously  denied  that  the  friars  retained  any  titular 
interest  in  the  lands  which  were  the  subject  of  the  negotiation,  and  the 
right  of  the  apostolic  delegate  to  intervene  was  therefore  questioned. 
From  the  best  information  that  I  could  obtain  it  was  true  that  the 
religious  orders  had  parted  with  their  legal  title  to  the  shares  in  the 
new  companies,  except  the  Recoletos  in  Mindoro,  and  that  it  was  very 
difficult  to  find  out  just  what  their  interest  in  the  property  continued 
to  be.  That  they  had  an  interest,  and  a  most  substantial  one,  went 
without  saying,  but,  for  reasons  it  is  unnecessary  to  comment  on,  these 
interests  had  been  made  as  ambiguous  and  doubtful  as  possible.  In 
accordance  with  the  agreement  reached  in  Rome,  I  sent  to  the  apostolic 
delegate  a  request  for  a  statement  of  the  exact  interests  retained  by 
the  religious  orders  in  the  Philippines  in  the  lands  which  were  the 
subject  of  negotiation.  No  formal  answer  to  this  letter  was  ever 
received,  but  informally  it  was  stated  to  me  by  the  delegate  that  the 
authorities  in  the  Philippines  had  informed  him  that  they  had  so  dis- 
posed of  their  interests  that  they  were  unable  to  make  a  statement  of 
what  their  interests  were,  if  any.  The  value  of  the  lands,  as  estimated 
according  to  the  statements  of  the  agents  of  the  companies,  aggregated 
a  sum  between  thirteen  and  fourteen  millions  of  dollars  gold.  The 
estimate  of  Villegas,  the  surveyor  employed  by  the  Commission, 
showed  the  valuation  of  the  lands  to  be  $6,043,000  gold,  if  his  value 
in  Mexican  should  be  reduced  to  gold  at  the  rate  of  two  to  one,  which 
was  the  gold  rate  about  the  time  of  his  survey  and  classification, 
though  the  Mexican  dollar  fell  considerably  after  that.  Considering 
the  bad  conditions  which  prevailed  in  agriculture,  the  loss  of  cattle, 
the  dispute  concerning  title,  and  the  agrarian  question  that  must  always 
remain  in  the  management  of  these  estates  and  embarrass  the  owner, 
I  considered — and  I  believe  the  Commission  generally  agreed  with 
me — that  $6,043,000  gold  was  a  full  price  for  the  lands.  The  sum, 
however,  was  scouted  by  the  persons  representing  the  owners,  and  there 
appeared  to  be  very  little  prospect  of  reaching  an  agreement.  With 
the  knowledge  and  approval  of  the  Commission  and  of  the  Secretary 
of  War  and  the  President  subsequently  had,  I  sent  a  letter  to  the 
apostolic  delegate  and  forwarded  a  copy  to  each  representative  of  the 
respective  estates,  as  follows: 

Office  of  the  Civil  Governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 

Manila,  P.  J.,  July  5,  190S. 

Your  Excellency f  After  a  very  full  consideration  of  the  subject,  and  with  the 

concurrence  of  the  Commission,  I  beg  to  make  an  offer  on  behalf  of  the  Philippine 

Government  for  the  so-called  Friars'  lands,  which  include,  first,  certain  haciendas 

at  one  time  owned  by  the  Dominican  order  of  these  islands  and  now  owned  by  the 


REPORT    OF    THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  41 

Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  represented  by  Mr.  Gutierrez; 
second,  certain  haciendas  at  one  time  owned  by  the  Augustinian  order  and  now 
owned  by  the  Compania  Agricola  de  Ultramar,  represented  by  the  Augustinian 
friar,  Padre  Juan;  and  third,  the  haciendas  of  San  Juan  and  San  Nicolas,  generally 
known  as  the  Imus  estates,  at  one  time  owned  by  the  Recoleto  order,  and  now 
owned  by  ar  English  corporation,  the  British  Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited), 
represented  by  Mr.  McGregor,  and  also  an  estate  in  Mindoro  of  60,000  acres, 
still  owned,  as  I  am  informed,  by  the  "Recoleto  order.  The  offer  I  am  about 
to  make  is,  of  course,  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  but  if 
accepted,  it  will  doubtless  receive  his  approval. 

The  members  of  the  Commission  believe  that  the  evidence  of  Juan  Villegas  as  to 
the  value  of  these  lands  at  present  is  just.  At  the  conferences  between  your  excel- 
lency, the  representatives  of  the  three  corporations  now  holding  title,  and  myself, 
there  was  some  discussion  as  to  whether  the  fall  in  the  price  of  silver  and  the  varia- 
tion in  the  silver  standard  in  the  gold  values  ought  not  to  play  a  large  part  in 
weighing  Sefior  Villegas' s  evidence.  My  own  strong  conviction  is  that  Senor  Ville- 
gas's  evidence  is  not  in  the  slightest  degree  affected  by  the  variation  in  the  price  of 
silver,  for  the  reason  that  the  persons  who  own  lands  and  who  buy  and  sell  them  in 
the  provinces  where  the  lands  in  question  are  situated  know  no  other  standard  for 
the  estimation  of  the  value  of  lands  than  that  of  Mexican  silver.  It  may  be  that 
indirectly  the  fall  in  the  price  of  silver  will  ultimately  affect  the  value  of  these  lands 
in  silver,  and  it  is  possible  that  some  slight  increase  has  already  taken  place  in  the 
value  of  the  lands  estimated  in  silver.  But  it  seems  clear  from  the  evidence  that 
the  increase  is  not  at  all  commensurate  with  the  fall  in  silver.  Nevertheless,  for  the 
purpose  of  reaching  an  agreement,  we  are  willing  to  waive  any  such  discussion  by 
treating  the  value  placed  by  Senor  Villegas  on  the  lands  in  Mexican  as  a  value  to  be 
reduced  to  gold  at  the  ratio  of  two  to  one.  This  ratio  in  fact  did  prevail  when  Senor 
Villegas  began  his  surveys  in  November,  1901,  but  very  soon  changed.  This  is  a 
concession  which  amounts  to  an  increase  in  the  valuation  of  the  land  over  what  it 
would  be  at  the  present  rate  of  Mexican  of  a  little  less  than  20  per  cent. 

I  inclose  herewith  as  Exhibit  G  detailed  and  summarized  statements  of  the  various 
valuations  of  Senor  Villegas,  who  has  examined  and  placed  a  value  upon  all  the 
estates  involved  in  this  matter,  except  an  estate  of  the  Augustinians  in  Isabela  of 
some  60,000  acres,  which  is  almost  wholly  unimproved,  and  an  estate  of  the  Reco- 
letos  in  Mindoro  of  about  the  same  extent.  I  asked  Mr.  Webber,  the  manager  of 
the  General  Tobacco  Company,  who  knows  the  Isabela  estate  well,  what  value  he 
placed  upon  it.  He  said  that  at  one  time  he  had  offered  one  hundred  thousand  gold 
for  it,  but  that  the  offer  was  declined.  I  asked  him  if  he  would  give  one  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  or  two  hundred  thousand  for  it  in  gold,  and  he  said  that  he 
would  give  $200,000  for  it  in  gold  if  he  could  obtain  free  admission  of  Chinese  labor- 
ers into  the  islands.  I  said  to  him  that  that  was  impossible,  and  then  he  said  that 
he  would  not  give  $150,000  for  the  land.  The  value  of  this  land  is  in  the  statement 
assessed  at  $300,000  Mexican,  which  is  a  full  price.  The  Mindoro  estate  is  fixed  at 
$600,000  Mexican,  because  of  definite  information  that  this  estate,  together  with  the 
cattle  on  it,  was  offered  as  late  as  last  fall  to  certain  gentlemen  in  the  city  of  Manila 
for  $700,000  Mexican,  and  that  the  offer  was  declined.  At  that  time  the  gold  Mexican 
ratio  was  between  two-forty  and  two-fifty.  The  other  valuations  in  the  inclosed 
statement  are  taken  from  Senor  Villegas' s  evidence.  The  total  valuations  in  Mexican 
are  as  follows: 

The  Dominican  lands $5, 473,  799. 13 

The  Augustinian  lands 4,  407,  335.  65 

The  Recoleto  lands 2,  205,  303.  33 

Making  a  total  in  Mexican  currency  of 12,  086, 438. 11 


42  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

The  civil  government  proposes  to  pay  for  a  good  title  to  these  lands,  free  and  unin- 
cumbered, the  prices  above  named  reduced  to  gold  at  the  ratio  of  two  to  one,  as 
follows: 

For  the  Dominican  lands $2,736,899.57 

For  the  Augustinian  lands 2,203,667.83 

For  the  Recoleto  lands 1, 102,  651. 67 

Making  a  total  in  gold  of 6,  043,  219.  07 

I  have  sent  a  copy  of  this  letter  of  the  representatives  who  were  present  at  our 
conferences,  Senor  Gutierrez  for  the  Dominican  lands,  Padre  Juan  for  the  Augustin- 
ian lands,  and  Mr.  McGregor  for  the  Imus  estate.  I  have  not  seen  any  representative 
of  the  Mindoro  estate,  and  so  assume  that  your  excellency  either  represents  the  Order 
of  the  Eecoletos  or  will  forward  a  copy,  if  you  deem  it  wise,  to  the  proper  person. 

I  have  so  often  said  to  your  excellency  and  to  the  representatives  of  these  estates 
that  the  motive  of  the  Government  in  taking  this  land  is  purely  political,  and  not 
for  the  purpose  of  profit,  that  perhaps  it  is  unnecessary  to  repeat  it.  Still,  as  this  is 
a  formal  offer,  it  may  not  be  improper  to  state  again  that  the  civil  government  in 
making  the  purchase  at  the  prices  herein  named,  if  they  shall  be  accepted,  has  not 
the  slightest  idea  that  it  will  make  any  profit  in  disposing  of  the  lands,  in  accordance 
with  the  act  of  Congress,  to  the  tenants  who  now  occupy  it.  On  the  contrary,  the 
members  of  the  Commission  are  confident  that  it  will  result  in  a  pecuniary  loss  to 
the  civil  government.  It  is  hoped  that  if  the  Government  takes  charge  of  the  land, 
it  will  be  better  able  to  secure  peaceable  possession  of  the  land  and  an  attornment  of 
the  tenants  than  would  private  corporations,  especially  those  in  which  the  Spanish 
friars  are  supposed  to  have  a  large  interest.  What  the  Government  proposes  is  to 
buy  a  lawsuit,  and  something  more  than  a  lawsuit,  an  agrarian  dispute.  If  peaceable 
transfer  of  the  title  to  these  lands  from  the  corporations  now  claiming  ownership  in 
them  to  the  tenants  in  possession  could  be  accomplished  without  the  intervention 
of  the  civil  government,  the  civil  government  would  be  most  anxious  to  avoid  any 
intervention  in  the  matter  at  all.  Indeed  it  would  be  to  its  interest  to  contribute  by  a 
substantial  sum  to  this  peaceable  result.  While  we  hope  that  ownership  by  the  Gov- 
ernment may  accomplish  good,  the  hope  is  largely  based  on  conjecture.  Certainly 
the  purchase  of  these  lands  will  mean  the  assumption  of  another  very  heavy  burden 
by  the  Government  in  addition  to  those  which  it  is  now  attempting  to  carry.  We  are 
convinced  that  it  would  be  greatly  to  the  advantage  of  the  present  owners  of  the 
land  to  accept  the  offer.  It  involves  the  expenditure  of  $6,000,000  gold,  a  sum  which 
must  be  secured  by  issuing  bonds  to  that  amount  under  the  act  of  Congress.  The 
members  of  the  Commission  are  unanimously  of  opinion  that  the  disadvantage  of  any 
substantial  increase  of  such  a  financial  burden  would  outweigh  any  advantage  which 
might  accrue  from  the  Government  ownership  of  the  lands. 

In  making  this  offer  I  beg  to  call  your  excellency's  attention  to  the  fact  that  the 
Secretary  of  War,  in  a  telegraphic  dispatch,  a  copy  of  which  I  transmitted  to  his 
eminence,  Cardinal  Rampolla,  in  my  letter  of  July  15, 1902,  requested  that  a  detailed 
statement  of  the  interests  retained  by  the  monastic  orders  in  the  corporate  stock  of 
the  companies  now  claiming  to  own  the  lands  be  furnished  to  me  by  the  Apostolic 
Delegate,  who  was  to  be  sent  to  the  Philippine  Islands,  in  order  that  the  statement 
might  be  made  the  basis  for  the  proposed  negotiation.  The  request  of  the  Secretary 
was  acquiesced  in  by  Cardinal  Rampolla.  In  February,  1903,  I  invited  your  excel- 
lency's attention  to  this  matter  and  requested  that  the  details  requested  be  furnished. 
I  have  as  yet  received  no  formal  reply.  Without  waiting  for  it,  however,  I  have 
ventured  to  make  this  offer  with  the  hope  that  if  it  is  accepted  further  investigation 
and  discussion  may  be  avoided. 

With  the  hope  that  your  excellency  will  find  it  consistent  with  your  views  of  the 


EEPOKT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  43 

situation  to  advise  the  representatives  of  the  owners  of  these  lands  to  accept  this 
offer,  I  beg  to  subscribe  myself,  with  great  respect, 
Your  excellency's  most  obedient  servant, 

Wm.  H.  Taft,  Civil  Governor. 
Monsignor  Jean  Baptiste  Guidi, 

Archbishop  of  Staurpoli  and  Apostolic  Delegate 

to  the  Philippine  Islands,  Manila. 

I  received  a  negative  answer  from  all  of  the  representatives.  Not 
discouraged,  however,  by  circumstances  that  seemed  most  discourag- 
ing, the  apostolic  delegate  bent  his  energies  to  bringing  the  parties  to 
a  settlement.  After  some  negotiation  the  delegate  first  stated  that  he 
thought  he  could  arrange  a  sale  for  $10,500,000  gold.  I  told  him 
there  was  no  hope  of  bringing  about  a  purchase  at  that  figure.  Some 
months  later  I  was  advised  by  Mr.  McGregor  that  if  an  offer  was 
made  for  $8,500,000  he  thought  he  could  compass  the  sale.  This  was 
definitely  declined.  I  then  advised  the  apostolic  delegate  and  those 
interested  that  1  would  recommend  to  the  Commission  and  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  an  increase  in  the  price  offered,  for  the  sake  of  peace, 
of  $1,500,000,  but  no  more.  Then  followed  a  long  and  protracted 
discussion  between  the  parties  who  were  to  be  the  venders  as  to  how 
this  sum  should  be  divided,  and  there  was  much  difficulty  in  arriving 
at  a  solution — so  great  a  difficulty,  indeed,  that  I  was  informed  that 
unless  $7,770,000  was  paid  there  was  no  hope  of  reaching  an  agree- 
ment. With  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  War  and  the  Commis- 
sion, I  replied  that  $7,543,000  was  our  ultimatum  and  that  we  would 
not  give  more  than  that,  and  this  was  ultimately  the  basis  upon  which 
the  price  was  fixed.  It  turned  out,  upon  further  investigation,  that  the 
Augustinian  Company  and  the  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  had 
contracted  to  sell  the  Mandaloya  estate,  which  lay  in  the  province  of 
Rizal  and  extended  from  the  city  of  Manila  to  the  town  of  Pasig  along 
the  Pasig  River,  at  a  certain  price,  and  that  a  strip  150  meters  wide  by 
6  kilometers  running  along  the  river  had  been  contracted  to  be  sold  to 
the  railroad  company  for  mercantile  purposes.  The  Mandaloya  estate 
is  a  poor  estate,  from  an  agricultural  standpoint,  and  its  use  for  mer- 
cantile purposes  we  were  entirely  willing  to  acquiesce  in,  because  it 
would  not  present  the  difficulties  concerning  agricultural  tenancy  as 
the  remainder  of  the  land.  The  estate  contains  about  10,000  acres. 
By  omitting  this  from  the  land  sold  and  deducting  the  price  fixed  by 
Villegas,  with  25  per  cent  added  thereto,  and  making  certain  other 
reductions  for  parcels  sold  bona  fide  by  the  owners,  and  leaving  to  the 
Sugar  Estates  Development  Company  a  tract  of  sugar  land  of  2,500 
acres  on  the  hillside  of  the  Calamba  estate,  we  finally  closed  the  pur- 
chase of  upward  of  410,000  acres,  at  a  price  of  $7,239,000  gold.  Copies 
of  the  contracts  of  sale  are  hereby  appended  and  marked  Exhibit  H. 

It  is  thought  that  the  result  of  these  negotiations  and  the  purchase 
of  the  lands  form  a  most  important  step  in  the  rehabilitation  of  the 


44  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

people  of  the  islands  and  the  readjustment  of  their  relations  to  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church,  which  can  not  but  be  of  material  benefit  in  a 
political  way  to  the  insular  and  provincial  governments.  The  disposi- 
tion of  the  lands  to  the  tenants  on  contracts  of  sale  with  easy  payments 
for  a  number  of  years  entails  a  work  of  tremendous  labor  upon  the 
insular  government  and  will  necessitate  the  organization  of  a  separate 
bureau  for  that  purpose.  We  can  not  prophesy  that  the  adjustment 
will  rid  us  entirely  of  the  agrarian  questions.  There  will  be  doubtless 
litigation  and  local  centers  of  disturbance  growing  out  of  government 
landlordism;  but  the  elimination  of  the  friars  from  the  question  can 
not  but  tend  greatly  to  facilitate  satisfactory  adjustments.  During 
the  last  six  months  I  have  been  in  receipt  of  petitions  from  tenants 
in  the  provinces  of  Cavite  and  Laguna,  where  the  agrarian  question 
has  been  most  bitter,  urging  the  purchase  of  the  lands,  with  a  state- 
ment that  the  tenants  fully  understood  that  the  lands  are  to  be  sold 
to  them  and  that  they  are  to  pay  for  the  same.  The  visit  to  Rome 
was  watched  with  intense  interest  by  the  people  of  the  islands,  and 
had  it  not  resulted  in  a  purchase  of  the  lands,  my  judgment  is  that 
great  disappointment  would  have  been  felt.  As  will  be  seen  by  a 
statement  which  follows,  the  number  of  friars  in  the  islands  is  rapidly 
diminishing  from  year  to  year,  and  with  the  adjustment  of  the  land 
question  and  the  division  of  the  proceeds  between  the  orders  and  the 
church  and  the  use  of  the  part  belonging  to  the  Roman  Church  for  the 
improvement  of  the  Philippine  church,  we  may  reasonably  hope  that 
in  a  decade  the  agrarian  and  political  question  of  the  friars  in  the 
Philippines  will  have  been  completely  removed  from  among  the  obsta- 
cles to  good  government  with  which  the  Americans,  in  coming  to  the 
islands  and  assuming  control  thereof,  were  confronted. 

Arrangements  are  being  made  for  the  floating  of  the  bonds  neces- 
sary to  raise  the  money  to  pay  for  the  lands.  It  is  understood  that 
the  bonds  may  be  floated  at  4  per  cent  and  that  they  will  take  the  form 
of  bonds  payable  after  ten  and  before  thirty  years  at  the  option  of  the 
Government.  This  will  entail  an  interest  charge  upon  the  revenues 
of  the  Government  of  $290,000  a  year  in  addition  to  the  expense  of 
administration,  which  will  be  considerable.  It  is  not  thought  that  the 
income  from  the  islands  for  several  years  will  be  enough  to  meet  the 
actual  outgo,  but  with  a  restoration  of  normal  conditions — speaking 
for  myself  alone — I  hope  that  the  lands  will  sell  for  as  much  as  we 
have  paid  for  them.  Other  members  of  the  Commission  do  not  think 
so.  It  is  to  be  noted,  however,  that  the  insular  government  has  not 
entered  upon  the  purchase  of  these  lands  with  a  view  to  a  profitable 
investment,  but  that  it  is  knowingly  paying  a  considerable  sum  of 
money  merely  for  the  purpose  of  ridding  the  administration  of  the 
government  in  the  islands  of  an  issue  dangerous  to  the  peace  and 
prosperity  of  the  people  of  the  islands. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  45 

Following  the  policy  which  it  was  announced  by  the  Vatican  would 
be  pursued,  the  bishops  who  were  Spanish  friars  in  all  the  dioceses  of 
the  islands  have  been  allowed  to  resign  and  their  places  have  been  filled 
by  American  Catholic  bishops.  I  can  not  state  with  too  much  emphasis 
the  satisfaction  I  feel  in  this  change.  It  means,  in  my  judgment,  the 
beginning  of  a  new  era  in  the  islands.  It  is  to  be  expected  that  a  large 
part  of  the  people  of  the  islands  will  continue  to  be  communicants  of 
the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and  it  can  not  but  have  a  liberalizing 
effect  upon  them  that  their  bishops  shall  be  Americans  with  the  Ameri- 
can ideas  of  a  separation  of  church  and  state,  and  with  the  American 
respect  for  individual  rights  and  individual  liberties.  The  powerful 
influence  of  a  Roman  Catholic  bishop  in  his  diocese,  exercised  over  the 
priests  of  his  diocese,  can  not  but  be  productive  of  good  and  full  of 
cooperation  in  our  purpose  to  educate  these  people.  A  comparatively 
small  number  of  Spanish  friars  remains  in  the  islands,  and  it  is  to  be 
expected  that  the  American  bishops  shall  use  them  for  the  benefit  of 
the  Church,  though  it  is  hoped  that  there  will  be  no  departure  from 
the  policy  of  the  Church  announced  by  Cardinal  Rampolla  in  his  letter 
to  me,  in  which  he  said  that  it  was  not  the  intention  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  authorities  to  send  back  the  Spanish  friars  to  any  parishes  in 
which  the  majority  of  the  people  were  opposed  to  their  coming. 

I  am  officially  informed  by  the  apostolic  delegate  that  in  1898  the 
number  of  friars  in  the  islands  was  as  follows: 

Dominicans ........  233 

Recoletos ..' 327 

Augustinians 346 

Franciscans 107 

Total . 1,013 

That,  by  December  1,  1902,  they  had  been  reduced  as  follows: 

Dominicans 127 

Recoletos ..-..-—,..--  76 

Augustinians Ill 

Franciscans 66 

Total 380 

And  that,  by  December  1, 1903,  they  have  been  still  further  reduced, 
so  that  the  number  in  the  islands  is  as  follows: 

Dominicans 83 

Recoletos 53 

Augustinians 67 

Franciscans .43 

Total L:      246 


46  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

That  many  of  the  monks  are  old  and  infirm,  incapable  of  doing 
parish  or  any  other  work,  and  that  the  Dominicans  have  renounced 
before  the  Holy  See  all  their  former  parishes  and  dedicate  themselves 
exclusively  to  teaching. 

Whatever  may  happen  during  the  first  few  months  of  the  coming  of 
the  American  bishops,  it  is  certain  that  the  spirit  of  the  American 
Catholic  Church  is  so  different  from  that  of  the  Spanish  church  from 
a  political  standpoint,  that  the  influence  of  the  Spanish  friars  will 
gradually  wane  and  that  of  the  American  bishops  become  controlling. 
The  purchase  of  the  friars'  land,  the  division  of  the  proceeds,  the 
application  of  a  large  part  thereof  for  the  benefit  of  the  Philippine 
church,  the  establishment  of  the  American  hierarchy  here,  and  the 
gradual  withdrawal  of  the  Spanish  friars,  all  will  bring  about  what 
we  so  much  desire — the  Americanizing  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church  in  the  Philippines.  The  attitude  of  the  Government  has 
been  very  much  criticised  by  some  American  Catholic  priests  and 
bishops,  and  it  has  been  charged  that  we  have  withheld  from 
Spanish  friars  the  protection  assured  to  them  by  the  treaty  of 
Paris,  and  that  we  have  been  neglectful  in  not  protecting  the 
interests  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  when  they  were  unjustly  or 
unlawfully  attacked  by  schismatics  under  Aglipay.  These  charges 
are  wholly  unfounded,  as  may  be  seen  by  an  examination  of  the  records 
taken  from  the  executive  files  showing  the  executive  decision  and 
action  with  respect  to  religious  matters,  which  is  hereby  appended  as 
a  part  of  this  report  and  marked  ' '  Exhibit  I. "  We  have  known  that  the 
great  majority  of  the  people  of  these  islands  were  strongly  opposed  to 
the  return  of  the  Spanish  friars  to  their  parishes,  and  we  have  felt 
certain  that  if  such  a  policy  were  adopted  and  the  friars  were  sent 
back  there  would  necessarily  follow  disturbances  of  the  peace  and 
discontent  among  the  people;  that  the  people  would  not  be  able  to 
distinguish  between  a  government  which  protected  friars  going  back 
of  their  own  volition  and  a  government  which  sent  the  friars  back  and 
maintained  them  in  their  pastorates.  Therefore  the  Government  has 
deprecated  and  still  deprecates  the  return  of  the  friars  to  their 
parishes,  and  has  made  representations  to  the  church  authorities  in 
these  islands  and  to  the  Vatican,  urging  that  the  Spanish  friars  be  not 
sent  back,  but  when  a  friar  has  been  sent  back,  the  Government  has 
never  refused  to  protect  him  in  his  rights  and  to  punish  those  who 
have  violated  his  rights.  There  is  the  utmost  religious  freedom 
enjoyed  in  these  islands,  and  no  one,  whether  Roman  Catholic,  Filipino 
Catholic,  or  Protestant,  is  disturbed  in  worshipping  God  as  he  chooses. 
The  instances  in  which  one  sect  has  interfered  with  another  are  com- 
paratively few,  but  in  every  case  the  Government  has  sought  to  punish 
the  offender  and  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  the  trouble. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  47 

BUSINESS   CONDITIONS. 

Business  conditions  in  Manila,  if  the  general  report  from  American 
merchants  can  be  trusted,  have  not  been  good  during  the  year.  The 
change  in  the  currency  from  a  silver  to  a  gold  standard  has  been  in 
progress.  The  demand  for  Mexican  silver  in  this  business,  up  to  the 
time  of  writing  this  report,  in  other  places  has  been  sufficiently  great 
to  drain  the  islands  of  Mexican  silver,  though  there  are  indications, 
as  this  is  written,  that  it  may  become  profitable  to  import  Mexican 
silver  again.  Of  course  the  great  difficulty  in  getting  into  circulation 
the  new  coinage  grows  out  of  the  fact  that  Mexican  silver  is  worth 
less  than  the  Philippine  peso,  as  established  by  act  of  Congress,  by 
about  10  per  cent,  and  everyone,  business  men  or  not,  in  paying  his 
debts  and  making  his  purchases,  naturally  prefers  to  use  the  poorer 
currency  when  it  will  go  as  far  as  the  more  valuable,  because  of  the 
ignorance  of  the  people  as  to  the  real  difference  in  value.  The  steps 
taken  to  maintain  the  parity,  the  laws  passed,  and  the  accumulation  of 
a  reserve  fund,  I  shall  not  dwell  upon  because  they  will  all  be  contained 
in  the  report  of  the  secretary  of  finance  and  justice.  It  is  only  neces- 
sary to  remark  here  that  the  advantages  of  the  new  coinage  will  not  be 
apparent  until  some  time  in  the  future;  not  until  January  1,  1904,  can 
the  Mexican  coin  be  demonetized  and  denied  a  legal-tender  value. 
The  policy  of  the  government  is  to  purchase  the  Spanish-Filipino 
coins,  of  which  there  are  some  ten  or  twelve  millions  of  dollars  in  the 
islands,  and  recoin  them  into  Filipino  pesos. 

Notwithstanding  the  statement  that  business  conditions  in  the  islands 
have  been  exceedingly  unfavorable,  and  in  spite  of  the  very  depressing 
agricultural  condition,  so  far  as  rice,  corn,  and  other  food  products  are 
concerned,  the  statistics  as  to  exports  and  imports  into  the  islands 
show  a  considerable  improvement  for  the  better  over  last  year  and  a 
substantial  increase  in  the  production  and  exportation  of  hemp  and 
copra.  In  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1902,  the  total  imports  were 
$41,072,738,  but  of  this  18,652,648  was  silver  coin.  The  total  exports 
for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1902,  were  $27,157,087,  of  which 
exports  the  silver  coin  amounted  to  $2,423,200.  Excluding  silver  coin 
and  gold  to  the  value  of  $278,248  the  total  merchandise  imported  for  the 
fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1902,  amounted  to  $32,141,842,  whereas  the 
total  merchandise  exported,  aside  from  silver  coin,  already  mentioned, 
and  gold  valued  at  $806,208,  amounted  to  $23,927,679.  In  other  words, 
the  balance  of  trade  against  the  islands  last  year  was  $8,214,163.  For 
the  year  ending  June  30, 1903,  the  total  imports  were  $35,099,241,  the 
silver  coin  in  which  amounted  to  $2,077,137,  and  gold  valued  at  $50,222. 
The  total  imported  merchandise,  therefore,  for  the  year  ending  June 
30, 1903,  was  $32,971,882,  or  a  gain  in  the  entire  year  of  $830,040.  The 
total  exports  for  the  year  ending  June  30, 1903,  amounted  to  $39,668,366, 


48 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


of  which  $6,366,106  was  silver  and  $180,480  gold,  leaving  a  balance  of 
merchandise  exported  of  $33,121,780,  which  makes  a  balance  of  trade 
in  favor  of  the  islands  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1903,  of  $149,898. 
It  will  be  seen  that  there  is  an  increase  in  the  exports  for  the  year 
ending  June  30,  1903,  over  those  of  1902,  of  $9,194,101.  The  total 
foreign  business  of  the  islands,  excluding  coin,  for  the  year  ending 
June  30,  1902,  was  $56,069,521,  while  the  total  foreign  trade  for  the 
year  ending  July  30,  1903,  was  $66,093,662,  or  a  gain  of  $10,024,141. 
It  should  be  borne  in  mind  in  respect  to  all  these  statements  that 
they  do  not  include  any  importations  for  the  Army  of  the  United  States 
which  pay  no  duty  and  are  not  included  in  the  statistics.  The  com- 
parative amounts  of  the  various  commodities  exported  during  the  two 
years  are  shown  by  the  following  table: 


Article  of  export. 


Hemp 

Copra 

Sugar . 

Tobacco,  cigars,  and  cigarettes 
Miscellaneous 

Total 


1902. 


$15, 841,  316 
1,001,656 
2,761,432 
2,501,367 
1,821,908 


23, 927, 679 


1903. 


$21,701,575 
4,473,029 
3,955,568 
1,882,012 
1,109,596 


33,121,780 


The  decrease  in  tobacco  was  due  to  increase  of  duties  on  tobacco  in 
Australia,  Java,  and  Japan.  The  business  of  the  United  States  exports 
and  imports  is  also  shown  by  the  following  table,  excluding  always 
the  United  States  Government  importations: 


Imports  from  United  States,  excluding  United  States  Government  imports. 
Exports  to  United  States 


Total  business,  exclusive  of  United  States  Government  imports. 
Increase  total  business 


1902. 


$4, 035, 243 
7,  691,  743 


11, 726, 986 


1903. 


$3,944,098 
13,  863,  059 


17,807,157 
6,080,171 


The  imports  of  rice  show  the  depressed  condition  of  the  rice  culture 
in  the  islands.  For  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1900,  the  amount 
of  rice  imported  was  $3,113,423;  for  the  next  fiscal  year,  1901,  it  was 
$5,490,958;  for  the  fiscal  year  of  1902,  $6,578,481,  and  for  the  fiscal 
year  of  1903,  it  was  $10,061,323.  It  is  hoped  that  this  abnormal 
importation  of  rice  will  be  unnecessary  next  year,  and  that  the  balance 
of  trade  in  favor  of  the  islands  will  increase. 

Some  reason  for  the  complaints  in  respect  to  business  conditions  in 
the  islands  which  come  from  the  American  merchants,  may  be  found 
in  certain  especial  circumstances  with  respect  to  the  American  trade 
in  the  islands  that  are  not  a  legitimate  cause  for  complaint.  When 
the  Americans  first  entered  the  islands,  enterprising  business  men  fol- 
lowed the  army  and  established  what  were  called  trading  companies, 
which  naturally  catered  to  the  demand  caused  by  the  presence  of  the 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  49 

army  and  the  Americans  that  followed  in  its  wake.  The  army  was 
rapidly  increased,  until  during  the  }^ear  1900  there  were  in  the  Archi- 
pelago upward  of  70,000  troops  distributed  through  the  islands  in  600 
posts.  This  presented  an  opportunity  for  the  sale  of  liquors  and 
other  goods  likely  to  be  purchased  by  soldiers,  which  continued  for 
two  3^ears  or  more.  The  army  has  now  been  reduced  from  70,000 
men  to  a  little  more  than  15,000  Americans,  and  the  number  of  posts 
has  been  reduced  from  600  to  a  few  more  than  100.  In  addition  to 
this  the  Commission  has  passed  an  act  forbidding  the  sale  of  liquor 
within  2  miles  of  an  army  reservation,  which  it  is  said  has  much 
interfered  with  the  canteen  trade.  The  enormous  profits  which  were 
reaped  by  the  American  trading  companies  (of  which  there  are  some 
half  a  dozen  in  Manila),  growing  out  of  the  demand  produced  by  the 
presence  of  70,000  soldiers,  fell  off  rapidly  as  the  changes  which.  I 
have  indicated  took  place,  and  to  this,  more  than  any  other  one  cause, 
is  due  the  interference  with  large  returns  upon  much  of  the  American 
capital  invested  in  the  islands.  I  venture  to  say  that  the  opportu- 
nities which  the  American  merchants  have  had  for  making  quick  and 
large  profits  out  of  the  American  soldier  has  had  a  bad  effect  upon 
American  methods  of  doing  business  and  upon  the  attitude  of  most  of 
the  American  merchants  in  these  islands.  It  has  made  them  feel  inde- 
pendent of  the  Filipino  demand  for  American  commodities.  It  has 
lessened  the  necessity  for  effort  on  their  part  to  create  a  demand  among 
the  Filipino  people  for  those  articles  which  the  United  States  can  make 
and  ought  to  sell  in  these  islands.  The  natural  hostility  of  the  Ameri- 
can business  men  growing  out  of  the  war  was  not  neutralized  by  a 
desire  and  an  effort  to  win  the  patronage  and  good  will  of  the  Filipino. 
The  American  business  men  controlled  much  of  the  advertising  in 
the  American  papers,  and  the  newspapers  naturally  reflected  the 
opinions  of  their  advertisers  and  subscribers  in  the  advocacy  of  most 
unconciliatory  measures  to  the  native  Filipinos  and  in  decrying  all 
efforts  of  the  government  to  teach  Filipinos  how  to  govern  by  asso- 
ciating the  more  intelligent  of  them  in  the  government.  One  of  the 
first  principles  of  good  business  success  is  not  to  antagonize  unneces- 
sarily those  whose  patronage  you  seek  and  must  depend  on  for  the 
building  up  of  your  business.  The  number  of  Americans  that  the 
American  merchants  or  any  merchants  in  these  islands  can  count  upon 
for  business  demands  is  never  likely  to  exceed  20,000.  The  number 
of  Filipinos  whose  trade  might  make  a  most  lucrative  business  in  these 
islands  is  7,000,000.  It  would  seem  to  be  the  wiser  policy  on  the  part 
of  the  American  merchant  to  cultivate  the  good  will  of  those  potential 
patrons  rather  than  through  the  press  and  in  society  and  in  all  other 
ways  to  antagonize  them,  to  give  the  impression  of  bitter  hostility  and 
racial  prejudice  toward  them  too  deep  to  be  overcome.  Neither  the 
German  nor  the  English  nor  even  the  Spanish  merchants  have  allowed 
war  1903— vol  5 4 


50  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

themselves  to  be  put  in  this  attitude.  Indeed,  there  are  a  few  Ameri- 
cans who  have  pursued  a  different  policy  with  respect  to  the  Filipinos, 
to  their  profit.  I  venture  to  predict  that  as  the  American  business 
men  of  these  islands  become  more  conservative,  as  more  capital  comes 
in,  the  utter  fatuousness  of  the  present  attitude  of  a  majority  of  the 
American  business  men  of  to-day  of  these  islands  will  become  apparent. 
There  is  an  immense  field  here  for  the  sale  of  American  goods. 

The  Filipinos  are  imitative,  take  quickly  to  new  things,  may  easily 
be  taught,  as  their  wealth  shall  grow,  to  regard  American  products, 
which  are  now  luxuries  to  them,  as  necessities.  The  sale  of  cotton 
goods  is  almost  wholly  with  the  English  houses  to-day.  The  handling 
of  hemp,  which  is  the  largest  export  of  these  islands,  is  almost  wholly 
confined  to  foreign  houses.  There  is  not  the  slightest  reason  why  this 
business  should  not  be  done  largely  by  Americans,  especially  in  view 
of  the  fact  that  the  United  States  is  the  largest  purchaser  of  hemp  in 
the  world.  It  requires  the  investment  of  a  very  considerable  capital, 
the  construction  of  warehouses  in  the  various  hemp  provinces,  and  the 
establishment  of  friendly  relations  with  the  hemp  growers  and  buyers 
in  each  province.  The  American  business  man  in  the  islands  has 
really,  up  to  this  time,  done  very  little  to  make  or  influence  trade. 
He  has  kept  close  to  the  American  patronage  and  has  not  extended 
his  efforts  to  an  expansion  of  trade  among  the  Filipinos.  Until  this 
is  done  and  more  American  capital  is  brought  here  for  the  purpose, 
we  can  not  hope  that  the  imports  from  the  United  States  to  the  islands 
will  be  increased  in  very  large  proportion. 

PROPOSED   OFFICIAL   INSPECTION    AND    CLASSIFICATION    OF    HEMP. 

About  the  beginning  of  this  year  complaints  reached  the  Commission 
that  the  hemp  being  exported  from  the  islands  was  of  very  inferior 
quality  and  that  there  was  fraud  in  its  packing.  The  Secretary  of 
Agriculture  of  the  United  States  recommended  investigation  and 
action,  suggesting  that  if  the  Manila  hemp  continued  to  be  of  such 
poor  quality,  purchasers  and  users  of  fiber  would  be  driven  to  other 
fibers  and  countries.  It  was  recommended  that  the  hemp  exported  be 
officially  inspected  and  classified  and  carry  the  mark  of  the  Govern- 
ment upon  it  to  indicate  its  quality.  A  bill  was  drawn  providing  for 
official  inspection  and  classification,  and  it  was  submitted  to  discussion 
in  a  public  session.  The  public  discussion  satisfied  the  Commission 
that  little  if  any  good  could  be  brought  about  by  such  legislation. 
Everyone  who  came  to  discuss  the  bill  was  opposed  to  it  as  it  was 
drawn.  It  was  insisted  that  the  only  thing  possible  was  to  have  an 
inspection  which  should  prevent  false  packing,  but  that  governmental 
classification  would  be  not  only  impracticable  but  a  serious  obstacle  to 
business.  It  further  developed  that  so  far  as  fraud  was  concerned 
the  purchasers  in  America  were  completely  protected  by  the  ordinary 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  51 

terms  of  purchase  which  enabled  them  to  reject  the  hemp  or  to  recoup 
at  once  from  the  price  for  any  failure  in  quality.  When  the  amended 
bill  was  drawn  providing  only  for  the  inspection  into  the  packing  and 
for  the  punishment  of  false  packing  and  of  fraud  in  baling,  a  repre- 
sentative of  the  American  hemp  purchasers  stated  that  the  bill  would 
do  them  no  good  because  it  was  not  radical  enough.  So  far  as  we 
were  able  to  determine,  the  bill  which  was  desired  by  the  American 
merchants  was  a  bill  which  should  forbid  the  exportation  of  hemp 
of  poor  quality,  and  should  impose  such  restrictions  on  the  method 
of  raising  and  cleaning  hemp  as  to  insure  the  production  of  only 
good  fiber  at  a  reasonable  price.  The  discussion  showed  that  much 
poor  hemp  was  exported  for  use  in  making  paper  and  hats  in  Japan 
and  in  other  countries.  Because  of  the  high  prices  paid  for  poor 
hemp,  the  faulty  cleaning  of  hemp  was  much  more  profitable  than 
the  preparation  of  the  finer  qualities.  Inferior  qualities  of  hemp  are 
produced  by  using  a  serrated  knife  in  stripping  the  fiber.  Men,  women, 
and  children  can  use  a  serrated  knife  for  hemp  cleaning,  whereas  the 
knife  with  the  even  blade  requires  the  strength  of  an  adult  man.  A 
law  forbidding  the  use  of  a  serrated  knife  in  cleaning  hemp,  or  pre- 
venting the  export  of  hemp  thus  cleaned,  would  deprive  many  people 
of  a  means  of  livelihood  in  the  islands  and  would  savor  much  of  pater- 
nalism; nor  is  a  law  of  this  kind  necessaiy  if  purchasers  use  proper 
discretion  in  buying  the  quality  which  they  desire.  The  object  of  the 
persons  asking  legislation,  when  analyzed,  seems  to  be  rather  to  secure 
a  law  which  shall  hold  the  price  of  good  hemp  down.  The  bill  proposed 
has,  therefore,  been  allowed  to  lie  on  the  table,  and  it  is  unlikely  that 
any  further  action  will  be  taken  in  the  matter.  The  high  price  of  hemp 
always  increases  the  production  of  inferior  quality.  This  is  a  natural 
economic  result;  if  the  dealers  do  not  desire  to  pay  high  prices  for  the 
inferior  quality,  their  refusing  to  do  so  will  soon  bring  up  the  quality 
of  hemp.  The  report  of  the  committee  on  the  bill,  consisting  of  Gen- 
eral Wright,  is  hereto  appended,  and  marked  Exhibit  J. 

SUGAR. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  value  of  the  sugar  exports  from  the 
islands  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1903,  was  $3,955,568,  an 
increase  of  $1,191,136  over  the  value  of  the  exports  of  sugar  for  the 
fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1902.  This  increase  was  the  natural  result 
of  a  betterment  of  conditions  as  to  tranquillity,  More  than  that,  the 
planters  of  Negros,  where  the  increase  chiefly  was,  had  used  greater 
efforts  than  the  landowners  of  the  other  parts  of  the  islands  to  import 
carabao  to  take  the  place  of  the  carabao  destroyed  by  the  rinderpest. 
The  increase  in  the  exports,  however,  should  not  be  taken  as  an  evi- 
dence of  prosperity  in  sugar  production.  I  append  a  petition  of  the 
Agricultural  Society  of  Panay  and  Negros,  marked  "Exhibit  K,"in 


52  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

respect  to  the  production  of  sugar  in  the  Philippines,  together  with  a 
statement  made  by  the  collector  of  customs  at  Iloilo,  Colonel  Colton, 
who  has  looked  into  the  matter  with  great  thoroughness,  and  whose 
opportunities  for  exact  information  are  great,  because  Iloilo  is  the 
port  through  which  almost  all  the  sugar  in  the  islands  is  exported. 
The  statement  of  Colonel  Col  ton  is  marked  ' 4  Exhibit  L. "  I  also  append 
a  statement  made  by  Governor  Wright  from  data  furnished  him  on 
the  same  general  subject,  marked  "Exhibit  M." 

It  may  be  deduced  from  these  sources  of  information  that  the  sugar 
production  was  first  introduced  into  the  Philippine  Islands  in  the  year 
1856,  and  that  the  first  official  record  of  exportation  is  of  the  year 
1859,  when  5,427  tons  of  raw  sugar  were  exported  from  Iloilo.  In  1869, 
7,344  tons  were  exported;  in  1879,  47,625  tons;  in  1889,  112,007  tons; 
in  1899, 154,462,  and  the  largest  exportation  in  any  one  year  was  in  1892, 
when  165,897  tons  of  sugar  were  exported.  In  1901  the  exportation 
fell  to  34,500  tons.  In  the  early  years  the  sugar  production  was  car- 
ried on  by  the  use  of  wooden  rolling  mills  worked  by  cattle,  a  process 
resulting  in  a  loss  of  from  40  to  50  per  cent  of  the  sugar.  Some  of 
these  mills  are  still  in  use,  but  most  of  them  have  been  supplanted  by 
steam  mills  which  extract  from  3i  to  7i  tons  of  juice  per  day  with  a  loss 
of  from  20  to  40  per  cent  of  sugar.  The  sugar  produced  is  classified  as 
follows:  Class  No.  1  contains  88  per  cent  of  saccharine;  No.  2  contains 
85£  per  cent;  No.  3,  81  per  cent,  and  damp  70  per  cent.  The  various 
qualities  of  sugar  are  produced  in  about  the  following  proportions: 
No.  1  quality,  one-fourth;  No.  2,  three-sixteenths;  No.  3  and  damp, 
nine-sixteenths.  Sugar  polarizing  as  high  as  92  per  cent  is  produced 
by  the  old  wooden  mills  in  some  localities  of  Panay.  The  expense  of 
production  was  a  very  large  percentage.  Under  ordinary  circum- 
stances Negros  should  produce  150,000  tons  and  Panay  50,000  tons  of 
sugar  annually  on  land  now  under  cultivation.  Those  who  have  had 
experience  in  the  business  assert  that  with  suitable  machinery,  trans- 
portation facilities  and  capital,  the  production  could  be  doubled  with- 
out extending  the  area  of  land  under  cultivation;  that  at  present  there 
are  no  means  of  transportation  in  Negros  except  for  sugar  brought  to 
the  market  by  lighters  from  the  estates  of  the  owners,  from  5  to  14 
miles,  depending  solely  upon  the  condition  of  the  roads,  which  is  usually 
bad.  The  actual  cost  of  producing  sugar  which  is  marketed  at  Iloilo, 
per  ton,  is  as  follows:  Tilling  and  planting,  $22;  cutting  and  carding 
to  mill,  milling,  bagging  and  shipping,  $18,  and  delivering,  $6,  mak- 
ing a  total  of  $56  Mexican.  These  figures  exclude  material  items  like 
interest,  investment,  taxes,  or  rents,  which  are  hard  to  estimate.  The 
present  selling  price  of  sugar  in  the  Iloilo  market,  based  on  the  price 
in  foreign  markets,  is  about  $64  Mexican  per  ton,  which  allows  little 
or  no  profit  on  the  sugar  from  the  most  favorably  located  estates,  and  is 
considerably  less  than  the  cost  of  production  on  the  interior  estates. 


KEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


53 


The  following  table  shows  the  quantity  and  value  of  sugar  exported 
through  the  port  of  Iloilo,  b}^  fiscal  years,  since  American  occupation: 


Year. 

Number  of 
pounds. 

Value. 

1899 

96, 831, 930 
116, 258,  922 

77, 089, 391 
135. 687, 751 
226, 056, 793 

$1,873,183 
2, 103, 344 

1900 

1901 

1,471,281 

1902 

2,471,820 

1903 

3, 649, 536 

Total 

651, 924,  787 

11, 569, 164 

At  first  glance  it  would  seem  from  the  returns  of  1893  that  the 
sugar  planters  were  subject  to  congratulations  upon  the  substantial 
increase  both  as  to  price  and  quantity  of  their  product,  and  the  appar- 
ently improved  conditions.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  however,  owing  to 
the  increased  cost  of  labor  and  the  extraordinary  expenditure  for  ani- 
mals to  replace  those  killed  by  the  rinderpest,  the  planters  are  more 
deeply  in  debt  at  the  close  of  the  1903  season  than  at  any  previous 
time  in  their  history,  and  if  it  had  not  been  for  the  low-ruling  rate  of 
exchange  enabling  buyers  to  pay  more  in  Mexican  currency  on  prac- 
tically the  same  gold  prices  as  last  37ear,  a  large  percentage  of  the 
planters  would  have  been  entirely  ruined  and  compelled  to  abandon 
their  estates.  The  planters  have  been  steadily  losing  ground  since 
1899,  and  have  only  been  encouraged  to  continue  the  operation  of 
their  estates  by  the  hope  each  year  that  their  products  would  be 
admitted  to  the  markets  of  the  United  States  at  a  much  more  favor- 
able rate  of  duty  than  is  now  imposed.  The  shipments  to  the  United 
States  have  been  very  small;  71, 000, 000  pounds  of  sugar  were  exported 
last  year  in  vessels  which  cleared  for  the  Delaware  Breakwater  ' '  for 
orders."  A  very  small  proportion  of  this  was  shipped  into  the  United 
States,  the  larger  portion  being  carried  into  Canada  or  England,  and 
all  the  sugar  entering  the  United  States,  except  one  cargo  which  was 
allowed  to  enter  free  during  the  brief  period  when  there  was  no 
import  tax  on  imports  from  the  Philippine  Islands,  resulted  in  a  heavy 
loss  to  the  shippers.  The  islands  of  Panay  and  Negros  are  among  the 
most  thickly  populated,  and  the  inhabitants  and  business  interests 
depend  directly  or  indirectly  upon  the  sugar  industry,  which  is  at  this 
time  in  an  exceedingly  precarious  condition,  and  unless  something  is 
done  by  Congress  to  relieve  the  situation  there  must  be  a  total  indus- 
trial collapse  in  those  provinces.  Were  there  admitted  to  the  United 
States  three  or  four  hundred  thousand  tons — and  there  is  no  likelihood 
that  in  the  near  future  the  exports  of  sugar  from  the  islands  to  the 
United  States  will  reach  any  such  sum — it  would  not  have  any  effect 
upon  the  price  of  sugar  in  the  United  States,  but  it  would  greatly 
increase  the  prosperity  of  the  two  important  provinces  named.  Sugar 
is  also  raised  in  Pampanga,  Cavite,  and  Laguna,  but  not  so  successfully 


54  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

as  in  Negros  and  Panay.  The  conditions  prevailing  in  the  islands  of 
Negros  and  Panay  are  typical  of  those  throughout  the  islands.  The 
growth  of  sugar  in  Formosa  is  apt  to  interfere  very  largely  with  the 
sugar  trade  of  Japan,  which  already  is  hampered  by  a  heavy  duty. 

TOBACCO. 

The  falling  off  in  the  production  of  leaf  tobacco  has  already  been 
alluded  to,  as  well  as  the  causes  for  the  same.  I  can  not  too  strongly 
urge  the  necessity  for  the  reduction  of  the  Dingley  tariff  in  its  appli- 
cation to  goods  imported  from  the  Philippine  Islands  to  25  per  cent 
of  the  rates  therein  imposed.  I  am  confident  that  neither  in  the  sugar 
market  nor  in  the  tobacco  market  will  the  effect  of  the  amount  to  be 
introduced  be  materially  injurious  to  any  interest  in  the  United  States, 
while  at  the  same  time  it  will  be  of  the  greatest  importance  to  the 
prosperity  of  the  islands,  and  will  be  a  most  convincing  argument 
with  the  people  of  the  Archipelago  to  show  the  real  interest  that  the 
people  of  the  United  States  feel  in  the  welfare  of  the  Filipino  people. 

THE   LABOR   QUESTION. 

American  and  foreign  business  men  continue  to  complain  of  the 
difficulty  in  securing  good  labor.  This  question  was  discussed  in  my 
last  annual  report,  and  nothing  has  occurred  since  that  time  to  change 
my  views.  I  think  it  would  be  a  great  political  mistake  to  admit  the 
Chinamen  freely  into  these  islands  as  laborers.  I  am  convinced  that 
the  Filipino,  as  conditions  settle,  can  be  made  a  good  laborer;  not  so 
good  as  the  American,  not  so  good  as  the  Chinaman,  but  one  with 
whom  it  will  be  entirely  possible  to  carry  on  great  works  of  construc- 
tion. We  are  now  employing  2,500  Filipino  laborers  on  the  Benguet 
road,  and  our  engineer  reports  that,  wages  considered,  they  are  doing 
good  work.  We  had  an  unfortunate  experience  in  obtaining  labor  for 
this  road,  due  to  a  misunderstanding  with  the  proposed  laborers,  and 
to  the  fact  that  the  men  were  obtained  from  an  undesirable  class  in 
Manila  and  the  neighboring  provinces.  It  was  fairly  inferable  from 
the  facts  that  the  persons  who  agreed  to  furnish  the  laborers,  either 
intentionally  or  unintentionally,  misled  the  laborers  as  to  the  terms 
upon  which  they  should  be  employed.  I  append  hereto,  as  Exhibit  N, 
the  report  of  the  investigation  made  by  the  supervisor  of  fiscals  con- 
cerning the  failure  of  the  first  attempt  to  employ  large  numbers  of 
laborers  on  the  Benguet  road.  Since  that  time,  however,  the  super- 
intendent has  been  able  to  get  Filipino  laborers  from  all  over  Luzon, 
and,  as  already  stated,  the  number  is  2,500  and  it  is  growing.  The 
Atlantic,  Gulf  and  Pacific  Company,  which  is  engaged  in  building  the 
great  Manila  port  works,  needing  in  its  employ  from  500  to  1,000 
men,  has  adopted  the  system  of  making  the  laborers  comfortable  and 
at  home,  and  now  can  procure  more  labor  than  it  needs,  and  good 


KErORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  55 

labor,  too.     The  following  letters  from  the  vice-president  of  the  com- 
pany seem  to  leave  no  doubt  upon  this  point: 

Manila,  July  2,  1903. 

Sir:  Answering  your  esteemed  verbal  inquiry  as  to  our  success  with  the  Filipino 
labor,  we  be«:  leave  to  state  as  follows: 

First.  We  believe  that  Filipino  labor  can  successfully  be  used.  We  are  employing 
about  1,000  Filipinos,  which  is  a  practical  demonstration  that  this  statement  is  not 
a  theory. 

Second.  To  successfully  employ  Filipino  labor  is,  to  the  American  employer  of 
labor,  a  new  business,  which  has  to  be  learned.  If  he  can  not  learn  it  he  can  not  do 
business  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Third.  In  general,  the  Filipinos  have  to  be  taught  how  to  work.  This  requires  a 
considerable  proportion  of  intelligent  high-grade  American  foremen  and  mechanics. 

Fourth.  The  way  to  keep  the  Filipino  laborer  permanently  in  one's  employ  is  to 
so  arrange  his  surroundings  that  he  is  better  off  and  more  contented  there  than  any- 
where else.  This  we  have  attained  by  means  of  providing  homes  for  the  Filipinos 
and  their  families;  also  amusements,  including  Sunday  fiestas,  and  schools  where 
their  children  may  be  educated. 

Fifth.  We  are  opposed  to  the  introduction  of  the  Chinese.  The  only  argument 
that  we  can  see  in  its  favor  is  that  it  may  somewhat  expedite  the  development  of 
the  resources  of  the  islands.  This  temporary  advantage  is,  we  believe,  overbalanced 
and  overwhelmed  by  the  ultimate  injury  to  both  the  Americans  and  natives  in  the 
islands. 

Sixth.  We  believe  that  the  greatest  need  of  the  islands  is  the  abolition  of  the 
Dingley  tariff  as  far  as  it  applies  to  the  Philippines.  We  want  the  American  market, 
not  the  Chinese  laborer. 

Very  respectfully,  Atlantic,  Gulp  and  Pacific  Company, 

By  H.  Krusi,  Vice-President. 

Hon.  Wm.  H.  Tapt, 

Governor  Philippine  Archipelago,  Manila,  P.  I. 

Manila,  November  12,  1903. 

Sir:  Referring  to  your  esfeemed  verbal  request  to  state  whether  our  subsequent 
experience  with  the  labor  situation  here  is  in  accord  with  our  letter  dated  July  2,  on 
this  subject,  would  state  that  our  experience  since  that  time  has  confirmed  us  in  our 
opinion  therein  advanced.  We  are  having  no  difficulty  whatsoever  with  our  Fili- 
pino labor,  who  are  doing  the  bulk  of  the  work  under  our  harbor  contract. 

The  well-known  civil  engineer,  Maj.  C.  F.  Case,  was  recently  at  our  quarry,  and 
can  advise  you,  if  desired,  as  to  the  state  of  affairs  there. 

I  wish  to  strengthen  the  statement  made  in  my  former  letter  with  reference  to  the 
use  of  American  foremen  and  mechanics.  These  men  are  the  backbone  of  our  organi- 
zation, and  a  certain  proportion  of  them  are  absolutely  essential  to  the  success  of  any 
enterprise  requiring  labor.  They  are  required  both  to  lead  and  instruct  the  Filipinos. 
They  must  be  practical  men  and  not  afraid  to  work  with  their  own  hands.  Our 
experience  is  that  about  8  per  cent  of  American  foremen  and  mechanics  is  advisable. 

We  are  firmly  convinced  that  the  best  interests  of  the  Philippines  demand  the  use 
of  Filipino  and  American  labor,  to  the  exclusion  of  the  Chinese. 
Very  respectfully, 

Atlantic,  Gulp,  and  Pacific  Company, 
By  H.  Krusi,  Vice-President. 

Hon.  Wm.  H.  Taft, 

Civil  Governor  Philippine  Archipelago,  Manila,  P.  I. 

I  also  append  the  report  of  Captain  Couden,  of  the  United  States 
Navy,  upon  the  capacity  of  the  Filipino  for  labor.     He  has  charge  of 


56  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

the  large  number  of  laborers  employed  at  the  Cavite  Navy- Yard.  It 
is  marked  Exhibit  O. 

The  new  electric  street  railway  company  of  Manila,  which  is  just 
beginning  its  work  of  construction,  has  had  no  difficulty  in  securing 
all  the  labor  it  desires. 

The  Commission  employed  Messrs.  Norton  and  Drew  as  railroad 
engineers  to  make  a  reconnaissance  survey  for  trunk  lines  through  the 
island  of  Luzon.  This  report  has  been  published,  but  will  be  hereto 
appended,  for  the  sake  of  convenience,  as  Exhibit  P.  Mr.  Norton  is 
quite  discouraging  in  regard  to  the  possibility  of  securing  native  labor 
for  the  construction  of  railroads.  I  think  that  the  facts  do  not  justify 
his  position  in  this  respect.  The  Manila  and  Dagupan  Railway  was 
built  with  native  labor,  and  the  extensions  which  are  now  being  con- 
structed under  franchises  granted  by  the  Commission  are  being  built 
by  the  same  labor.  It  is  possible  that  were  a  very  general  s}Tstem  of 
railroad  construction  begun  all  at  once  in  the  islands,  the  supply  of 
laborers  here  would  be  found  deficient.  In  such  contingency  the  emer- 
gency could  be  met  by  special  legislation  permitting  use  of  coolie 
labor  for  a  short  period;  but  I  anticipate  no  such  necessity. 

There  is  more  importation  of  Japanese  labor,  but  it  has  not  as  yet 
reached  any  proportion  likely  to  have  an  effect  upon  the  labor  market. 

THE   EFFECT   OF   LABOR   ON   THE   INVESTMENTS   OF   CAPITAL. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  iteration  and  reiteration  of  the  deficiency 
in  the  supply  of  labor  in  the  Philippine  Islands  have  had  the  effect  of 
frightening  American  investors  of  capital  from  coming  into  the  islands. 
The  Commission  is  strongly  desirous  of  encouraging  American  capital 
to  come  here,  but  it  should  be  noted  that  if  American  capital  declines 
to  come  that  English,  Belgian,  and  other  foreign  capital  is  merely 
awaiting  the  franchises  which  are  requested  for  railroad  and  other 
constructive  enterprises,  and  that  it  will  be  the  duty  of  the  Commission 
to  grant  such  franchises  for  the  benefit  of  the  islands.  The  owners  of 
English  capital  already  invested  in  the  Manila  and  Dagupan  Railway 
have  accepted  two  franchises  granted  for  the  construction  and  opera- 
tion of  branches  for  that  railway,  and  are  very  anxious  to  secure 
other  franchises  extending  their  railway  in  other  directions.  They  are 
sufficiently  familiar  with  the  possibility  of  securing  native  labor  and 
of  making  it  available  for  reasonably  economical  construction  of  their 
works  not  to  be  frightened  away  from  the  accepting  of  such  franchises 
and  making  such  investments.  A  reluctance  on  the  part  of  American 
investors  will  certainly  lead  to  the  acceptance  of  their  propositions. 
It  seems  to  me  that  this  much  ought  to  be  said  by  way  of  warning 
American  investors  that  when  later  on  they  shall  come  into  the  islands, 
and  shall  find  foreign  capital  strongly  intrenched  in  many  profitable 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  57 

enterprises,  they  will  have  only  themselves  to  blame  for  a  failure  to 
seize  the  opportunity  when  it  was  offered  them. 

The  disposition  to  harken  to  pessimistic  malign ers  of  conditions  in 
the  Philippines  may  prove  to  be,  in  this  sense,  quite  costly. 

RAILROAD   AND   OTHER   CONSTRUCTION. 

The  political  conditions  in  the  islands  are  now  such  as  to  make  the 
time  ripe  for  a  period  of  great  construction.  For  the  next  decade 
railroads^  canals,  and  steamship  companies  should  revolutionize  the 
interior  trade  of  the  islands,  and  should  have  a  most  marked  effect 
upon  the  export  trade.  There  are  a  number  of  short  lines  of  railroads 
that  could  be  constructed,  and  doubtless  will  be,  without  governmental 
aid,  but  there  are  other  lines  of  longer  and  more  difficult  construction 
which  should  at  once  be  begun,  but  which  we  can  not  expect  to  have 
begun  unless  there  is  actual  governmental  financial  encouragement. 
For  this  reason  it  seems  to  me  wise  that  the  Commission  be  authorized, 
with  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  War  and  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  to  enter  into  contracts  of  guaranty  with  railroad  com- 
panies to  whom  a  franchise  for  the  construction  of  a  road  shall  be 
granted  by  which  an  income  of  not  exceeding  4  per  cent,  and  probably 
not  exceeding  3  per  cent,  shall  be  guaranteed  on  the  investment,  the 
amount  of  which  shall  be  fixed  in  the  law.  This  method  of  financial 
encouragement  is  much  to  be  preferred  to  the  granting  of  lands  or 
other  forms  of  governmental  subsidy,  and  I  recommend  to  the  Com- 
mission that  in  its  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  to  be  transmitted  to 
Congress,  it  ask  for  the  granting  of  such  power.  It  is  very  possible 
that  under  the  Philippine  act,  as  now  passed  such  power  exists,  but  it 
would  greatly  aid  in  securing  public  confidence  if  this  power  were 
expressly  granted. 

HEALTH. 

The  cholera,  which  began  in  March,  1902,  has  continued  in  the  islands 
down  to  the  time  of  writing.  The  number  of  cases  was  something  over 
150,000  and  the  number  of  deaths  something  over  100,000.  The  num- 
ber of  deaths  and  cases  has  been  very  much  smaller  in  the  city  of 
Manila  than  in  the  provinces  which  the  disease  has  visited.  This  is 
due  to  the  fact  that  Manila  has  a  water  supply  which  has  been  care- 
fully guarded  from  pollution.  There  is  a  great  need  of  improvement 
in  the  water  supply  of  the  smaller  towns.  The  Commission  has 
directed  the  consulting  engineer  to  investigate  the  cost  of  a  plant  for 
driving  deep  or  artesian  wells  in  each  province  of  the  islands. 

Few  cases  of  plague  have  been  found  or  reported  this  last  year  in 
Manila.  An  outbreak  of  plague  occurred  in  Cebu,  disclosing  an 
unsanitary  condition  in  that  city  that  required  some  radical  measures 
on  the  part  of  the  board  of  health  to  remedy. 


58  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

There  is  no  bureau  of  government  more  important  in  the  devel- 
opment of  these  islands  than  that  which  is  charged  with  looking 
after  the  health  of  the  inhabitants.  The  islands,  though  thej^  contain 
8,000,000  people,  are  sparsely  settled.  The  natural  increase  by  births 
should  be  far  greater.  The  immense  loss  of  life  from  infantile  diseases, 
before  the  age  of  6  months  is  reached,  is  one  reason  why  the  increase 
of  population  is  slow.  It  is  within  the  function  of  the  health  board  to 
encourage  a  better  hygienic  treatment  of  young  children  than  now 
prevails.  The  improvement  of  the  drinking  water,  too,  will  much 
decrease  the  death  rate. 

In  connection  with  the  subject  of  health,  reference  should  be  made 
to  the  province  of  Benguet  and  to  Baguio,  the  capital  of  that  province. 
The  secretary  of  commerce  and  police  will  refer  to  the  work  now  being 
done  in  the  construction  of  the  Benquet  road  from  Pozorrubio,  through 
Twin  Peaks,  to  Baguio.  There  have  been  serious  engineering  mis- 
takes made  in  the  road,  and  it  is  proving  to  be  much  more  costly  than 
was  expected;  but  when  completed  its  importance  in  the  development 
of  these  islands  can  hardly  be  overestimated.  One  of  the  things  essen- 
tial to  progress  in  the  islands  is  the  coming  of  more  Americans  and 
Europeans  who  shall  make  this  their  business  home.  If  there  can  be 
brought  within  twelve  hours'  travel  of  Manila  a  place  with  a  climate 
not  unlike  that  of  the  Adirondacks,  or  of  Wyoming  in  summer,  it  will 
add  greatly  to  the  possibility  of  living  in  Manila  for  ten  months  of 
the  year  without  risk.  It  will  take  away  the  necessity  for  long  vaca- 
tions spent  in  America;  will  reduce  the  number  who  go  invalided 
home,  and  will  be  a  saving  to  the  insular  government  of  many  thou- 
sands of  dollars  a  year.  It  will  lengthen  the  period  during  which  the 
American  soldiers  who  are  stationed  here  may  remain  without  injury 
to  their  health  and  will  thus  reduce  largely  the  expense  of  transporta- 
tion of  troops  between  the  islands  and  the  United  States.  More  than 
this,  Filipinos  of  the  wealthier  class  frequently  visit  Japan  or  China 
for  the  purpose  of  recuperating.  People  of  this  class  are  much  inter- 
ested in  the  establishment  of  Baguio  as  a  summer  capital,  and  when 
the  road  is  completed  a  town  will  spring  up,  made  up  of  comfortable 
residences,  of  a  fine,  extensive  army  post,  and  sanitariums  for  the 
relief  of  persons  suffering  from  diseases  prevalent  in  the  lowlands. 
It  is  the  hope  of  the  government  that  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  will 
send  American  priests  as  it  has  sent  American  bishops  to  the  islands, 
to  assist  in  the  moral  elevation  of  the  people.  The  fear  of  the  effect 
of  the  climate  has  kept  many  from  coming.  The  Roman  Catholic 
Church  authorities  have  announced  their  intention  of  erecting  rest 
houses  at  Baguio  for  the  purpose  of  the  recuperation  of  their  minis- 
ters and  agents.  The  Methodists  and  Episcopalians  have  already 
secured  building  lots  in  Baguio  for  this  purpose.  It  is  the  settled 
purpose  of  the  Commission  to  see  this  improvement  through,  no  matter 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  59 

what  the  cost,  because  eventually  the  expenditures  must  redound  to 
the  benefit  of  the  government  and  people  of  the  islands.  We  have 
already  stated,  in  the  report  on  the  public-land  act,  that  it  is  proposed, 
under  that  act,  which  allows  the  organizing  of  town  sites,  to  sell  the 
public  land  in  suitable  lots  at  auction  so  that  everyone  interested  shall 
have  the  opportunity  to  obtain  a  good  lot  upon  which  to  build  a  suit- 
able house. 

schools. 

One  of  the  most  gratifying  things  to  report  this  year  is  the  great 
increase  in  the  school  attendance  in  all  the  provinces  but  one.  This 
increase  is  seen  both  in  the  attendance  of  children  at  day  schools  and 
also  in  the  doubled  attendance  at  night  schools  by  adults.  Still,  only 
about  150,000,  or  10  per  cent  of  the  population  of  school  age,  are 
receiving  public  instruction.  We  have  neither  teachers  nor  school- 
houses  enough  to  carry  out  our  purpose  of  giving  primary  English 
education  to  every  child  of  school  age  in  the  Archipelago.  Our 
resources  are  not  sufficient  to  permit  the  necessary  expenditure. 
Several  millions  could  be  well  expended  in  the  erection  of  large,  airy, 
and  healthy  schoolhouses,  and  the  number  of  teachers  might  well  be 
multiplied  by  seven.  There  is  an  intense  desire  throughout  the  islands 
to  learn  English,  and  when  one  is  familiar  with  the  number  of  requests 
for  American  teachers  and  for  the  establishment  of  schools  in  which 
English  can  be  taught,  from  Aparri  to  Mindanao,  he  is  justified  in 
smiling  at  the  utterly  unfounded  charge  made  by  persons  professing 
to  have  some  knowledge  in  respect  to  the  islands,  that  we  are  forcing 
the  English  language  upon  an  unwilling  people.  Here  is  possibly  not 
the  place  to  defend  the  policy  of  a  general  system  of  common  school 
education  in  the  islands.  I  am  aware  that  our  plans  for  education 
have  been  the  subject  of  considerable  criticism  by  men  whose  experi- 
ence in  eastern  countries  entitles  their  views  to  great  weight,  on  the 
ground  that  by  giving  education  to  the  people  we  unfit  them  for  agri- 
cultural and  other  manual  pursuits  and  inspire  them  with  a  desire  to 
succeed  only  as  clerks  and  professional  men.  That  the  result  of  higher 
education  upon  a  people  unfitted  by  training  and  moral  stamina  to  use 
it  to  good  purpose  may  be  productive  of  evil  need  not  here  be  denied 
or  discussed.  That  superficial  education  frequently  produces  discon- 
tent and  brings  about  social  disturbances  may  also  be  conceded.  The 
condition,  however,  which  is  most  productive  of  social  disturbances  is 
the  existence  of  a  vast  mass  of  ignorant  people  easily  and  blindly  led 
by  the  comparatively  few  of  their  superficially  educated  countrymen 
into  insurrection  and  lawless  violence  without  any  definite  knowledge 
or  certainty  as  to  the  beneficial  results  therefrom.  The  theory  upon 
which  we  justify,  even  on  political  grounds,  the  spread  of  education 
is  that  the  more  the  mass  of  ignorant  persons  is  reduced  in  number  by 
diffusing  among  them  common  school  education  the  less  likely  are 


60  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

they  to  be  led  away  b}^  degenerate  political  fakirs  into  experiences  and 
projects  that  can  lead  to  nothing  but  disaster.  The  common  school 
education  does  not  unfit  either  the  oriental  or  the  occidental  laborer 
for  manual  effort,  but  it  does  enlighten  him  as  to  a  more  civilized  life, 
and  does  increase  his  wants  and  thus  does  furnish  a  motive  for  more 
continuous  and  harder  labor. 

The  Commission  has  thought  it  wise  to  inaugurate  the  plan  of  send- 
ing to  America  each  year  for  education  an  average  of  100  boys  and  girls 
of  high-school  age  for  the  purpose  of  enabling  them  to  become  teachers, 
lawyers,  doctors,  and  engineers,  on  condition  that  for  five  years  after 
their  return  they  shall  be  subject  to  call  by  the  Government  for  public 
service.  One  hundred  boys  were  sent  in  October.  Seventy-five  of 
the  appointments  were  allotted  to  the  provinces  in  proportion  to  the 
school  population  and  interest  in  the  schools  shown  in  the  provinces. 
They  were  selected  in  each  province  by  the  division  school  superin- 
tendent after  a  conference  with  the  provincial  governor,  and  then  25 
were  selected  at  large  by  the  Civil  Governor.  Seventy-five  were  re- 
quired to  come  from  the  public  schools.  They  left  Manila  in  charge 
of  Professor  and  Mrs.  Sutherland.  They  go  to  southern  California, 
and  will,  in  groups  of  eight  and  ten,  be  sent  to  the  county  high  schools 
of  that  State  which  bear  a  high  reputation.  It  is  thought  that  by  June 
of  next  year  Professor  Sutherland,  who  will  have  general  supervision 
of  them,  may  be  able  to  classify  them  properly  and  distribute  them 
among  the  preparatory  schools  or  colleges  of  the  East.  The  pro- 
ficiency of  the  students  in  English  formed  an  important  element  in  the 
grounds  for  their  selection.  The  plan  was  very  popular  and  awakened 
a  great  interest  in  every  town  in  the  islands.  As  far  as  possible  the 
selections  made  this  year  were  by  competitive  examination.  Next 
year  a  more  rigid  system  will  be  followed.  Next  year  probably  one- 
third  or  one-half  of  those  selected  will  be  girls,  with  a  view  to  their 
education  as  teachers. 

THE   PHILIPPINE  EXHIBIT  AT  THE  LOUISIANA  PURCHASE   EXPOSITION  AT 

ST.    LOUIS. 

By  Act  No.  514,  passed  on  the  11th  of  November,  1902,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  securing,  organizing,  and  making  an  exhibit  of  Filipino  prod- 
ucts, manufactures,  art,  ethnology,  education,  and  habits  of  the  people, 
it  was  provided  that  there  should  be  a  board  of  three  members,  to  be 
appointed  by  the  civil  governor,  with  the  consent  of  the  Philippine 
Commission.  The  board  was  authorized  and  directed  to  hold  a  pre- 
liminary exposition  of  certain  of  the  exhibits  at  Manila  in  the  autumn 
of  1903,  and  to  establish  a  permanent  museum  in  Manila.  It  was 
authorized  to  secure  the  needed  land  from  the  authorities  of  the  St. 
Louis  Exposition,  to  expend  the  necessary  sums  in  the  drawing  of 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  61 

plans  for  the  necessary  buildings  and  for  their  construction,  and  for 
the  laying  out  of  the  ground  included  in  the  tract  assigned  to  the 
Philippine  exhibit;  to  incur  all  necessary  expenses  in  securing  the 
exhibits,  including  the  necessary  advertising,  in  the  transportation  of 
exhibits  from  the  point  where  secured  in  the  Philippine  Islands  to 
Manila  and  thence  to  St.  Louis.  The  board  was  authorized  to  incur 
in  all  this  work  obligations  not  exceeding  in  the  aggregate  the  sum  of 
$250,000.  The  heads  of  all  the  bureaus  of  the  insular  government  and 
the  governor  and  members  of  the  provincial  boards  of  provinces  and 
all  municipal  presidents  and  other  officers  were  directed  to  furnish 
ever}'  assistance  in  their  power  to  the  exposition  board  in  obtaining 
the  exhibits.  The  board  was  directed  to  render  a  monthly  report  of 
the  work  done  by  it  to  the  civil  governor,  and  a  quarterly  account  of 
its  receipts  and  expenditures  to  the  civil  governor  and  the  auditor  of  the 
islands.  By  another  section  the  civil  governor  was  authorized  to  appoint 
five  honorary  commissioners  to  visit  the  exposition  and  to  report  upon 
the  same.  One  hundred  and  twenty-five  thousand  dollars  gold  was 
appropriated  to  meet  the  obligations  incurred  under  the  act.  Amend- 
ments were  made  to  the  act  subsequently,  varying  some  of  the  pow- 
ers of  the  commission  and  dispensing  with  the  necessity  for  a  pre- 
liminary exposition  in  Manila,  which  proved  to  be  impracticable,  and 
appropriating  $325,000,  making  the  total  appropriation  half  a  million 
dollars  for  the  expense  of  the  exhibit.  At  the  same  time  there  was 
obtained  from  the  authorities  of  the  St.  Louis  Purchase  Exposition  the 
use  of  40  acres  of  land,  the  promise  of  a  contribution  of  $200,000  to 
the  erection  of  the  necessary  buildings  at  the  exhibit  at  St.  Louis,  and 
the  proceeds  of  concessions  granted  in  the  grounds  of  the  exhibit. 
Dr.  William  P.  Wilson,  director  of  the  Philadelphia  Commercial 
Museum,  Dr.  Gustavo  Mederlein,  his  assistant,  and  Senor  Pedro  A. 
Paterno,  who  had  had  much  to  do  with  a  Filipino  exhibit  at  Madrid, 
were  named  the  exposition  board,  and  Senor  Leon  M.  Guerrero,  a  Fili- 
pino of  high  scientific  attainments,  was  made  the  secretary  of  the  board. 
Doctor  Niederlein  came  to  the  islands  immediately  upon  his  appoint- 
ment, and  with  extraordinary  energy  has  secured  upward  of  50,000 
exhibits,  which  will  probably  be  increased  to  80,000.  The  Secretary  of 
War  has  ordered  a  battalion  of  four  companies  of  Philippine  Scouts 
to  be  sent  to  the  exposition,  and  the  Philippine  Commission  has  or- 
dered two  companies  of  constabulary  and  one  constabulary  band  of  80 
pieces  also  to  visit  the  exposition  and  remain  there  while  it  is  open. 
Among  the  exhibits  will  be  several  colonies  of  the  various  tribes, 
civilized  and  uncivilized,  for  the  purpose  of  giving  opportunity  for 
ethnographic  study  of  the  people  of  the  Philippines. 

The  work  has  not  been  without  its  obstacles,  but  it  is  hoped  that  the 
exhibit  will  be  of  interest  to  the  American  people  and  give  them  a 


62  REPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

clearer  idea  than  they  now  have,  not  only  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
islands,  but  also  of  their  extent  and  the  variety  of  their  products,  the 
work  which  has  been  done  in  the  matter  of  education,  their  artistic 
tastes,  and  their  capacity  in  many  directions.  The  section  directing  the 
appointment  of  five  honorary  commissioners  has  not  yet  been  amended, 
but  it  is  the  purpose  of  the  Commission  to  increase  the  number  to  a 
delegation  of  from  30  to  50  prominent  Filipino  gentlemen  of  education 
and  culture,  who  will  visit  the  exposition  and  various  cities  of  the 
United  States  at  the  expense  of  the  insular  treasury,  with  a  view  to 
bringing  the  two  peoples  nearer  together  and  to  showing  the  intelli- 
gent Filipinos  what  our  country  is  and  what  our  institutions  mean. 
At  the  same  time  this  delegation  will  be  able,  in  the  congresses  at 
St.  Louis,  to  represent  with  dignity  the  intellectual  development  of 
the  islands  and  to  speak  with  authority  upon  the  needs  of  their  peo- 
ple. It  is  thought  that  the  large  amount  of  money  expended  is  justi- 
fied by  the  commercial  advantages  to  the  Philippine  Islands  which  will 
follow  an  exhibit  of  its  products  and  resources,  as  well  as  the  great 
benefit  to  be  derived  from  a  closer  union  and  a  better  mutual  under- 
standing between  the  American  and  Filipino  people.  1  append  hereto 
as  Exhibit  Q  the  report  of  the  exposition  board. 

THE    CENSUS. 

The  details  of  the  taking  of  the  census  will  doubtless  appear  in  the 
report  of  the  secretary  of  public  instruction,  in  whose  department  the 
bureau  of  the  census  by  law  is  put,  and  the  rough  results  of  the  census, 
so  far  as  population  is  concerned,  will  there  appear.  It  is  sufficient  to 
say  that  the  census  was  almost  wholly  taken  by  Filipinos  under  the 
direction  of  General  Sanger  and  his  skilled  assistants,  Mr.  Gannett  and 
Mr.  Olmstead,  and  that  on  the  whole  the  machinery  proved  to  be  very 
satisfactory.  The  returns  are  now  being  compiled  in  Washington,  but 
will  probably  not  be  published  before  October  of  1904.  At  the  end  of 
two  years  from  that  date,  if  the  President  shall  find  that  tranquillity 
prevails  in  the  Christian  Filipino  provinces,  it  will  become  his  duty  to 
direct  a  holding  of  an  election  for  selection  of  members  for  a  general 
assembly  of  the  Christian  Filipino  people,  which  will  be  a  coordinate 
branch  of  a  legislature  to  be  composed  of  the  Commission  and  the  leg- 
islative assembly.  This  will  doubtless  prove  to  be  a  most  important 
step  in  the  growth  and  development  of  the  Philippine  people,  and  I 
have  abiding  confidence  that  the  conservative  elements  in  the  Filipino 
people  will  accept  this  concession  on  the  part  of  the  Congress  of  the 
United  States  as  a  proffered  test  of  their  capacity  to  avoid  foolish  and 
impracticable  legislative  measures  and  of  demonstrating  the  existence 
among  them  of  that  self-restraint  which  is  indispensable  to  the  growth 
of  popular  and  effective  self-government. 


BEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  63 

OPIUM. 

Reports  from  various  provinces  and  information  from  other  sources 
have  convinced  the  Commission  that  the  smoking  of  opium  is  spread- 
ing among  the  native  Filipinos.  Under  the  Spanish  regime  Filipinos 
were  under  penalty-  of  fine  or  imprisonment  if  convicted  of  smoking 
opium,  but  opium  joints  or  smoking  places  were  licensed  to  be  used 
only  by  Chinamen.  Under  the  tariff  act  now  in  force  the  tariff  on 
opium  was  somewhat  reduced,  on  the  theory  that  a  high  tax  on  the 
importation  of  the  drug  increased  the  smuggling  of  it.  The  result  is 
that  except  for  the  tariff  there  is  no  restriction  at  all  on  the  sale  of 
opium  at  present,  except  that  town  councils  are  required  to  pass 
ordinances  suppressing  opium  joints. 

Commissioner  Moses  was  appointed  to  draft  an  opium  bill,  and  on 
his  resignation  the  task  fell  to  Commissioner  Smith.  He  drafted  a 
bill  which,  in  short,  forbade  the  use  of  opium  by  Filipinos,  or  the 
sale  of  it  to  Filipinos,  but  provided  for  the  granting  of  the  monopoly 
for  the  sale  of  opium  to  Chinamen  for  one  year  to  the  highest 
bidder.  The  maintaining  of  a  public  place  for  the  smoking  of  opium 
was  punished  by  a  fine,  and  every  Chinaman  was  forbidden  to  smoke 
opium  except  on  his  own  premises.  This  bill  called  forth  consid- 
erable opposition,  especially  from  the  president  of  the  Evangelical 
Union,  of  Manila.  Doctor  Stuntz,  of  that  association,  who  had  had 
a  large  experience  in  India,  was  especially  emphatic  in  condemning 
the  sale  of  the  monopoly,  which  he  insisted  had  a  tendency  to  increase 
rather  than  to  diminish  the  use  of  opium.  A  very  extended  discussion 
before  the  Commission  was  carried  on,  and  communications  were  had 
with  the  Secretary  of  War  upon  the  subject.  A  stenographic  report 
of  the  discussion  has  already  been  forwarded  to  Washington. 

The  result  was  that  the  Commission  hesitated  to  take  action  before 
a  more  thorough  investigation  could  be  made  into  the  methods  of 
dealing  with  opium  smoking  in  oriental  countries.  Accordingly  a  law 
was  passed,  No.  800,  under  which  a  committee  was  to  be  appointed  by 
the  civil  governor  to  visit  the  various  oriental  countries  and  make  a 
report  upon  the  methods  of  restricting  the  sale  and  use  of  opium 
which  were  in  force  in  the  East.  Major  Carter,  surgeon,  United  States 
Army,  and  commissioner  of  health  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  Dr.  Jose 
Albert,  a  prominent  Filipino  physician  of  Manila,  and  the  Right 
Rev.  Charles  H.  Brent,  Protestant  Episcopal  Bishop  of  the  Philip- 
pine Islands,  were  appointed  to  make  up  this  committee.  Their 
report  is  expected  in  February  or  March,  and  until  that  time  action 
by  the  Commission  has  been  delayed. 

CIVIL    SERVICE. 

The  report  of  the  civil-service  board,  which  is  attached  hereto  and 
marked  "  Exhibit  R,"  shows  that  the  principles  of  the  merit  system  are 


64  KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

being  enforced  with  much  rigor,  that  the  examinations  for  places  are 
increasing,  especially  among  the  Filipinos,  and  that  the  proportion  of 
the  places  given  to  the  Filipinos  is  becoming  greater.  In  the  next 
three  or  four  years  the  proportion  of  Filipinos  in  the  government  is 
certain  to  increase  rapidly.  There  are  many  places  in  the  executive 
departments  which  can  only  be  filled  by  one  who  knows  English. 
The  rapidity  with  which  the  Filipinos  are  learning  English  gives 
assurance  that  this  cause  of  their  exclusion  will  not  much  longer 
continue. 

Americans  responsible  for  the  government  of  these  islands  have 
suffered  a  most  humiliating  experience  during  the  past  year  in  the 
numerous  defalcations  of  Americans  charged  with  the  official  duty  of 
collecting  and  disbursing  money.  The  defalcations  in  the  islands  have 
extended  also  to  the  clerical  service  of  the  American  business  firms  in 
the  islands.  The  practice  of  the  government  has  been  to  appoint  to 
positions  of  pecuniary  trust,  especially  to  those  where  the  amount  of 
money  handled  was  large,  Americans  alone.  They  were  all  placed 
under  bond  in  either  the  Union  Surety  and  Guaranty  Company,  or, 
later,  in  the  Fidelity  and  Deposit  Company  of  Maryland,  or  the  Amer- 
ican Surety  Company  of  New  York.  The  insular  treasurer  and  the 
insular  auditor  have  had  great  difficulty  in  securing  examiners  in  suffi- 
cient number  to  make  the  examinations  as  frequently  as  the  law  re- 
quires, and  the  immunity  from  frequent  examinations,  which  in  future 
will  not  continue,  may  explain  some  of  the  defalcations.  Everyone 
connected  with  the  government  realized  as  soon  as  the  defalcations 
were  made  public  the  demoralizing  effect  that  such  revelations  must 
have  upon  the  service  unless  such  dishonesty  was  promptly  punished. 
A  still  more  serious  result  was  the  effect  upon  the  Filipinos,  who  had 
been  advised  that  Americans  would  be  honest  where  others  had  not 
been  so  careful  in  accounting  for  public  money.  Prosecutions  were 
vigorously  begun  against  all  defaulting  officers,  and  the  surety  com- 
panies have  responded  when  shown  their  liability. 

So  far  as  is  known,  the  only  defaulting  officer  who  has  escaped 
trial  is  a  deputy  collector  named  Stewart,  at  Iloilo,  who  managed  to 
reach  the  United  States  at  a  time  when  there  was  no  extradition  law. 
It  is  hoped  that  he  will  be  apprehended  and  brought  back.  In  other 
cases  defaulting  officials  have  reached  Hongkong,  Shanghai,  or  even 
Montreal  before  their  arrest,  but  the  insular  government,  sparing  no 
effort  or  expense,  has  succeeded  in  bringing  them  to  their  well-deserved 
punishment.  Two  defaulters,  though  tried,  have  escaped  conviction 
of  embezzlement  on  the  ground  that  others  had  stolen  the  money.  In 
the  case  of  one  of  these,  three  subordinates  were  convicted. 

The  question  that  naturally  presents  itself  after  a  review  of  these 
instances  of  dishonesty  is  whether  we  are  to  expect  a  recurrence  of 
them.     I  am  glad  to  say  that  I  think  not.     They  are  the  natural  result 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  65 

of  the  circumstances  under  which  selections  for  official  positions  in  the 
beginning  of  this  government  had  to  be  made.  The  mode  of  selec- 
tion under  the  civil-service  law  could  not,  of  course,  be  applied  at  first, 
because  the  government  had  to  become  at  once  a  going  concern.  The 
army  officers  who  had  begun  the  civil  government  here  had  to  be 
relieved,  the  number  of  officers,  as  civil  government  spread  through 
the  provinces,  had  to  be  largely  increased,  and  the  material  from  which 
selections  had  to  be  made  was  those  men  who  had  resigned  from  the 
Army  or  had  been  mustered  out  and  proposed  to  remain  in  the  Philip- 
pines. It  was  impossible  in  the  selection  of  so  many  officers  to  insti- 
tute a  thorough  investigation  into  their  lives  in  the  States.  There 
were  men  among  those  who  have  proven  since  to  be  defaulters  who 
changed  their  names  with  the  view  of  avoiding  the  investigation  which 
would  have  disclosed  dishonesty  in  their  past  lives.  Then,  too,  in  the 
very  unsettled  conditions  which  have  prevailed  here,  men  who  would 
not  have  yielded  to  temptation  to  dishonesty  in  the  States  were  unable 
to  resist  it  here.     As  was  said  in  the  first  report  of  the  Commission: 

Many  leave  the  United  States  honest,  but  with  the  weakening  of  the  restraints  of 
home  associations  and  with  the  anxious  desire  to  make  so  long  a  trip  result  success- 
fully in  a  pecuniary  advantage,  demoralization  and  dishonesty  are  much  more  likely 
to  follow  than  at  home.  To  avoid  the  dangers  presented  by  these  conditions  it  is 
necessary,  first,  to  banish  all  favoritism  and  political  considerations  from  the  selec- 
tion of  civil  servants  and  rigidly  enforce  the  requirements  of  a  competitive  examina- 
tion and  a  satisfactory  showing  by  the  applicant  of  his  good  moral  character;  second, 
to  pay  adequate  salaries  and  to  allow  liberal  leaves  of  absence  adapted  to  preserva- 
tion of  health  in  the  Tropics,  thus  securing  that  contentment  with  the  service  with- 
out which  good  work  is  not  possible,  and,  third,  to  awaken  an  enthusiasm  in  the 
service  by  offering  as  a  reward  for  faithful  and  highly  efficient  work  a  reasonable 
prospect  of  promotion  to  the  highest  position  in  the  government. 

The  lack  of  ordinary,  rational,  and  healthful  amusements  for  one 
engaged  as  a  provincial  officer  in  the  country  itself  turns  the  minds  of 
not  overstrong  natures  toward  vicious  pursuits  and  enjoyments  like 
those  of  gambling  and  licentious  association  with  native  women. 
There  is  thus  furnished  a  means  of  spending  money  in  excess  of  the 
legitimate  salaries,  which  soon  leads  on  to  an  appropriation  of  the  pub- 
lic funds.  In  the  beginning  of  this  government  it  was  impossible  to 
organize  a  system  of  inspection  which  should  enable  us  to  follow  the 
private  lives  of  our  employees  charged  with  the  ^custody  of  money, 
but  as  the  organization  becomes  better  and  our  system  of  inspection 
becomes  more  thorough  we  are  able  to  furnish  the  weaker  of  our 
employees  the  fear  of  expected  inspection  as  a  strong  motive  for  pur- 
suing honest  ways.  There  follows  below  a  short  statement  of  the 
history  of  each  of  the  defaulting  officials  in  the  Philippine  civil  service 
during  the  period  July  1,  1902,  to  November  9,  1903: 

James  F.  Beahax.— Born  at  Boston,  Mass.,  in  1877.  Enlisted  in  Company  A, 
Ninth   Massachusetts   Volunteers,    May   4,    1898;   discharged   November   26,    1898. 

AVAR   1903 — VOL    5 5 


66  PEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Enlisted  in  Company  F,  Ninth  U.  S.  Infantry,  January  14,  1899;  discharged  Janu- 
ary 31,  1900,  to  accept  employment  as  clerk  in  the  office  of  the  chief  surgeon,  provost 
guard,  Manila.  Continued  with  the  board  of  health,  and  promoted  to  clerk  at  $1,600 
October  1,  1901;  appointed  disbursing  officer  April  1, 1902,  at  $1,800  per  annum.  An 
examination,  made  in  October,  1902,  of  his  accounts  disclosed  numerous  claims  for 
credit  covering  duplicated  payments,  besides  evidence  of  forgery  of  names  to  a  pay 
roll  for  which  he  had  claimed  credit.  These  fraudulent  claims  for  credit  amounted 
to  about  $4,300  Mexican  currency,  but  there  were  besides  many  irregular  vouchers 
and  improper  transactions.  Mr.  Beahan  was  tried  and  convicted  on  two  charges, 
the  first  of  "falsification  of  public  documents,"  for  which  he  was  sentenced  to  twelve 
years  imprisonment  December  16,  1902.  On  the  second  charge,  "misappropriation 
of  public  funds,"  he  was  given  an  additional  sentence  of  twelve  years  imprisonment 
March  31,  1903.  Between  the  time  of  his  arrest  and  final  conviction  Mr.  Beahan 
fled  to  Shanghai,  China,  where  he  was  apprehended  and  returned.  The  government 
secured  by  attachment  the  amount  of  a  personal  deposit  of  $2,000  gold  made  by  him 
in  one  of  the  Manila  banks. 

William  A.  Wilson.— Born  at  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  in  1871.  Enlisted  in  the  Thirty- 
fifth  Infantry,  U.  S.  Volunteers,  August  22,  1899;  discharged  March  13,  1901,  as 
regimental  commissary  sergeant;  temporarily  employed  in  police  department,  April 
1  to  August  9,  1901,  as  clerk  at  $1,200  per  annum;  appointed  to  the  bureau  of  the 
insular  treasury  as  clerk  at  $1,200  per  annum  August  12,  1901,  as  a  result  of  civil- 
service  examination;  transferred  to  office  of  the  captain  of  the  port  at  $1,600  Sep- 
tember 12,  1901 ;  transferred  to  the  bureau  of  coastguard  and  transportation  January 
1,  1902,  at  $1,800;  promoted  to  disbursing  officer  April  1,  1902,  at  $2,000.  In  Decem- 
ber, 1902,  he  disappeared,  and  in  the  examination  of  his  accounts  which  followed  an 
actual  cash  shortage  of  $19,265.65  Mexican  currency  was  discovered.  Wilson  was 
traced  by  way  of  Hongkong  and  Shanghai  to  Montreal,  Canada,  where  he  was 
arrested  by  United  States  secret  service  agents  and  returned  to  Manila  for  trial.  He 
was  charged  with  ' '  misappropriation  of  public  funds ' '  and  ' '  falsification  of  a  public 
document."  In  the  first  case  he  received  a  sentence,  April  13,  1903,  of  tw7elve  years 
imprisonment,  and  in  the  second  case  a  sentence  of  twelve  years  and  one  day  and  a 
fine  of  1,250  pesetas,  April  20,  1903.  Demand  was  made  for  the  full  amount  of  the 
shortage  upon  the  Fidelity  and  Deposit  Company  of  Maryland  and  the  American 
Surety  Company  of  New  York,  joint  sureties,  and  the  claim  was  settled  in  full 
October  22,  1903. 

Matthew  T.  E.  Ward. — Appointed  subinspector  in  the  Philippines  Constabulary 
May  1,  1902;  promoted  to  fourth-class  inspector  July  1,  1902.  In  October,  1902,  he 
was  found  short  in  his  cash  and  commissary  accounts  to  the  amount  of  $1,  266.26 
Mexican  currency, and  was  tried  on  the  charge  of  "misappropriation  of  pubic  funds," 
and  was  sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  two  years,  four  months,  and  one  day  on 
December  4,  1902.  The  full  amount  of  his  shortage  was  paid  by  the  Union  Surety 
and  Guaranty  Company  of  Philadelphia  August  31,  1903.  An  additional  shortage 
on  account  of  property  is  still  undetermined. 

Charles  J.  De  Witt.— Born  at  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  in  1876.  Formerly  an  enlisted 
man  in  the  Third  U.  S.  Cavalry;  appointed  fourth-class  inspector,  Philippines  Con- 
stabulary, at  $800  per  annum,  September  19,  1902.  In  January,  1903,  he  was  found 
short  $10,498.83  Mexican  currency  in  his  cash,  commissary,  and  property  accounts; 
was  tried  for  "misappropriation  of  public  funds"  and  sentenced,  February  9,  1903, 
to  ten  years'  imprisonment.  The  amount  of  his  shortage  was  paid  August  15,  1903, 
by  the  Fidelity  and  Deposit  Company  and  the  American  Surety  Company,  joint 
sureties. 

0.  G.  Milne. — Born  in  New  York  in  1881.  Appointed  postmaster  at  Tacloban, 
Leyte,  September  1,  1902,  at  $1,000  per  annum.  In  November,  1902,  he  claimed  to 
have  been  the  victim  of  a  robbery  of  over  $12,000  United  States  currency  in  money- 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  67 

order  funds  from  his  office.  His  statements  were  not  consistent.  The  matter  was 
investigated  by  the  inspectors  of  the  bureau  of  posts,  and  upon  the  evidence  secured 
Milne  was  arrested  and  convicted  of  ''misappropriation  of  public  funds"  to  the 
amount  of  $12,140.80  United  States  currency.  He  was  sentenced,  May  1,  1903,  to 
imprisonment  for  eight  years  and  one  day.  After  his  conviction  he  confessed  his 
crime  and  pointed  out  where  $9,102.50  United  States  currency,  for  which  he  was 
accountable,  was  concealed.  This  sum  was  recovered  and  a  further  sum  of  $3,000 
United  States  currency,  the  full  amount  of  his  bond,  was  paid  July  21,  1903,  by  the 
Union  Surety  and  Guaranty  Company  of  Philadelphia. 

Albert  C.  Roberts. — Born  in  Kentucky  in  1873.  Served  as  sergeant  of  Company 
D,  Second  Kentucky  Volunteer  Infantry,  and  as  regimental  quartermaster-sergeant 
of  the  same  regiment;  enlisted  May  3  and  discharged  August  31,  1898.  Served  in 
subsistence  and  quartermaster's  departments  of  U.  S.  Army  from  November  1, 
1898,  to  June  30,  1901;  appointed  bookkeeper  in  the  Insular  Cold  Storage  and  Ice 
Plant,  July  1,  1901,  at  $1,500  per  annum;  compensation  increased  to  $1,800  January 
1,  1902.  Upon  examination  of  his  accounts  in  May,  1903,  he  was  found  short  to  the 
extent  of  $1,622.42  United  States  currency,  and  $7,014.65  Mexican  currency,  and 
was  tried  on  the  charge  of  "misappropriation  of  public  funds,"  but  was  convicted 
of  permitting  others  to  abstract  public  funds,  and  sentenced  July  10,  1903,  to  pay  a 
fine  equal  to  the  amount  of  the  shortage  in  addition  to  the  civil  liability  under  his 
bond.  Demand  was  made  upon  the  Fidelity  and  Deposit  Company  and  the  Ameri- 
can Surety  Company,  joint  sureties,  and  the  claim  was  settled  in  full  October  22, 
1903.  Case  pending  on  appeal  of  the  government,  seeking  a  sentence  of  imprison- 
ment for  years  in  the  penitentiary. 

J.  Valentine  Karelson. — Born  in  New  York  City  in  1875.  Enlisted  in  the 
Twenty-seventh  Battery,  Indiana  Light  Artillery,  May  10,  1898;  discharged  July  17, 
1898,  for  disability;  appointed  to  the  position  of  clerk,  at  $900  per  annum,  in  the 
Manila  post-office,  May  16,  1902,  as  a  result  of  civil-service  examination;  transferred 
to  the  position  of  postmaster  at  Calamba,  Laguna,  January  15,  1903,  at  $1,000  per 
annum.  In  April,  1903,  he  claimed  to  have  lost  $1,000,  United  States  currency,  in 
transit  to  his  depositary  at  Manila.  Investigation  showed  that  his  claim  was  a  false 
one.  He  was  charged  with  "misappropriation  of  public  funds,"  convicted,  and 
sentenced  July  5,  1903,  to  imprisonment  for  ten  years  and  one  day,  and  to  pay  a 
fine  of  $1,000  United  States  currency.  Demand  has  been  made  upon  the  Union 
Surety  and  Guaranty  Company,  but  the  matter  is  unadjusted. 

Walter  Shttltz. — Born  at  Houstonia,  Mo.,  in  1875.  Enlisted  in  Company  H, 
First  Territorial  Infantry,  July  27, 1898;  mustered  out  February  17, 1899;  reenlisted  in 
Company  H,  Thirty-fourth  Infantry,  July  25,  1900;  discharged  as  sergeant  February 
26,  1901;  appointed  postmaster  at  Laoag,  Ilocos  Norte,  on  a  percentage  basis,  March 
1,  1901;  salary  fixed  at  $1,000  per  annum  April  1,  1901;  returned  to  the  percentage 
basis  October  1,  1901;  reappointed  postmaster  at  Laoag  April  1,  1903,  at  $900  per 
annum;  salary  increased  to  $1,000  July  1,  1903.  In  July,  1903,  he  was  found  short 
$2,500  United  States  currency  by  Post-Office  Inspector  Ladd.  Shultz  confessed  and 
made  a  full  statement  of  his  peculations.  He  was  charged  with  "  misappropriation 
of  public  funds,"  and  sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  eight  years  and  one  day.  The 
final  audit  of  this  account  showed  a  net  shortage  of  $2,  511.  97  United  States  currency. 
It  appeared  by  the  confession  of  the  late  postmaster  that  the  sum  of  $809.  52  United 
States  currency  was  abstracted  from  the  money-order  funds  prior  to  October  1,  1902, 
at  which  time  a  bond  given  by  the  Union  Surety  and  Guaranty  Company  was 
effective.  For  the  remainder  of  the  shortage,  $1,  702.  45  United  States  currency,  the 
Fidelity  and  Deposit  Company  and  the  American  Surety  Company  were  deemed 
jointly  liable.  Demand  was  made  upon  the  surety  companies  concerned,  and  the 
amount  for  which  each  was  liable  was  paid  October  22,  1903. 

Bartlett  Sinclair. — Born  at  Lancaster,  S.  C,  in  1864.  A  member  of  the  New 
York  bar  and  subsequently  auditor  of  the  State  of  Idaho.     Most  highly  recom- 


68  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

mended.  Appointed  treasurer  province  of  Rizal  September  25,  1901.  In  January, 
1903,  he  was  found  short  in  his  accounts  in  the  sum  of  $1, 410.  40  United  States  cur- 
rency. He  was  removed  from  office  and  charged  under  a  Spanish  statute  still  in 
force^with  "carelessness  and  negligence  in  office,"  as  a  result  of  which  he  permitted 
others  to  abstract  public  funds.  The  books  of  the  late  treasurer,  as  kept  by  him, 
showed  a  shortage  of  over  $10,  000  Mexican  currency,  while  additional  debits  not 
charged,  amounting  to  over  $10, 000  Mexican  currency,  were  discovered  in  the 
examination  of  his  office.  The  case  against  Sinclair  resulted  in  acquittal,  on  the 
peculiar  ground  that  he  was  as  attentive  to  his  duties  as  a  man  with  his  lack  of 
money  accounting  sense  could  be  expected  to  be,  October  20,  1903.  The  loss  has 
been  paid  in  full  by  the  sureties. 

Emory  H.  Fogerty. — Born  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  in  1874.  Cadet  United  States 
Revenue-Cutter  Service,  1898-1900.  Appointed  to  the  Philippine  civil  service  from 
the  United  States  as  a  result  of  civil-service  examination  April  21, 1902;  assigned  to 
the  position  of  deputy  treasurer,  province  of  Rizal,  under  Bartlett  Sinclair.  Mr. 
Fogerty  made  a  written  confession  of  having  appropriated  to  his  own  use  a  sum 
equivalent  to  $1,276  United  States  currency,  pleaded  guilty,  and  was  sentenced 
April  8,  1903,  to  three  years'  imprisonment. 

Ricardo  Gutierrez. — Born  in  Baliuag,  P.  I.,  in  1882.  Appointed  clerk  in  the 
office  of  the  treasurer,  province  of  Rizal  at  $180,  July  9,  1901;  promoted  September 
15,  1901,  to  the  position  of  deputy  treasurer  at  $300  per  annum.  While  deputy  of 
ex-Treasurer  Sinclair,  was  charged  with  misappropriation  of  $244.  34  Mexican  cur- 
rency, but  reimbursed  the  government  before  the  date  of  his  sentence,  which  was 
imprisonment  for  four  months  and  one  day. 

Gregorio  de  Silva. — Born  at  Pasig,  P.  I.,  in  1875.  Appointed  clerk  in  the  office 
of  the  treasurer,  province  of  Rizal,  on  July  15,  1901,  at  $180  per  annum.  While 
deputy  of  ex-Treasurer  Sinclair,  he  was  convicted  of  having  appropriated  $46.28 
Mexican  currency,  but  reimbursed  the  government  before  a  sentence  of  two  months' 
imprisonment  was  imposed. 

Frank  Dean  Tompkins. — Born  at  Troy,  N.  Y.,  in  1870.  Appointed  first  lieu- 
tenant, First  U.  S.  Volunteer  Infantry,  June  21,  1898 ;  honorably  mustered  out 
October  28,  1898;  appointed  first  lieutenant,  Thirty-third  U.  S.  Volunteer  Infantry, 
April  5,  1899;  detailed  as  treasurer  and  collector  of  internal  revenue,  province  of  La 
Union,  while  in  the  military  service,  and  appointed  treasurer  of  the  province  of  La 
Union  August  15,  1901,  at  $2,000  per  annum.  An  examination  of  the  accounts  of 
Dean  Tompkins  made  in  June,  1903,  disclosed  a  shortage  of  $221.15  United  States 
currency,  and  $22,744.25  Mexican  currency.  After  the  seizure  of  his  office,  July  5, 
1903,  by  the  deputy  of  the  insular  treasurer,  Mr.  Tompkins  made  cash  payments  on 
his  shortage  amounting  to  $1,129.99  United  States  currency  and  $7,061.26  Mexican 
currency,  besides  payment  by  personal  notes  given  by  him  to  various  persons  for 
salary  vouchers,  for  which  he  claimed  credit  in  his  accounts,  amounting  to  $294.50 
United  States  currency  and  $1,338.74  Mexican  currency.  The  persons  who  accepted 
these  notes  now  state  that  they  did  so  with  the  understanding  that  the  province  was 
cramped  for  funds  or  that  the  actual  cash  was  not  available,  and  that  the  obligation 
of  the  government  to  pay  was  not  discharged  by  acceptance  of  the  notes.  The  notes 
were  given  to  provincial  officers  and  employees  after  the  seizure  of  the  office,  how- 
ever. Mne  charges  were  filed  against  ex-Treasurer  Tompkins — four  for  "estafa," 
four  for  falsification  of  public  documents  in  forging  names  of  municipal  treasurers  to 
receipts  for  money  for  which  he  took  credit,  and  one  for  misappropriation  of  public 
funds  amounting  to  $221.15  United  States  currency  and  $22,744.25  Mexican  currency. 
One  of  the  cases  for  ' '  estafa ' '  resulted  in  acquittal  on  account  of  a  technicality.  In 
the  next  case  heard,  the  charge  being  forgery,  the  defendant  was  found  guilty  and 
sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  seventeen  years,  four  months,  and  one  day.  During 
the  hearing  of  the  third  case  brought  to  trial,  that  of  misappropriation  of  public 
funds,  the  defendant  fell  sick,  and  further  hearing  of  the  case  was  postponed  to 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  69 

October  1,  1903.  This  case  resulted  in  conviction,  and  an  additional  sentence  of 
imprisonment  for  nine  years  was  imposed  October  15.  The  loss  is  unadjusted.  The 
remainder  of  the  indictments  are  in  abeyance. 

Alfred  E.  Wood. — Born  at  Reigate,  England,  in  1864.  Appointed  in  the  United 
States  to  the  Philippine  civil  service  as  clerk,  at  $1,400  per  annum,  as  a  result  of  civil- 
service  examination;  assigned  to  the  bureau  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent  upon 
arrival;  resigned  and  appointed  in  the  Census  Bureau  October  31,  1902;  resigned 
December  5,  1902;  reinstated  and  appointed  chief  clerk  and  deputy  treasurer  of  the 
province  of  La  Union  December  15,  1902,  at  $1,200  per  annum.  As  deputy  to  Dean 
Tompkins,  ex-treasurer  of  Union  province,  he  made  certain  illegal  collections  from 
municipal  treasurers  and  embezzled  the  same.  The  amount  involved  is  a  part  of  the 
treasurer's  shortage.  Wood  was  found  guilty  September  10,  1903,  of  "estafa,"  and 
sentenced  to  four  months'  imprisonment  in  the  provincial  jail. 

Thomas  P.  Coates. — Born  in  Illinois  in  1880.  Appointed  to  the  position  of  clerk, 
bureau  of  customs,  Condon,  P.  I.,  at  $600,  on  February  20, 1900.  Promoted  to  coast 
district  inspector  of  customs,  San  Fernando,  Union,  at  $1,400,  on  June  24,  1901. 
In  July,  1903,  he  was  found  short  in  his  accounts  $1,990.22  Mexican  currency,  by 
Supervising  Special  Agent  Edwards,  of  the  customs  service.  Coates  was  charged  with 
misappropriation  of  funds,  and  also  with  "estafa,"  in  using  a  false  and  fraudulent 
check  of  Dean  Tompkins  to  deceive  the  special  agent.  He  was  found  guilty  of  the 
first  charge  September  9,  1903,  and  sentenced  to  eight  years'  imprisonment.  The 
defendant  paid  the  amount  of  his  shortage  in  open  court. 

Charles  H.  Osborn. — Born  in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  in  1875.  Enlisted  in  Company 
B,  Ninth  New  York  Voluntary  Infantry,  May  2,  1898.  Reenlisted  in  Company  L, 
Third  U.  S.  Infantry,  July  20, 1900;  discharged  to  accept  employment  as  clerk  in  the 
office  of  the  adjutant-general,  Department  of  North  Philippines,  June  23,  1901;  trans- 
ferred to  Quartermaster's  Department  December  21,  1901;  appointed  fourth-class 
inspector,  Philippine  Constabulary,  June  20,  1902,  at  $800  per  annum;  assigned  as 
supply  officer  at  San  Fernando,  Union,  September  30,  1902;  compensation  increased 
to  $900  per  annum  June  1,  1903;  June,  1903,  he  was  found  short  $6,081.55  Mexican 
currency,  in  his  disbursing  and  commissary  accounts,  and  was  charged  with  misap- 
propriation of  public  funds  and  "estafa"  in  using  a  false  and  fraudulent  check  of 
Dean  Tompkins  for  $3,000,  to  be  used  as  cash  during  inspection  of  his  accounts. 
Osborn  was  found  guilty  of  misappropriation  of  funds  and  sentenced  September  9  to 
ten  years'  imprisonment.     Demand  will  be  made  upon  his  sureties  without  delay. 

Qutxttn  R.  Gonzalez. — Born  at  Manila,  P.  I.,  in  1870.  Appointed  fourth-class 
inspector,  Philippine  Constabulary,  September  20,  1901,  at  $800  per  annum;  pro- 
moted to  third-class  inspector  June  17,  1902,  at  $950;  promoted  December  18,  1902, 
to  -SI, 000.  He  was  found  short  in  his  accounts  to  the  amount  of  about  $1,600  Mexi- 
can currency,  and  is  under  arrest  pending  trial.  The  shortage  has  been  made  good 
by  him. 

William  G.  Hollis. — Born  at  Chatham,  Mass.,  in  1873.  Enlisted  in  Company  L, 
Fifth  Massachusetts  Infantry,  June  1,  1898;  mustered  out  March  31,  1899;  served  as 
property  clerk  and  stenographer  in  the  Quartermaster's  Department  in  Cuba  and 
later  in  the  office  of  the  depot  quartermaster,  Department  of  Northern  Luzon,  from 
1899  to  June  30,  1901;  appointed  clerk,  office  of  the  insular  treasurer,  July  1,  1901, 
as  a  result  of  civil-service  examination,  at  $1,200  per  annum;  salary  increased  July  15 
to  $1,400;  September  1,  to  $1,600;  October  17,  to  $1,800;  February  1,  1902,  to  $2,000; 
appointed  treasurer  of  Occidental  Negros  August  8,  1902.  In  June,  1903,  an  exami- 
nation of  his  cash  accounts  showed  a  shortage,  as  of  June  23,  1903,  of  $11,063.11 
Mexican  currency,  with  an  overage  of  $86.71  United  States  currency.  His  trial  is 
pending  before  the  court  of  first  instance  of  Bacolod.  Demand  will  be  made  upon 
sureties  for  the  amount  misappropriated. 

James  W.  Walsh,  Jr.— Born  in  North  Dakota  in  1876;  appointed  subinspector, 
Philippine  Constabulary,  at  $480  per  annum,  February  13,  1902;  promoted  April  1  to 


70  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

fourth-class  inspector  at  $800;  defaulted  in  his  accounts  in  October,  1903.  From  the 
incomplete  records  in  this  office  it  appears  that  he  is  short  in  his  disbursing  account 
in  the  sum  of  $10,557.66  Mexican  currency,  and  in  his  commissary  account  in  the 
sum  of  $5,603.98  Philippine  currency.  He  was  convicted  and  sentenced  to  ten  years' 
imprisonment  for  the  shortage  of  more  than  $10,000  in  his  local  currency  account, 
and  was  given  an  additional  sentence  of  ten  years'  imprisonment  for  the  embezzle- 
ment of  commissary  stores. 

Charles  G.  Johnson. — Appointed  subinspector,  Philippine  Constabulary,  April 
26,  1902,  at  $480  per  annum;  promoted  to  fourth-class  inspector  at  $800  per  annum 
on  July  1,  1902.  While  acting  in  his  capacity  of  supply  officer  of  constabulary  it 
appears  that  he  turned  pirate  and  was  killed  in  an  attempt  to  escape  capture.  Incom- 
plete reports  at  hand  indicate  a  shortage  of  $8,625  Philippine  currency.  The  defal- 
cation in  his  accounts  occurred  in  September,  1903.  Demand  will  be  made  upon  his 
sureties  for  the  full  amount  involved. 

For  the  purposes  of  comparison  there  follows  a  letter  from  the 
auditor  showing  the  total  number  of  officers  in  the  Philippines  hand- 
ling money,  either  as  receiving  or  disbursing  officers,  and  the  amounts 

handled: 

The  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 

Office  of  the  Auditor, 
Manila,  November  10,  1903. 

Sir:  In  compliance  with  your  verbal  request,  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  herewith 
lists  of  the  collecting  and  disbursing  officers,  insular  and  provincial  (including  the 
city  of  Manila),  who  served  during  the  fiscal  year  1903. 

It  should  be  noted  that  many  persons  served  as  collecting  or  disbursing  officers  in 
more  than  one  capacity,  and  in  such  cases  the  name  appears  for  each  capacity,  as 
such  accounts,  so  far  as  the  auditor  is  concerned,  are  as  separate  as  if  rendered  by 
different  individuals. 

The  lists  may  be  classified  as  follows: 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  over  $2,000,000 4 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $1,000,000  and  less 

than  $2, 000, 000 3 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $500,000  and  less  than 

$1,000,000 10 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $100,000  and  less  than 

$500,000 31 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $75,000  and  less  than 

$100, 000 22 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $50,000  and  less  than 

$75,000 29 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $40,000  and  less  than 

$50, 000 .' 15 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $20,000  and  less  than 

$40, 000 80 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $10,000  and  less  than 

$20,000 81 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $5,000  and  less  than 

$10,000 84 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $1,000  and  less  than 

$5,000 185 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  more  than  $500  and  less  than 

$1,000 69 

Number  of  officers  who  received  or  disbursed  less  than  $500 491 

Total 1 ,  104 


REPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  71 

The  treasurer  of  the  islands,  who  is  not  included  in  the  foregoing  classification, 
received  during  the  fiscal  year  deposits  of  insular  funds  amounting,  approximately, 
to  $15,000,000  in  United  States  currency  and  $25,000,000  in  Mexican  currency.  As 
depositary  he  received  additional  deposits  amounting  to  $27,965,608  in  United  States 
currency  and  $24,612,902  in  Mexican  currency. 
Eespectfully, 

A.  L.  Lawshe,  Auditor. 
The  honorable  Civil  Governor. 

The  percentage  of  defaulters  thus  appears  to  be  less  than  2  per  cent. 
This  is  far  too  large,  but  we  feel  assured  that  next  year  will  show  a 
notable  decrease.  "It  is  an  ill  wind  that  blows  nobody  good,"  and 
the  punishment  of  American  officials  for  dishonesty  has  furnished  the 
Filipinos  a  spectacle  which  they  never  enjoyed  during  the  Spanish 
regime.  It  is  not  a  matter  of  inference,  but  it  is  a  matter  of  observa- 
tion, that  the  prompt  trial  and  severe  punishment  of  American  officials 
has  inspired  in  the  Filipinos  confidence  in  the  sense  of  justice  of  this 
government.  The  severe  losses  entailed  on  the  surety  companies 
during  this  year  will  probably  necessitate  an  increase  in  the  rate  at 
which  the  bonds  will  be  issued  for  the  next  year,  and  yet  at  no  other 
time  in  the  history  of  the  islands,  probably,  is  the  surety  business 
likely  to  be  more  lucrative  than  during  the  immediate  future. 

The  revelations  of  dishonesty  in  the  officials  above  named  have  not 
shaken,  but  have  only  strengthened  our  confidence  in  the  wisdom  of 
the  merit  system.  The  means  of  obtaining  information  concerning  a 
man's  previous  character  are  being  much  improved,  and  the  certainty 
of  tenure  produced  by  the  merit  system  all  tend  to  inspire  the  civil 
servant  with  an  esprit  de  corps  and  convince  him  that  the  only  possible 
course  for  him  to  pursue  with  a  view  to  success  is  a  devotion  to  duty 
and  to  the  interests  of  the  public  and  the  government.  The  merit 
system  excludes  favoritism,  and  with  favoritism  excluded  and  the 
reasonable  hope  of  promotion  for  good  work  present,  there  is  a  cer- 
tainty of  securing  honest  and  enthusiastic  civil  servants. 

THE    COASTWISE    LAWS. 

Unless  Congress  takes  some  action,  on  July  1,  1904,  the  coastwise 
laws  of  the  United  States  will  apply  not  only  to  the  interisland  ship- 
ping trade,  but  also  to  the  trade  between  the  islands  and  the  United 
States.  In  the  present  conditions  nothing  could  be  more  disastrous  to 
these  islands.  The  effect  of  the  laws  would  be  to  exclude  from  the 
islands  and  the  American  trade  all  but  American  bottoms.  The  inter- 
island trade  is  as  necessary  to  the  life  of  the  islands  as  the  arterial 
system  to  the  human  body.  The  application  of  the  United  States 
coastwise  laws  would  exclude  a  great  majority  of  the  ships  now  engaged 
in  the  trade  and  would  inflict  immense  damage  to  the  business  of  the 
islands.  In  1899,  by  Executive  order,  the  coastwise  trade  was  limited 
to  vessels  bona  fide  owned  either  by  a  citizen  of  the  United  States, 


72  KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

resident  in  the  islands,  or  a  native  inhabitant,  or  a  resident  who  had 
become  a  citizen  of  the  islands  by  the  treaty  of  Paris.  Even  this 
order,  if  strictly  enforced,  would  have  excluded  a  large  proportion  of 
the  available  coasting  vessels  then  engaged  in  the  business,  and  the 
military  authorities,  to  avoid  the  disaster  of  driving  them  out  of  the 
trade  of  the  islands,  winked  at  colorable  transfers  to  Filipino  clerks 
and  agents  in  whose  names  certificates  of  protection  were  taken  out. 
These  vessels  had  been  in  the  trade  in  Spanish  times,  and  they  were 
still  needed.  Any  change  in  the  existing  laws  should  provide  that 
vessels  now  having  a  certificate  of  protection  should  be  allowed  to 
continue  in  the  trade.  Indeed  so  convinced  were  the  Commission 
that  the  interisland  shipping  was  not  extensive  enough  for  the  good 
of  the  islands  that  we  procured  an  amendment  to  the  Executive  order 
by  which,  under  certain  restrictions,  vessels  under  foreign  flags  may 
engage  in  the  interisland  trade.  The  occasion  for  this  was  a  combina- 
tion among  the  interisland  shippers  to  keep  up  unreasonable  rates. 
The  amendment  has  had  an  excellent  effect  and  rates  are  more  reason- 
able, although  still  too  high.  If  the  present  profits  of  the  interisland 
trade  are  not  sufficient  to  attract  American  capital,  then  certainly  it 
would  be  selfish  exploitation  of  these  islands  of  an  indefensible  char- 
acter to  exclude  vessels  now  in  the  trade  and  impose  the  heavy  burden 
of  higher  freight  rates  in  order  to  induce  American  capital  to  invest 
in  coastwise  vessels,  and  would  furnish  just  ground  for  reproach 
against  a  government  professing  good  will  and  doing  evil.  It  seems 
to  me  that  the  best  provision  of  law  which  could  be  adopted,  so  far  as 
the  interisland  trade  is  concerned,  would  be  to  place  the  matter  wholly 
in  the  discretion  of  the  Commission,  which,  as  conditions  change  and 
warrant  it,  could  make  the  restrictions  in  favor  of  American  and 
Filipino  shipping  greater. 

With  respect  to  the  trade  between  these  islands  and  the  United 
States,  I  concur  fully  in  the  remarks  of  Collector  Shuster  in  his  annual 
report  in  which  he  says: 

At  the  present  time  the  greater  jpart  of  the  freight  traffic  between  the  Philippines 
and  New  York  is  carried  on  in  foreign  bottoms.  So  far  as  indications  go,  any  law 
which  prevented  the  continuance  of  that  trade  in  foreign  bottoms  until  an  equal 
tonnage  of  cheaply  operated  American  freighters  are  actually  available  to  take  up 
that  trade  and  maintain  healthy  rate  competition,  would  result  in  a  decided  increase 
over  the  present  rates  of  freight.  This  additional  burden  would  fall  upon  the  already 
weakened  resources  of  these  islands  and  such  a  result  would  be  more  than  lamentable 
from  every  standpoint. 

The  tonnage  plying  between  these  islands  and  the  Pacific  coast  is  about  equal  to  the 
present  freight  supply  and  no  change  in  the  present  law  seems  advisable  so  far  as 
trans-Pacific  routes  are  concerned. 

It  is,  therefore,  earnestly  recommended  that  the  present  laws,  so  far  as  they  permit 
foreign  bottoms  to  trade  between  these  islands  and  the  mainland  territory  of  the 
United  States,  be  not  changed  for  a  period  of  at  least  five  years  from  July  1,  1904, 
and  that  positive  legislation  to  that  effect  be  had  by  Congress  at  an  early  date. 


EEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


73 


THE   INSULAR   REVENUES. 

The  report  of  the  auditor  shows  that  the  revenues  of  the  islands  for 
the  year  ending  June  30,  1903,  exceeded  those  for  the  year  ending 
June  30,  1902,  as  follows: 

Comparative  statement  of  revenues  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  fiscal  years  1902  and  1903, 
exclusive  of  provincial  receipts  and  refundable  collections. 


Items. 

Fiscal  year 
1903. 

Fiscal  year 
1902. 

$9, 215, 551. 88 

145,702.53 

7,867.01 

595,350.95 
567, 581. 97 

$8, 398, 864.  35 

Postal 

137, 811.  99 

94, 634. 84 

Miscellaneous: 

508, 120. 60 

42, 571.  86 

City  of  Manila  under  provost-marshal  (exclusive  of  internal  reve- 

85, 709. 51 

10,532,054.34 

1, 264,  341. 19 

1, 542,  463. 83 

428,  613.  76 

12,074,518.17 
1,692,954.95 

9, 267, 713. 15 

1,113,850.07 

10,381,563.22 

Increase  in  1903 

In  the  fiscal  year  1902  receipts  in  the  city  of  Manila  from  July  1  to  August  7,  1901, 
prior  to  the  incorporation  of  the  city  of  Manila,  amounting  to  $82,813.43,  are  included 
in  the  internal  revenues;  and  $85,709.51  was  collected  by  the  provost-marshal-general 
administrating  the  department  of  receipts  and  disbursements,  making  total  collec- 
tions in  the  city  of  Manila,  under  the  charter  and  otherwise,  $1,282,373.01,  as  against 
$1,542,463.83  for  1903,  an  increase  in  1903  of  $260,090.82. 

Forestry  taxes  collected  in  each  year  are  excluded,  these  collections  being  refund- 
able to  the  several  provinces  in  which  the  timber  was  cut. 

The  income  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1902,  exclusive  of  the  city 
of  Manila,  was  $9,165,952.44,  the  income  for  the  city  of  Manila  was 
$1,199,559.58,  and  the  total  income  was  $10,665,512.02.  The  income 
for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1903,  included  about  $560,000  of  extraor- 
dinai^y  items.  These  were  the  amount  paid  hy  the  United  States  for 
the  gunboats  turned  over  to  the  Navy,  purchased  out  of  insular  funds; 
and  the  Spanish  insurgent  seized  funds,  turned  over  to  the  insular 
treasury.  During  the  year  we  had  the  extraordinary  expense  of 
taking  the  census,  for  which  there  was  appropriated  something  over 
$694,000;  and  in  addition  to  that  we  had  appropriated  $125,000  for 
the  exposition  board  for  the  preliminary  expense  for  the  Philippine 
exhibit  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.  Added  to  this  were 
the  appropriations  of  $1,000,000  for  the  continuance  of  the  harbor 
works  in  the  port  of  Manila,  $350,000  for  harbor  works  in  the  city  of 
Cebu,  and  $150,000  for  the  harbor  works  in  the  city  of  lloilo.  The 
result  is  that  the  surplus,  which  on  June  30,  1902,  amounted  to 
$4,000,000,  has  been  reduced  to  nearly  $2,200,000  in  round  numbers. 
Of  course  the  surplus  was  accumulated  for  the  purpose  of  making 
permanent  improvements,  and  its  reduction  by  the  amount  required 
for  the  port  works  in  the  three  cities  is  a  reduction  in  accordance 


74  KEPOKT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

with  the  plan  of  the  Commission.  The  revenues,  in  spite  of  the 
conditions,  have  kept  up,  although  there  has  been  a  slight  falling 
off  during  the  first  four  months  of  the  new  fiscal  year,  as  follows: 
For  the  first  four  months  of  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1903, 
the  amount  collected  was  $3,612,510.88;  for  the  first  four  months  of 
the  year  ending  June  30,  1904,  $3,492,729.88,  or  a  loss  of  $119,781. 
This  is  exclusive  of  the  income  from  the  city  of  Manila.  The  ten- 
dency to  the  expensive  conveniences  and  the  pressure  for  increase  in 
salaries  in  all  departments  and  bureaus  renders  it  most  difficult  to 
prevent  expenditures  from  outrunning  our  income.  We  are  anxious 
naturally  to  put  as  much  money  into  permanent  construction  as  possi- 
ble. We  have  as  yet,  however,  no  general  authority  to  borrow  money 
to  pay  for  permanent  improvements,  and  the  cost  falls  on  the  results 
of  taxation.  We  find  it  wiser  to  pay  good  salaries — salaries  in  excess 
of  those  paid  for  the  same  service  in  the  United  States — to  all  who 
occupy  responsible  positions.  The  cost  of  living  is  so  high  in  Manila 
that  a  salary  of  $7,000  here  hardly  goes  as  far  as  a  salary  of  $5,000  in 
any  of  the  smaller  cities  of  the  United  States.  I  am  convinced  that 
we  made  a  mistake  in  fixing  the  salaries  for  the  supreme  judges  at 
$7,000,  and  for  that  of  the  chief  justice  at  $7,500.  The  court  is  of  so 
much  dignity  and  of  so  much  importance  that  we  might  very  well  have 
fixed  the  salaries  of  the  judges  at  $10,000  a  year,  and  that  of  the  chief 
justice  at  $10,500.  We  are  likely  to  lose  by  resignation  three  of  the 
Americans  who  have  constituted  the  court  of  seven  at  the  end  of  their 
service  of  three  years,  and  that  largely  because  the  salary  offers  no 
inducement  to  hold  the  place.  This  is  a  deplorable  condition,  because 
the  value  of  the  supreme  court  depends  largely  on  the  experience  of 
its  members,  and  if  we  are  not  to  obtain  the  benefit  of  the  learning  and 
experience  acquired  on  the  bench  in  the  Spanish  civil  law  by  our 
American  judges  we  lose  much. 

An  examination  of  the  report  of  the  secretary  of  finance  and  justice 
will  show  that  the  extraordinary  expenses  of  the  current  six  months 
provided  for  in  the  appropriations,  if  continued  in  the  same  propor- 
tions for  the  remaining  six  months  of  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 
1904,  would  absorb  the  surplus  and  leave  a  considerable  deficit.  Part 
of  this  extraordinary  expense  is  made  up  by  the  purchase  of  the 
Oriente  Hotel  for  an  office  building,  at  a  cost  of  $675,000  Mexican, 
the  appropriation  of  $450,000  gold  for  the  St.  Louis  Exposition  pur- 
poses, which  includes  not  only  the  direct  appropriation  for  expendi- 
ture by  the  exposition  board  of  $375,000,  but  also  that  of  $75,000  to 
pay  the  expenses  of  sending  fifty  Filipinos  of  education,  culture,  and 
prominence  to  the  United  States  for  purposes  already  stated.  The 
work  is  proceeding  so  rapidly  on  the  port  works  of  Manila  that  it  is 
probable  that  another  heavy  appropriation  will  have  to  be  made  to 
meet  that  expenditure.     It  is  quite  unlikely  that  any  considerable 


KEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  75 

expenditure  for  public  works  and  improvements  of  a  permanent  char- 
acter can  continue  to  be  made  out  of  the  current  revenue,  and  a  deficit 
would  be  exceedingly  embarrassing.  Of  course,  if  the  Dingley  tariff 
were  reduced  and  an  impetus  given  to  business  in  the  islands  by  the 
increased  production  of  sugar  and  tobacco  and  their  sale  in  the  United 
States,  the  increase  in  the  revenues  would  probably  keep  pace  with 
the  increase  in  the  expenditures,  but  to  meet  all  contingencies  it  seems 
to  me  that  a  Congressional  act  authorizing  the  issuing  of  bonds  for 
permanent  improvements  in  the  islands,  not  exceeding  $5,000,000, 
each  issue  to  be  approved  by  the  Secretary  of  War  and  the  President 
of  the  United  States,  would  not  be  conferring  upon  the  Commission 
or  legislature  of  the  islands  excessive  authority,  and  that  it  is  really  a 
necessary  provision  to  prevent  possible  financial  embarrassment. 

OFFICE   OF   THE   INSULAR  PURCHASING   AGENT. 

The  report  of  the  purchasing  agent,  which  is  attached  hereto  as  an 
exhibit,  shows  the  very  large  amount  of  business  done  by  him  for  the 
purpose  of  supplying  the  departments  with  needed  permanent  equip- 
ment and  consumable  supplies.  His  total  purchases  for  the  year  end- 
ing September  30, 1903,  were  $2,215,275.62,  exclusive  of  rice  purchases 
and  carabaos.  Of  this  amount  it  appears  that  over  80  per  cent  has 
been  bought  through  the  merchants  of  Manila,  14  per  cent  bought 
in  the  United  States,  and  the  remainder  in  other  countries.  The  work 
needed  in  taking  charge  of  the  shipments  when  they  arrived  and  in 
distributing  them  for  shipment  to  all  parts  of  the  Archipelago  has 
been  very  heavy. 

In  addition  to  the  supplies  thus  purchased,  under  special  acts  of  the 
Commission,  the  insular  purchasing  agent  has  been  charged  with  the 
duty  of  buying  and  selling  rice,  of  which  he  purchased  to  the  1st 
of  October  $2,451,168.04  and  sold  $2,310,633.06,  Mexican  currency, 
having  on  hand  at  the  present  time  rice  amounting  to  $107,152.84  in 
value.  He  was  also  charged  with  the  business  of  supervising  the  com- 
pletion of  the  contract  with  Keylock  &  Pratt  for  10,000  head  of  cara- 
baos bought  in  Shanghai,  to  be  delivered  at  the  rate  of  500  per  month. 
At  this  date  only  773  have  been  delivered,  and  they  are  being  sold  as 
rapidly  as  they  can  be  permanently  immunized  against  rinderpest  by 
the  bureau  of  government  laboratories.  The  insular  purchasing  agent 
is  also  charged  with  the  duty  of  maintaining  and  supervising  a  trans- 
portation department  for  the  city  of  Manila.  New  stables  are  being 
erected  for  him  on  the  San  Lazaro  estate,  and  when  they  are  com- 
pleted he  will  furnish  all  the  transportation  for  all  the  insular  bureaus, 
including  the  bureau  of  health. 

The  report  shows  the  handling  and  shipping  of  $3,281,000  worth  of 
property  and  the  accounting  for  $5,021,045  of  United  States  currency. 
There  has  been  taken  from  the  purchasing  agent  all  obligation  to  pur- 


76  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

chase  food  supplies,  which  are  now  bought  directly  by  the  commissary 
department  of  the  constabulary  and  are  furnished  for  sale  at  cost  price, 
with  10  per  cent  added,  to  all  civil  employees  outside  the  city  of 
Manila. 

PROVINCIAL   AND  MUNICIPAL  GOVERNMENTS." 

THE   GOVERNMENT   OP   THE   MORO   PROVINCE. 

Early  in  the  present  calendar  year  the  Secretary  of  War  called  the 
attention  of  the  civil  governor  to  the  fact  that  the  time  seemed  now  to 
have  arrived  when  a  more  definite  form  of  government  might  be  given 
to  the  parts  of  the  Archipelago  occupied  by  the  Moros.  Accordingly, 
a  bill  for  the  government  of  the  Moro  Province  was  drafted.  It  was 
submitted  to  General  Davis,  then  commanding  the  division,  and  who 
was  formerly  department  commander  of  Mindanao  and  Jolo,  and  was 
thus  familiar  with  Moro  conditions.  Subsequently  the  bill  as  revised 
by  General  Davis  was  presented  to  the  Commission,  and  in  the  Com- 
mission it  received  many  additions  and  changes.  It  became  a  law  on 
the  1st  of  June,  1903,  but  did  not  take  effect  until  the  15th  of  July 
next  ensuing. 

The  act  makes  the  Moro  Province  to  consist  of  all  the  islands  of 
Mindanao  and  its  adjacent  islands,  except  the  provinces  of  Misamis 
and  Surigao,  which  had  theretofore  been  established  as  Christian  Fili- 
pino provinces  under  the  general  provincial  act.  The  law  takes  away 
from  the  province  of  Misamis  the  town  and  district  of  Iligan,  in  which 
there  are  a  great  number  or  Moros  resident,  and  also  somewhat 
reduces  the  boundaries  of  the  province  of  Surigao.  The  Moro  Prov- 
ince also  includes  the  island  of  Isabela  de  Basilan  and  all  the  islands  to 
the  south  of  Mindanao  in  the  Archipelago.  It  embraces  within  the 
boundaries,  therefore,  all  the  Moros  in  the  Archipelago  except  a  small 
number  of  them  resident  in  the  south  half  of  the  island  of  Paragua  or 
Palawan  and  possibly  a  few  who  live  on  the  west  coast  of  the  province 
of  Misamis,  near  the  towns  of  Misamis  and  Oroquieta.  The  province 
is  divided  into  five  districts — the  district  of  Zamboanga,  the  district  of 
Lanao,  the  district  of  Cotabato,  the  district  of  Davao,  and  the  district  of 
Jolo.  The  executive  head  of  the  province  is  the  provincial  governor, 
who  has  as  his  assistants  the  provincial  secretary,  the  provincial  attor- 
ney, the  provincial  engineer,  the  provincial  superintendent  of  schools, 
and  the  provincial  treasurer.  The  officers  named,  with  the  governor, 
being  six  in  number,  constitute  the  legislative  council  for  the  prov- 
ince, and  in  case  of  an  even  division  the  proposition  having  the  vote 
of  the  governor  prevails.  For  the  support  of  the  province  there  are 
assigned  all  the  customs  receipts  from  the  port  of  Jolo,  the  port  of 
Zamboanga,  and  the  new  port  of  Bongao,  making  about  $130,000  gold 
a  year.  Internal-revenue  taxes  are  to  be  collected  in  towns  organized 
under  the  municipal  code,  and  such  other  taxes  as  the  legislative  coun- 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  77 

cil  may  see  fit  to  impose.  The  legislative  council  is  authorized  to 
create  municipalities  under  the  municipal  code  or  to  modify  its  terms 
to  suit  local  conditions.  It  is  authorized  to  organize  a  public  school 
system  and  to  vary  the  character  of  the  schools  in  different  districts 
as  the  special  and  local  necessities  require.     It  is  authorized: 

(h)  To  enact  laws  for  the  creation  of  local  governments  among  the  Moros  and 
other  non-Christian  tribes,  conforming  as  nearly  as  possible  to  the  lawful  customs  of 
such  peoples,  and  vesting  in  their  local  or  tribe  rulers  as  nearly  as  possible  the  same 
authority  over  their  people  as  they  now  exercise,  consistent  with  the  act  of  Congress 
entitled  '  'An  act  temporarily  to  provide  for  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  civil 
government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  other  purposes,"  and  following 
as  nearly  as  possible  in  the  provisions  of  these  laws  any  agreements  heretofore  made 
by  the  United  States  authorities  with  such  local  or  tribe  rulers  concerning  the  pow- 
ers and  privileges  which  under  American  sovereignty  they  are  by  such  agreements 
to  enjoy:  Provided,  That  they  have  not  by  their  conduct  and  the  breach  of  the 
agreements  forfeited  such  powers  and  privileges. 

(i)  To  enact  laws  investing  the  district  governors  in  their  respective  districts,  or 
other  provincial  or  district  officers  with  the  power  of  adjusting,  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  provincial  governor,  all  differences  between  sultans,  dattos,  and  any 
independent  local  authorities,  and  of  enforcing  their  decisions  upon  such  differences. 

(j)  To  enact  laws  which  shall  collect  and  codify  the  customary  laws  of  the  Moros 
as  they  now  obtain  and  are  enforced  in  the  various  parts  of  the  Moro  Province 
among  the  Moros,  modifying  such  laws  as  the  legislative  council  think  best  and 
amending  them  as  they  may  be  inconsistent  with  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Con- 
gress entitled  ' '  An  act  temporarily  to  provide  for  the  administration  of  the  affairs 
of  civil  government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  other  purposes, ' '  and  to  pro- 
vide for  the  printing  of  such  codification,  when  completed,  in  English,  Arabic,  or 
the  local  Moro  dialects  as  may  be  deemed  wise.  The  Moro  customary  laws  thus 
amended  and  codified  shall  apply  in  all  civil  and  criminal  actions  arising  between 
Moros.  In  all  civil  and  criminal  actions  arising  between  members  of  the  same  non- 
Christian  tribe  other  than  Moros,  unless  otherwise  provided  by  the  legislative  coun- 
cil, the  customary  laws  of  such  non-Christian  tribe,  if  consistent  with  the  act  of 
Congress  above  mentioned,  and  if  defined  and  well  understood,  shall  govern  the 
decision  of  the  cause  arising,  but  if  there  be  no  well-defined  customary  laws,  or 
they  are  in  conflict  with  such  act  of  Congress;  then  the  cases  shall  be  determined  by 
the  criminal  or  civil  code  according  to  the  laws  of  the  Philippine  Islands  until  the 
legislative  council  shall  make  other  provision.  In  actions,  civil  or  criminal,  arising 
between  a  Moro  and  a  member  of  a  non-Christian  tribe,  or  between  a  Moro  and  a 
Christian  Filipino,  or  an  American  or  a  subject  or  citizen  of  a  foreign  country,  the 
criminal  code  and  the  substantive  civil  law  of  the  Philippine  Islands  shall  apply  and 
be  enforced. 

(k)  To  enact  laws  for  the  organization  and  procedure  of  district  courts  to  consider 
and  decide  civil  and  criminal  actions  arising  between  Moros,  between  members  of 
non-Christian  tribes,  and  between  Moros  and  members  of  other  non-Christian 
tribes.  The  district  court  shall  be  presided  over  by  the  secretary  of  the  district, 
and  the  other  members  of  the  court  shall  be  appointed  by  the  district  governor  and 
shall  vary  with  the  race  or  tribe  of  the  litigants,  so  that  where  the  action  arises 
between  Moros,  there  shall  be  at  least  two  and  not  more  than  four  Moros  upon  the 
court;  when  it  arises  between  members  of  other  non-Christian  tribes  there  may 
be,  if  practicable,  upon  the  court  members  from  such  non-Christian  tribes,  and 
when  the  litigation  arises  between  Moros  and  members  of  other  non-Christian 
tribes  there  shall  be  at  least  one  Moro  member  of  the  court  and  at  least  one  mem- 
ber from  the  tribe  of  the  pagan  litigant :  Provided,  however,  That  judgments  of  said 


78  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

courts  shall  not  be  given  effect  unless  approved  by  the  governor  of  the  district  in 
which  the  court  is  held:  And  provided  further,  That  in  case  of  sentence  of  death  or 
imprisonment  for  a  longer  period  of  time  than  ten  years,  such  sentence  shall  not 
be  executed  unless  approved  by  the  provincial  governor.  But  the  legislative  council 
may,  when  it  thinks  proper,  provide  by  law  that  civil  and  criminal  actions  arising 
between  a  Moro  and  a  member  of  another  non-Christian  tribe  shall  be  tried  in  the 
court  of  first  instance  or  in  the  court  of  a  convenient  justice  of  the  peace,  according 
to  the  nature  of  the  action  and  the  proper  and  usual  jurisdiction  of  the  court  of  first 
instance  or  the  justice  of  the  peace.  The  legislative  council  shall  prescribe  a  sim- 
ple procedure  for  the  district  courts  and  require  a  written  record  of  its  proceedings. 

(I)  To  enact  laws  for  the  abolition  of  slavery  and  the  suppression  of  all  slave 
hunting  and  slave  trade. 

(m)  To  regulate  by  statute  the  use,  registration,  and  licensing  of  boats  of  Moro  or 
pagan  construction  of  less  than  10  tons  measurement,  which  shall  be  followed  by  col- 
lectors of  customs  in  the  Moro  Province,  the  provisions  of  the  customs  administrative 
act  and  regulations  of  the  insular  collector  of  customs  to  the  contrary  notwith- 
standing. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  Commission  has  granted  to  the  legislative 
council  a  very  large  measure  of  discretion  in  dealing  with  the  Moros 
and  in  preserving  as  far  as  possible,  consistent  with  the  fundamental 
act,  the  customs  of  the  Moros,  the  authority  of  the  dattos,  and  a  sys- 
tem of  justice  in  which  Moros  should  take  part. 

One  of  the  serious  causes  of  friction  in  the  Moro  land  has  been  the 
application  of  coastwise  trade  regulations  to  small  Moro  craft.  This 
is  now  sought  to  be  avoided  by  allowing  the  legislative  council  to  make 
proper  regulations  for  all  Moro  craft  under  10  tons. 

The  law  provides  for  the  appointment  by  the  provincial  governor, 
subject  to  the  approval  by  the  legislative  council,  of  governors,  treas- 
urers, and  other  officers  of  the  five  different  districts  of  the  province. 
The  education  of  the  Moro  Province  presents  such  a  different  problem 
from  that  of  the  Christian  Filipinos  that  it  was  deemed  unwise  to  pro- 
vide for  any  but  a  formal  relation  between  the  school  system  of  the 
Moro  Province  and  that  which  prevails  in  the  rest  of  the  archipelago, 
and  the  Moro  Province  is  left  to  pay  its  own  school  expenses  and  to 
arrange  such  a  system  as  shall  meet  and  overcome  the  peculiar  obsta- 
cles that  now  have  to  be  met  and  overcome  in  the  education  of  Moro 
children.  The  constabulary  system  has  been  extended  into  the  Moro 
Province  as  an  immediate  branch  of  the  constabulary  system  of  the 
islands.  It  is  thought  that  it  will  be  entirely  possible  to  enlist  Moros 
and  make  successful  and  efficient  military  police  of  them  under  Ameri- 
can officers;  and  the  expense  of  the  constabulary  will  be  met  out  of 
the  insular  treasury. 

By  section  27  it  is  provided  that — 

Courts  of  first  instance  and  justices  of  the  peace  in  the  Moro  Province  shall  not 
have  jurisdiction  to  try  civil  or  criminal  actions  arising  between  Moros  or  arising 
between  non-Christians,  or,  except  as  otherwise  provided  by  the  legislative  council, 
actions  arising  between  Moros  and  other  non-Christians,  and  the  existing  laws  of 
the  Philippine  Islands  are  hereby  amended  accordingly:  Provided,  however,  That  in 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  79 

accordance  with  paragraph  (k)  of  section  thirteen  of  this  act,  the  legislative  council 
may  by  law  vest  jurisdiction  to  try  cases  between  Moros  and  other  non-Christians  in 
such  courts:  And  provided  further,  That  the  court  of  first  instance  shall  have  juris- 
diction in  all  habeas  corpus  cases,  no  matter  between  whom  arising,  to  take  cogni- 
zance of  the  petition  for  the  release  of  any  person  within  its  territorial  jurisdiction, 
to  issue  process,  to  hear  the  evidence,  and  to  discharge  the  prisoner  or  to  remand 
him  to  custody  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the  chapter  on  habeas  corpus  in 
the  code  of  civil  procedure. 

This  second  proviso  was  adopted  to  enable  the  court  of  first  instance 
to  render  its  aid  whenever  called  upon  to  free  persons  from  slavery 
and  thus  to  furnish  a  means  of  carrying  out  the  inhibition  against 
slavery  contained  in  the  so-called  Philippine  act  of  Congress,  reenacted 
in  paragraph  (I)  of  section  14  above  quoted. 

All  laws  passed  by  the  legislative  council  take  effect  at  the  time 
fixed  by  the  legislative  council,  subject  to  amendment  or  annulment  by 
the  Commission.  Provision  is  made  in  the  act  for  the  appointment 
of  military  officers  to  fill  the  civil  positions  by  the  act  created  and  for 
the  payment  to  them  of  an  amount  equal  to  20  per  cent  of  their  sal- 
aries as  military  officers  in  lieu  of  their  allowances  for  quarters,  forage, 
and  other  things. 

The  first  governor  of  the  province  appointed  is  Major-General 
Leonard  Wood,  the  military  commander  of  the  department  of  Min- 
danao and  Jolo.  This  union  of  the  civil  and  the  military  power  in 
one  head  seems  to  be  admirably  adapted  to  successful  administration 
in  the  Moro  Province,  although  it  would  be  of  very  doubtful  efficacy 
in  the  whole  of  the  Philippine  Islands.  The  Moro  is  himself  a  soldier 
and  recognizes  with  reluctance  any  other  authority  than  that  which  is 
clothed  with  immediate  control  of  military  forces.  The  appointments 
of  the  other  executive  officers  of  the  provinces  were  made  at  the  same 
time  and  the  legislative  council  began  its  work.  I  inclose  herewith 
the  copies  of  its  acts  passed  down  to  the  time  of  rendering  this  report 
and  submitted  to  the  Commission  and  approved  by  it,  as  Exhibit  S. 

The  present  conditions  in  the  Moro  Province  are  not  as  satisfactory  as 
they  might  be.  The  campaigns  of  General  Baldwin  and  Captain  Persh- 
ing in  and  about  the  Lake  Lanao  district  have  resulted  in  subduing  the 
wild  Moros  of  that  district  so  that  there  is  no  organized  armed  resistance 
to  the  sovereignty  of  the  United  States.  The  predatory  habits  of  the 
Moro  remain,  however,  and  from  time  to  time  reports  come  of  the 
robbery  or  killing  of  American  soldiers  by  marauding  bands  of  Moros 
whose  identity  it  is  difficult  to  establish.  Still  the  questions  presented 
are  not  of  real  difficulty  and  involve  only  patience  and  firmness  in  their 
solution.  The  Lake  Lanao  country  is  a  beautiful  country,  and  the 
Moros  who  inhabit  it  seem  to  be  fairly  good  agriculturists.  The  Moros 
of  Zamboanga  and  of  the  valley  of  the  Rio  Grande  del  Mindanao  are 
pacified  and  make  no  trouble  in  accepting  the  regime  under  the  new 
Moro  law.  In  Jolo,  however,  we  have  a  condition  that  needs  thorough 
and  drastic  treatment.     The  Bates  treaty  may  have  been  very  useful 


80  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

in  staying  the  hand  of  the  Moros  and  reducing  the  necessity  for  the 
use  of  United  States  troops  in  the  Sulu  Archipelago  at  a  time  when 
they  were  needed  badly  in  other  parts  of  the  Philippines,  but  the 
power  and  immunity  recognized  in  that  treaty  as  belonging  to  the 
Sultan  of  Jolo  have  not  resulted  in  good  government  for  the  Moros 
themselves,  but  have  brought  about  a  condition  of  chaos  and  petty 
wars,  of  murder  and  rapine,  and  intriguing  conspiracies  of  one  datto 
against  another  and  of  dattos  against  the  Sultan  which  the  good  of 
everybody  requires  us  to  put  an  end  to.  It  is  a  condition  precedent 
to  the  continuance  upon  the  United  States  of  the  binding  effect  of  the 
Bates  treaty  that  the  Sultan  and  the  signing  dattos  should  be  powers 
capable  of  subduing  lawlessness  within  their  respective  jurisdictions. 
Either  the  power  or  the  will  has  been  lacking,  and  the  necessity  arises 
for  teaching  them  severe  lessons  of  obedience  to  the  government  and 
the  sense  of  obligation  to  maintain  law  and  order  between  local  dattos. 
The  establishment  of  courts  partly  native  will  doubtless  assist  materi- 
ally in  settling  many  questions  that  now  have  to  be  settled  by  the 
sword.  The  problem  in  dealing  with  the  Moros  is  not  very  different 
from  that  which  Sir  Stamford  Raffles  and  Sir  Frank  Swettenham  have 
had  to  solve  in  dealing  with  the  Malays  in  the  Malay  Peninsula. 
To-day  the  Malay  in  the  Straits  Settlements  is  most  peaceable  and  law- 
abiding.  The  time  was  in  that  peninsula  when  every  Malay  went 
armed.  To-day  every  Moro  is  armed  with  his  kris,  and  if  he  has  a 
gun,  with  a  gun.  Ultimately  the  government  must  compel  the  Moros 
to  give  up  their  arms  and  to  trust  to  the  peace  authorities  to  preserve 
their  rights.  A  judicious  preservation  of  the  authority  of  local  dattos, 
and  making  them  responsible  for  the  preservation  of  order  among  their 
people,  will  doubtless  work  well  here,  but  their  absolute  subordination 
to  the  sovereignty  of  the  United  States,  which  was  not  made  as  clear  by 
the  Bates  treaty  when  translated  into  their  language  as  it  might  have 
been,  is  a  sine  qua  non  to  the  maintenance  of  good  government.  The 
Moro  does  not  understand  popular  government  and  does  not  desire  it, 
and  he  is  not  likely  to  desire  it  until  he  is  changed  by  education  and 
the  introduction  of  civilized  life  in  his  neighborhood. 

The  Sultan  of  Jolo  and  the  dattos  under  him,  with  whom  General 
Bates  entered  into  an  agreement,  have  not  complied  with  the  terms  of 
that  agreement  in  maintaining  order  among  those  who  acknowledge  in 
a  perfunctory  way  allegiance  to  them.  They  have  not  punished  wrong- 
doers and  their  whole  system  of  government  seems  to  be  one  solely  for 
the  exaction  of  taxes.  The  Sultan  of  Jolo  is  a  gambler  and  an 
intriguer,  with  not  a  spark  of  courage  or  patriotic  and  paternal  interest 
in  his  people.  So  far  as  the  Bates  agreement  could  be  regarded  as  a 
contract  of  the  Executive  of  the  United  States  Government,  it  has  long 
ceased  to  be  of  binding  force,  because  the  Sultan  long  ago  forfeited  all 
his  rights  under  it  by  his  violation  of  the  rights  he  assumed.  When 
General  Wood  was  appointed  governor  of  the  Moro  Province,  with 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  81 

the  knowledge  which  both  of  us  had  of  the  necessity  for  the  abroga- 
tion of  the  Bates  treat}^  and  the  gross  violation  of  his  obligations  under 
it  b}^  the  Sultan,  we  agreed  that  it  would  be  well  for  him  to  accumulate 
the  data  showing  in  how  many  instances  the  Sultan  had  failed  when 
called  upon  by  the  United  States  authorities  to  preserve  order  among 
his  people,  with  a  view  to  formal  action  in  notifying  him  of  the  abro- 
gation of  the  treaty.  I  append  the  report  of  General  Wood  as 
Exhibit  T  upon  this  phase  of  the  Moro  question,  and  concur  fully 
in  his  recommendation  that  for  the  causes  shown  by  him  in  the  exhibits 
which  accompany  his  report  that  the  Sultan  and  the  signing  dattos  be 
advised  of  the  abrogation  of  the  Bates  treaty  and  that  the  same  is  no 
longer  binding  on  the  United  States  or  the  insular  government  and 
will  not  be  respected. 

Among  the  laws  which  the  legislative  council  of  the  Moro  Province 
has  enacted  will  be  found  one  denouncing  kidnapping  of  persons  with 
a  view  to  making  them  slaves,  and  the  detention  of  persons  in  slavery. 
General  Wood  has  examined  the  question,  as  have  other  members  of 
the  legislative  council,  and  has  reached  the  conclusion  that  the 
announcement  of  the  policy  of  the  United  States  upon  this  question 
may  as  well  be  radical  in  the  beginning.  General  WTood  advises  me 
orally  that  the  proclamation  of  the  passage  of  the  act  in  the  river 
valley  above  Cotabato  has  been  received  with  acquiescence  by  the 
dattos.  It  will  probably  give  more  trouble  in  Jolo.  The  fact  is, 
however,  that  the  military  question  in  dealing  with  the  Moros  is  a 
simple  one,  and  is  not  at  all  as  difficult  as  that  which  confronted  the 
army  in  the  Christian  Filipino  provinces.  The  Moros  do  not  fight  a 
guerilla  warfare.  They  retreat  to  their  forts  and  bid  defiance  to  the 
foe,  and  thus  expose  themselves  to  an  attack  by  modern  artillery  and 
other  modern  methods  of  overcoming  insufficient  fortifications.  They 
are  easily  whipped,  and  though  the  whipping  may  have  to  be  repeated 
once  or  twice,  its  effect  ultimately  is  very  salutary.  Force  seems  to 
be  the  only  method  of  reaching  them  in  the  first  instance,  and  is  the 
only  preparation  for  the  beginning  of  civilized  restraints  among  them. 
It  is  probable  that  the  government  is  itself  subject  to  criticism  for 
delay  in  giving  to  the  Moro  region  something  definite  in  the  form  of 
a  government,  but  the  vim  and  interest  with  which>  the  government 
of  the  Moro  Province  has  been  launched  give  every  assurance  of  a 
satisfactory  result.  A  continuance  of  the  conditions  which  the  exhibits 
submitted  by  General  Wood,  and  hereto  appended,  show  to  exist  in 
Jolo,  Siassi,  and  other  islands  of  the  Sulu  Archipelago  would  certainly 
be  a  disgrace  to  the  United  States  Government  and  to  the  insular  gov- 
ernment which  is  made  responsible  by  the  Philippine  act  for  the  main- 
tenance of  law  and  order  among  the  people.  It  is  thought  that  another 
year  will  bring  an  improvement  in  conditions  so  great  that  even  the 
Moros  themselves  will  understand  the  advantage  of  it. 
war  1903— vol  5 6 


82 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


THE   CHRISTIAN   FILIPINO   PROVINCES. 

A  severe  agricultural  depression  in  the  provinces,  together  with  the 
interference  with  tax  collections  by  the  cholera,  has  caused  a  number 
of  the  provinces  to  run  behind  in  the  matter  of  their  income,  and  has 
required  the  insular  government  to  lend  money  to  them.  The  amount 
of  money  loaned  is  shown  in  the  following  list: 

List  of  loans  to  provinces  during  the  period  September  1,  1902,  to  October  31,  1903. 


Province. 

Philippine 
currency. 

Mexican 
currency. 

£"12,550.00 

F-25,000.00 

12, 250. 00 

2,000.00 
15, 000. 00 

62, 250. 00 

50,000.00 

6, 500. 00 

5,000.00 
15, 000. 00 

15, 300. 00 

13, 350. 00 

2, 600. 00 

31, 000. 00 

15, 960.  00 

Total                                    

62,000.00 

2,000.00 
5,000.00 

221, 760. 00 

Appropriated  moneys  undrawn  October  31,  1903: 
For  loan  to — 

Iloilo 

50,000.00 

List  of  repayments  by  provinces  during  the  period  September  1,  1902,  to  October  31,  1903, 
of  loans  made  by  the  insular  government  during  that  period  and  prior  thereto. 

Province. 

United  States 
currency. 

Mexican 
currency. 

$2,500.00 
2,500.00 
2,500.00 
5,000.00 

Bohol 

T6, 500. 00 

Ilocos  Sur 

2,500.00 

6, 500. 00 

2,500.00 

Nueva  Ecija 

7, 050. 00 

2,500.00 
2,500.00 

Total 

22,500.00 

20,050.00 

In  a  number  of  the  provinces  it  has  been  deemed  wise  to  cut  down 
the  cost  of  officers  by  consolidating  the  offices  of  treasurer  and  super- 
visor, usually  filled  by  Americans,  into  the  office  of  treasurer-super- 
visor. This  was  possible  in  provinces  where  there  is  very  little  money 
for  improvements,  because  in  such  provinces  the  supervisors  of  roads 
and  improvements  have  few  duties  to  perform.  The  supervisors  who 
were  released  from  office  were  provided  for  in  the  office  of  the  con- 
sulting engineer  to  the  Commission,  who  was  greatly  in  need  of 
engineers  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  on  insular  road  construction,  in 
which  the  Commission  is  now  engaged. 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


83 


MUNICIPALITIES. 

In  the  spring  the  Commission  passed  a  resolution  adopting  the  policy 
of  a  reduction  of  the  number  of  municipalities  in  each  province.  The 
municipalities  also  had  run  behind  in  their  incomes  without  reducing 
their  expenditures,  and  it  became  perfectly  evident  that  many  of  them 
were  not  able  to  maintain  decent  government  with  the  tax-producing 
capacity  which  they  had  shown.  The  Filipino  members  of  the  Com- 
mission during  the  last  six  months  have  visited  all  the  Christian  prov- 
inces, and,  after  a  conference  with  the  provincial  boards  and  with  the 
municipal  presidentes  called  in  convention,  have  made  report  to  the 
Commission  in  favor  of  a  union  of  municipalities  and  a  reduction  in 
number.  The  Commission  adopted  their  report  and  enacted  the 
necessary  laws.     The  reduction  is  shown  in  the  following  table: 


Province. 


Abra 

Albay  

Ambos  Camarines 

Antique 

Bataan 

Batangas 

Bohol 

Bulacan 

Cagayan 

Capiz 

Cavite 

Cebu 

Docos  Norte 

Ilocos  Sur 

Iloilo 

Isabela 

LaLaguna 

La  Union 


Municipalities. 

Former 

Present 

number. 

number. 

12 

12 

27 

27 

43 

35 

21 

11 

12 

8 

22 

15 

35 

32 

25 

13 

33 

22 

34 

22 

23 

11 

57 

41 

15 

10 

24 

14 

51 

17 

15 

11 

30 

19 

15 

12 

Province. 


Leyte 

Masbate 

Misamis 

Negros  Occidental 
Negros  Oriental  . . 

Nueva  Ecija 

Pampanga 

Pangasinan 

Rizal  

Pvomblon 

Samar 

Sorsogon 

Surigao 

Tarlac :. 

Tayabas 

Zambales 

Total 


Municipalities. 


Former     Present 
number,    number. 


1,035 


The  above  list  shows  a  total  reduction  of  412  municipalities.  The 
provinces  of  Benguet,  Lepanto-Bontoc,  Mindoro,  Moro,  Nueva  Viz- 
caya  and  Paragua  are  not  included  above,  as  they  have  special  organi- 
zation, independent  and  apart  from  the  municipal  code. 

In  doing  this  work  the  Commission  has  had  to  run  counter  to  local 
prejudice.  It  is  hard  to  convince  municipal  officials  enjoying  office 
that  the  public  good  requires  any  measure  which  will  in  effect  prevent 
their  continuing  to  hold  office,  and  there  is  much  krcal  pride  likely  to 
be  hurt.  It  is  confidently  expected,  however,  that  the  fusion  of  the 
municipalities  thus  effected  will  very  greatly  increase  the  efficiency  of 
the  municipal  governments  by  reducing  expenses  and  furnishing  a 
much  larger  revenue  in  each  town.  The  work  has  been  very  well 
done  by  the  Filipino  members  and  the  Commission  is  greatly  indebted 
to  them  for  the  time  and  trouble  spent  in  solving  a  difficult  problem. 
Municipal  treasurers  now  selected  by  the  council  have  not  proven  to 
be  efficient  officers.  By  law  the  council  of  a  municipality  is  obliged 
to  devote  a  certain  part  of  the  income  of  the  town  to  schools,  but  in 


84  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

too  many  instances  it  has  developed  that,  in  the  anxiety  to  secure  his 
own  salary,  the  presidente  has  induced  the  council  and  the  municipal 
treasurer  to  appropriate  from  what  are  properly  school  funds  to  pay 
the  salaries  of  municipal  officials.  The  office  of  municipal  treasurer 
has  therefore  been  classified  as  part  of  the  classified  line  service  and 
provision  made  for  appointment  to  it  by  the  provincial  board.  The 
municipal  treasurer  will  also  act  as  deputy  provincial  treasurer.  Thus 
a  large  body  of  persons  will  be  led  to  prepare  themselves  for  civil 
service  examinations  for  the  office  of  municipal  treasurer.  Their 
experience  will  fit  them  for  promotion  to  the  office  of  provincial  treas- 
urer, which  will  hereafter  be  filled  largely  from  such  material.  The 
difficulty  about  using  Filipinos  for  provincial  treasurers  heretofore 
has  been  that  the  duties  of  the  office  are  so  difficult  that  Filipinos, 
with  a  knowledge  of  Spanish  only,  and  without  any  familiarty  with 
the  auditing  methods  of  the  auditor's  bureau  and  its  requirements,  are 
unable  to  perform  them.  This  change  can  not  but  strengthen  munic- 
ipal governments  and  at  the  same  time  bring  into  use  for  higher  office 
trained  Filipino  material. 

The  truth  is  that  the  municipal  governments  have  not  been  as  satis- 
factory in  their  operations  as  could  be  wished.  By  the  misuse  of  the 
school  fund  already  referred  to,  the  native  school-teachers  have  been 
compelled  to  go  without  their  salaries.  The  municipal  police  have 
also  gone  unpaid  and  in  many  instances  had  not  been  made  efficient 
because  they  were  used  as  the  personal  servants  of  the  municipal  pres- 
identes.  It  is  hoped  that  the  increase  of  the  resources  of  the  towns 
by  the  fusion  of  municipalities  may  accomplish  some  reform  in  these 
matters  and  the  coming  of  better  times  in  agricultural  and  busi- 
ness way  may  also  assist.  In  order  to  make  the  municipal  police  a 
more  efficient  body,  a  law  was  passed  by  the  Commission,  No.  781,  the 
first  and  second  sections  of  which  are  as  follows: 

Section  1.  The  civil  governor,  or  the  provincial  governor  with  the  approval  of  the 
civil  governor,  is  hereby  authorized,  whenever  in  his  judgment  the  public  interest 
will  be  subserved  thereby,  to  place  the  municipal  police  of  the  respective  municipal- 
ities of  any  province  under  the  control  of  the  senior  inspector  of  constabulary  on 
duty  in  the  province  at  the  time.  The  senior  inspector  in  such  case  is  hereby 
authorized  and  empowered,  under  the  general  supervision  of  the  provincial  governor, 
to  control  and  direct  the  movements  of  the  municipal  police,  and,  with  the  approval 
of  the  provincial  governor,  to  discharge  any  member  of  the  police  force  and  substi- 
tute a  fit  and  suitable  resident  of  the  municipality  in  his  place.  It  shall  be  the  duty 
of  the  senior  inspector  when  thus  placed  in  charge  of  the  municipal  police  of  a  prov- 
ince to  see  that  they  are  properly  uniformed,  drilled  and  disciplined.  When  thus 
vested  with  authority  over  the  municipal  police  he  shall  see  that  all  lawful  orders  of 
the  provincial  governor,  municipal  president,  and  others  in  authority  are  executed 
as  provided  by  the  municipal  code,  and  amendments  thereof,  and  shall  further  see 
that  all  proper  arrests  are  made  for  violations  of  law  of  municipal  ordinances,  and 
in  case  of  emergencies  is  authorized,  under  the  general  supervision  of  the  provincial 
governor,  to  unite  the  forces  of  the  various  municipalities  of  the  province  in  sup- 
pressing ladronism  or  brigandage  or  other  grave  violations  of  the  law  which  threaten 
the  peace  of  the  entire  community;  and  he  may  also  unite  the  constabulary  forces 


BEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  85 

under  his  command  with  the  municipal  forces  in  the  execution  of  his  authority  for 
this  purpose. 

Sec.  2.  It  is  hereby  made  the  duty  of  the  provincial  board  of  each  and  every 
province  to  prescribe  a  suitable  uniform  for  the  municipal  police  of  each  and  every 
municipality,  with  a  proper  insignia  to  indicate  the  municipality  to  which  the  police 
belong.  Authority  is  also  hereby  given  the  provincial  board  of  each  province  to  fix 
the  number  of  police  which  is  required  to  be  maintained  by  each  and  every  munici- 
pality of  the  province.  In  the  event  that  the  provincial  board  shall  find  that  any 
municipality  is  unable  properly  to  uniform  and  maintain  the  number  of  policemen 
fixed  by  the  provincial  board,  the  latter  is  authorized  to  vote  necessary  aid  for  the 
maintenance  of  such  police  out  of  provincial  funds.  In  the  event  the  provincial 
board  should  not  have  provincial  funds  adequate  for  this  purpose  it  may  apply  to 
the  Commission  for  aid  in  this  behalf. 

This  system  had  been  adoped  in  the  province  of  La  Union  before 
the  passage  of  the  law  and  had  worked  well,  and  it  was  the  success  in 
Union  that  suggested  the  passage  of  a  general  law  on  the  subject.  It 
has  not  been  adopted  in  many  provinces,  but  where  adopted  it  has 
accomplished  good  results. 

Outside  of  the  city  of  Manila,  the  two  great  commercial  centers  of 
the  islands  are  lloilo  and  Cebu.  Under  the  Spanish  regime  the  town 
of  lloilo  did  not  have  more  than  10,000  inhabitants,  and  the  town  of  Cebu 
did  not  exceed  in  population  15,000.  There  were,  however,  in  the 
immediate  neighborhood  of  the  towns,  which  were  really  part  of  the 
commercial  centers,  three  or  four  towns  which  ought  to  have  been 
included  for  purposes  of  economy  in  government.  By  the  acts  already 
referred  to,  lloilo  has  had  annexed  to  it  the  towns  of  Molo,  Jaro,  La 
Paz,  and  another,  which  will  now  make  a  city  of  from  forty  to  fifty 
thousand.  The  same  thing  is  true  of  the  town  of  Cebu,  which,  being 
united  with  San  Nicolas,  a  town  separated  by  a  small  creek  from  Cebu, 
and  containing  15,000  inhabitants,  and  other  towns  in  the  neighborhood, 
will  also  have  a  population  of  about  50,000.  It  will  probably  be  nec- 
essary to  provide  special  charters  for  these  two  cities,  because  the 
municipal  code  is  adapted  rather  to  country  municipalities  than  to  cities 
of  a  metropolitan  size.  The  improvements  in  both  cities  which  are 
badly  needed  are  a  water  supply  and  a  sewer  system.  It  is  quite  prob- 
able that  the  power  to  issue  bonds  already  given  in  the  Philippine  act 
for  municipalities  would  be  sufficient  if  the  restriction  contained  in  the 
act  requiring  the  consent  of  Congress  were  removed/  It  is  not  under- 
stood why  it  was  thought  necessary  to  insert  a  provision  of  law  requir- 
ing the  consent  of  Congress  to  the  issuing  of  bonds.  Certainly  with 
the  consent  of  Congress,  without  such  a  provision,  bonds  might  be 
issued,  and  it  is  thought  that  the  requirement  of  Congressional  consent 
was  an  error  in  the  drafting  of  the  Congressional  legislation.  In  any 
event,  it  is  exceedingly  awkward  and  unduly  limiting  the  power  of  the 
Commission,  to  require  that  where  within  the  narrow  limitations  con- 
tained in  the  law,  the  Commission  desires  to  issue  bonds  for  a  small 
amount  to  aid  municipalities,  it  should  be  required  to  apply  to  Con- 
gress for  its  consent.     It  is  respectfully  recommended  to  the  Commis- 


86  EEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

sion  that  Congress  be  urged  to  repeal  the  particular  provision  of  the 
Philippine  act  requiring  the  specific  consent  of  Congress  to  the  issue 
of  bonds  for  the  benefit  of  any  municipality  in  the  Archipelago,  where 
such  issue  shall  not  exceed  the  percentage  of  taxable  value  now  imposed 
as  a  limit  by  the  law. 

JUSTICES   OF  THE   PEACE. 

The  secretary  of  finance  and  justice  will  comment  upon  the  general 
subject  of  the  administration  of  justice  in  these  islands.  It  is  enough 
for  me  to  say,  that  so  far  as  the  courts  of  first  instance  and  the  other 
superior  courts  are  concerned,  it  is  very  satisfactory,  and  is  doing  much 
to  tranquilize  the  islands,  and  teach  the  people  what  real  justice  is. 
Indeed,  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  crime  in  the  islands  is  punished 
with  more  speed  and  certainty  than  in  many  parts  of  the  United  States. 

With  respect  to  the  justices  of  the  peace,  however,  this  is  not  true, 
and  some  new  system  must  be  devised.  The  justice  of  the  peace  and 
an  auxiliary  justice  are  now  appointed  for  every  town.  They  do  not 
receive  salaries,  and  are  dependent  for  compensation  upon  fees.  It  is 
difficult  to  secure  good  men.  The  amount  of  business  of  any  one  town 
is  ordinarily  so  little  that  the  office  is  not  lucrative  at  all  unless  it  is 
made  the  center  of  petty  litigation  by  local  pettifoggers,  or,  as  the 
Spanish  term  is,  "  picapleitos,"  and  in  that  case  the  office  is  an  unmixed 
evil.  For  this  reason  the  Commission  will  doubtless  feel  called  upon 
to  change  the  system  within  the  coming  year.  There  are  several  rem- 
edies recommended,  but  in  my  judgment  the  best  one  is  that  of  dividing 
the  province  into  comparatively  large  districts,  and  appointing  a  justice 
of  the  peace  for  each  district  with  a  living  salary.  This  will  dignify 
the  office,  will  secure  the  best  man  in  the  district,  and  will  give  a  much 
better  character  to  the  administration  of  justice  in  what  ought  to  be 
the  people's  court. 

THE   CITY  OF  MANILA. 

The  report  of  the  city  of  Manila  is  a  very  interesting  one,  and 
shows  the  progress  which  has  been  made  in  the  material  welfare  of  the 
city.  The  two  great  improvements  which  are  needed  are  the  addition 
to  the  water  supply  and  the  construction  of  sewers.  Plans  and  speci- 
fications have  been  prepared  for  the  water  supply,  which,  if  the  plans 
are  carried  out,  will  be  brought  by  gravity  directly  from  a  dam  co~ 
structed  between  two  marble  cliffs,  shutting  off  and  securing  enough 
water  to  remove  all  danger  of  a  scarcity  of  water  during  the  dry 
season.  The  plans  for  a  sewerage  system  are  being  rapidly  prepared, 
and  it  is  expected  that  they  will  be  ready  for  submission  by  the  first 
of  January.  The  Commission  has  engaged  the  services  of  an  expert 
engineer  of  high  repute,  Mr.  Desmond  Fitzgerald,  of  Brookline,  Mass., 
who  will  visit  the  islands  in  January  and  preside  over  a  board  of 
engineers  which  will  consider  the  feasibility  of   the  plans  for  the 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


87 


increase  in  the  water  supply  and  the  construction  of  sewers.  The 
change  in  the  source  of  the  water  supply  will  remove  great  danger  of 
contagion  from  cholera  and  other  epidemic  diseases.  So  far  as  we  are 
able  to  obtain  estimates  from  the  engineers  making  the  plans,  it  would 
seem  that  the  cost  of  construction  of  the  sewers  and  the  new  water 
plant  will  fall  within  the  four  millions  allowed  by  law. 

It  ought  to  be  urged  upon  Congress,  in  my  judgment,  that  the  bonds 
issued  for  the  improvement  of  Manila  should  be  as  exempt  from  tax- 
ation as  the  bonds  to  be  issued  for  the  purchase  of  the  friars'  land. 
They  are  only  exempt  from  Federal  taxation  in  the  United  States  and 
taxation  in  the  Philippine  Islands.  The  friars'  lands  bonds  are  made 
exempt  from  State,  county,  and  municipal  taxation  in  the  United 
States,  which  enables  us  to  sell  bonds  of  that  sort  at  a  very  much  lower 
rate  of  interest.  It  is  thought  that  it  will  injure  no  one  if  the  city 
bonds  of  Manila  are  given  as  wide  exemption. 

Manila  has  increased  in  houses  during  the  last  year,  as  will  be  seen 
from  the  following  table : 

Building  operations  in  the  city  of  Manila,  P.  I.,  during  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  SO,  1903. 


Month  and  year. 


Applica- 
tions 
made. 


Permits 
paid. 


Issued 
gratis. 


Receipts. 


United  States     Mexican 
currency.       currency. 


1902 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1903, 

January 

February  

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 


257 
257 
320 
331 
360 
348 


426 
451 
554 
469 
801 
,119 


207 
196 
314 
269 
304 
324 


362 
374 
487 
450 
523 


116 

367 


8427. 30 
343. 90 
546.39 
413.31 
708.  38 
600. 07 


203. 59 
160. 92 
251.  86 
325. 81 
201.  36 
279.  56 


869.00 
10.00 


1, 644. 89 
1,301.63 
1,286.08 
1,327.40 
1, 320. 80 
1,277.25 


5,693 


4,479 


595 


4,480.45 


,  237. 05 


Month  and  year. 


1902. 

July 

August 

September  . 
October  — 
November  . 
December.. 

1903 

January 

February  .. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total. 


Strong  materials. 


New  buildings. 


Num- 
ber. 


40 

39 

48 

116 

123 


100 
67 
72 


73 


873 


Value. 


$154, 870 
128, 205 
256, 585 
135,236 
269, 210 
97,015 


246, 025 
150, 240 
122, 535 
85, 360 
147, 410 
145, 180 


1,946,871 


Repairs. 


Num- 
ber. 


519 


Value. 


510,955 
24,915 
23,035 
12,586 
10,340 


23, 995 
5,280 
5,965 
12, 020 
15,310 
20, 950 


171, 741 


Light  materials. 


New  buildings. 


Num- 
ber. 


80 
76 
102 
166 
120 
122 


172 
180 
273 
227 
306 
418 


2,242 


Value. 


87,060 
6,355 
10, 220 
13,  705 
10, 789 
11,014 


15, 140 
14, 116 
25, 243 
18, 408 
22, 905 
34,  625 


189, 580 


Repaii 


Num- 
ber. 


32 
43 
71 
81 
103 
132 


Value. 


81, 730 

750 

905 

925 

2,190 

1,775 


1,545 
1,855 
2,442 
2,790 
4,285 
5,130 


702 


26, 322 


88  KEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

During  the  year  about  150  buildings  were  condemned  and  ordered 
removed. 

Much  has  been  done  in  the  way  of  repairs  to  streets,  widening 
streets,  and  giving  the  city  a  modern  cleaning  every  day.  Of  course 
the  absence  of  the  sewerage  system  entails  very  heavy  expense  in  the 
introduction  of  the  pail  system,  and  there  is  an  immense  amount  of 
work  to  be  done  before  it  can  be  called  a  really  modern  city.  I  ven- 
ture to  say,  however,  that  there  is  no  city  better  policed  than  Manila. 
It  is  singularly  free  from  crimes  of  violence,  and  one  feels  quite  secure 
at  any  time  of  day  or  night  in  any  part  of  the  city. 

The  falling  off  of  the  population  of  the  city  of  Manila  between  1900 
and  1903  from  260,000  to  221,000,  as  shown  by  two  censuses,  is 
not  inexplicable.  In  1900  there  was  much  disturbance  through  the 
country,  and  the  insurrection  had  not  ceased  in  many  parts.  The  effect 
of  the  insurrection  upon  those  who  were  wealthy  or  who  had  money 
enough  to  come  into  Manila  was  very  marked,  and  they  fled  to  Manila 
as  a  place  of  refuge.  As  soon,  however,  as  conditions  became  more 
tranquil  they  went  to  the  country,  so  that  the  reduction  in  the  popu- 
lation of  Manila  is  a  significant  evidence  of  the  tranquillity  of  the 
provinces.  The  introduction  and  maintenance  of  a  modern  fire  system 
and  a  metropolitan  and  native  police  force,  and  of  an  effective  street- 
cleaning  gang  are  all  shown  in  the  report  of  the  city,  hereto 
appended  and  marked  Exhibit  U.  There  is  considerable  doubt  as  to 
what  ought  to  be  done  about  taking  down  the  walls  of  the  walled  city 
of  Manila,  and  how  the  open  spaces  in  the  city  ought  to  be  improved. 
Major-General  Davis,  commanding  the  Division  of  the  Philippines, 
wrote  a  long  application  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  in  which  he  asked  for 
the  reservation  by  the  President  for  military  purposes  of  a  great  many 
pieces  of  land  in  the  city.  This  application  has  been  vigorously  resisted 
and  attacked  by  the  advisory  board  of  Manila,  by  the  municipal  board, 
and  by  mass  meetings  of  prominent  citizens.  The  Commission  has 
passed  a  resolution,  inviting  the  Secretary  of  War  to  make  a  contract 
with  a  landscape  architect  of  eminence  in  the  United  States,  empower- 
ing him  to  visit  Manila  and  make  a  sketch  of  the  improvements  needed 
with  a  view  to  art  and  utility,  and  until  this  report  is  made  it  is  hoped 
that  the  President  will  make  no  permanent  reservation  for  military  pur- 
poses. There  are  in  the  city  itself  and  in  the  environs  of  the  cit}^  great 
opportunities  for  beautifying  the  landscape,  and  it  is  hoped  that  we 
may  be  able  in  time  to  make  the  city  of  Manila  the  handsomest  city  in 
the  Orient.  Improvements  are  expensive,  however,  and  must  be 
accordingly  slow.  Manila  is  interlaced  with  what  are  called  esteros, 
small  creeks  or  arms  of  the  sea  that  are  useful  for  navigation  and  that 
are  now  made  the  vehicle  for  much  of  the  deleterious  sewage  of  the 
town.  The  rise  and  fall  of  the  tide  assists  in  carrying  off  the  sewage, 
but  the  fall  of  the  tide  exposes  the  mud  and  filth  of  the  bottom  to  the 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  89 

sun  in  such  a  way  as  probably  to  produce  illness.  The  ultimate  hope 
of  the  introduction  of  the  sewerage  system  into  the  city  is  that  the 
esteros  not  useful  for  navigation  may  be  filled,  and  that  those  which 
are  useful  for  navigation  may  be,  as  the  term  is,  canalized — that  is, 
dredged  out  and  have  their  banks  walled  so  that  the  coming  and  going 
of  the  tides  shall  only  cleanse  the  water  without  exposing  the  filthy 
bottom.  A  comprehensive  sewer  system  would  take  much  away  from 
the  esteros  and  would  leave  them  to  discharge  only  the  useful  function 
of  cheap  interurban  transportation. 

I  am  glad  to  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  since  our  last  report  on 
March  3,  the  bids  for  a  franchise  for  an  electric  street  railway  were 
opened;  and  that  Mr.  Charles  Swift,  of  Detroit,  Mich.,  and  his  asso- 
ciates made  a  bid  which  the  Commission  and  the  municipal  board 
thought  it  wise  to  accept,  for  the  construction  of  a  first-class,  standard- 
grade  electric  street-car  line,  which  will  gridiron  the  city  and  furnish 
the  much-needed  cheap  transportation  from  the  absence  of  which 
Manila  has  always  suffered.  A  copy  of  the  charter  which  was  granted 
under  a  law  of  the  Commission  and  by  a  vote  of  the  municipal  board 
is  hereto  appended  and  marked  Exhibit  V.  The  term  of  the  charter 
is  fifty  years.  The  restrictions  in  it  are  those  which  usually  obtain  in 
charters  of  modern  street  railways  in  the  United  States.  The  com- 
pany has  the  right  to  run  two  classes  of  cars,  first  and  second  class, 
the  terms  of  the  charter  covering  rate  of  fares  being  as  follows: 

The  fare  charged  by  the  grantee  shall  not  exceed  six  cents  in  money  of  the  United 
States  on  a  first-class  car,  or  five  cents  in  money  of  the  United  States  on  a  second- 
class  car,  for  one  continuous  ride  from  one  point  to  another  on  the  railway  system  of 
the  grantee  within  the  city  limits  as  now  or  hereafter  established,  whether  it  be 
necessary  to  transfer  the  passenger  from  one  car  or  line  of  the  grantee  to  another 
during  said  ride  or  not:  Provided  always,  That  where  a  change  of  cars  is  necessary 
there  shall  be  established  by  the  grantee  a  method  of  transfers  not  unreasonably 
burdensome  in  its  restrictions  to  the  transferred  passengers;  and  in  case  of  a  failure 
to  comply  with  the  foregoing  requirement  as  to  transfers  it  may  be  enforced  upon 
application  of  the  municipal  board  by  mandamus  to  the  proper  court  of  first  instance 
or  the  supreme  court:  And  provided  further ,  That  on  lines  running  outside  of  the  city 
limits  an  additional  fare  or  fares  may  be  charged  at  the  rate  of  five  cents  in  money  of 
the  I  nited  States  on  first-class  cars,  or  three  cents  in  money  of  the  United  States  on 
second-class  cars,  for  each  two  miles  or  fraction  thereof  beyond  the  then  city  limits:  And 
provided  further,  That  the  grantee  shall  for  four  years  from  the  date  hereof  accept 
local  currency  in  lieu  of  money  of  the  United  States  in  payment  for  any  ride  or  fare  at 
the  ratio  of  two  cents  local  currency  for  one  cent  in  money  of  the  United  States,  until 
such  time  as  there  shall  be  established  for  these  islands  a  gold-standard  coinage  and 
money  thereunder  shall  be  made  legal  tender,  after  which  time  the  fares  to  be  charged 
shall  be  the  equivalent  of  those  stated  above  in  money  of  the  United  States:  And  pro- 
vider] further,  That  pending  the  adoption  of  thegold  standard,  if  theofficial  ratioexisting 
between  the  money  of  the  United  States  and  local  currency  shall  exceed  two  dollars 
and  forty  cents  of  local  currency  for  one  dollar  of  money  of  the  United  States,  then 
and  in  that  case  the  grantee  may  require  from  the  passengers  the  payment  for  fares 
of  sufficient  local  currency  to  be  the  equivalent  of  the  fares  above  fixed  in  money  of 
the  United  States  at  the  official  ratio:  And  provided  further,  That  at  any  time  after 


90  EEPOET    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

twenty-five  years  from  the  date  hereof,  upon  due  notice  from  the  city  of  Manila  to  the 
grantee,  the  fares  charged  by  the  grantee  may  be  readjusted  on  a  reasonable  basis 
by  three  arbitrators,  one  to  be  chosen  by  the  city,  one  by  the  grantee,  and  the  third 
to  be  selected  by  the  two  so  chosen  if  they  can  agree,  but  if  not,  then  to  be  selected 
by  the  chief  executive  of  the  islands.  The  award  of  the  majority  of  such  arbitra- 
tors shall  be  final. 

There  is  also  a  provision  for  sale  of  20  first-class  tickets  for  a  dollar 
and  of  six  second-class  tickets  for  25  cents. 

The  contract  required  that  construction  should  be  begun  in  six 
months,  and  a  formal  breaking  of  ground  was  made  in  September. 
The  material  for  the  construction  has  been  distributed  all  over  the 
city,  and  the  real  work  of  construction  has  begun  this  month,  it  hav- 
ing been  delayed  because  of  the  rainy  season  and  a  fear  that  the  con- 
tinued fall  of  rain  would  only  subject  the  people  of  the  city  to  the 
inconvenience  of  obstructed  streets  without  real  progress.  The 
municipal  board  assures  the  Commission  that  the  street  cars  will  be 
running  about  Thanksgiving  Day  of  next  year.  Such  good  interurban 
transportation  as  this  will  afford  will  reduce  the  cost  of  living  in 
Manila  certainly  25  per  cent  for  all  persons  enjoying  salaries  of  less 
than  $2,500,  for  it  is  almost  impossible  now  to  live  in  Manila  without 
maintaining  some  sort  of  a  conveyance.  It  is  hoped  that  the  company 
will  deem  it  wise  to  reduce  below  the  bid  the  fare  to  be  charged  second 
class,  for  it  is  quite  certain  that  a  reduction  will  vastly  increase  the 
patronage.  The  oriental  people  are  very  fond  of  riding  in  rapidly 
moving  cars. 

THE   POKT   WORKS. 

The  port  works  of  Manila  are  progressing  with  all  convenient 
speed,  as  shown  by  the  report  of  the  officer  in  charge,  hereto  attached 
and  marked  Exhibit  W.  The  dredging  of  the  30-foot  harbor  by  a 
monster  hydraulic  dredge  and  the  filling  in  of  168  acres  in  front  of  the 
city  running  out  into  the  bay  goes  on  rapidly.  The  dredge  delivers 
25,000  cubic  yards  a  day  and  works  with  great  regularity.  The  break- 
water which  is  to  protect  the  harbor  from  the  southwest  monsoon  has 
been  filled  in  to  a  depth  of  30  feet,  so  that  it  is  visible  at  high  water. 
There  will  be  no  finer  harbor  in  the  Orient  than  Manila  will  have  when 
this  great  work  is  accomplished.  Two  millions  of  dollars  have  already 
been  appropriated  and  it  will  probably  cost  two  millions  more,  perhaps 
three  millions,  before  everything  connected  with  the  port  is  completed, 
including  wharves  and  suitable  warehouses.  However,  the  govern- 
ment will  have  160  acres  of  most  valuable  warehouse  property  which 
it  may  sell  and  which  will  go  far  toward  recouping  itself  for  the 
expense.  The  tonnage  of  the  shipping  coming  into  this  harbor  has 
increased  so  much  that  the  wisdom  of  the  engineers  and  of  the  Com- 
mission in  enlarging  the  harbor  be}^ond  the  projected  lines  of  the 
Spanish  engineers  and  Government  has  already  been  vindicated.    Little 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.    .  91 

or  no  progress  has  been  made  with  respect  to  the  Cebu  and  Iloilo  har- 
bor improvements,  because  no  one  has  been  willing  to  contract  for  the 
work.  The  Atlantic,  Gulf  and  Pacific  Company,  engaged  in  the 
Manila  improvement,  is  not  yet  able  to  take  up  another  work  and  there 
is  no  one  else,  apparently,  who  has  plant  enough  in  the  vicinity  to  make 
the  undertaking  of  such  contracts  for  dredging  profitable.  It  is  quite 
probable  that  the  government  will  have  to  undertake  the  contracts  by 
its  own  engineers  and  workmen. 

EXECUTIVE   BUREAU. 

The  work  which  has  been  done  by  the  executive  bureau,  which  has 
not  inaptly  been  called  a  clearing  house  for  all  the  bureaus  of  the 
government,  fairly  gauges  the  size  and  importance  of  the  government 
work  which  has  been  done  in  the  Philippines.  The  report  of  Mr. 
Fergusson,  the  executive  secretary,  who  is  the  efficient  head  of  the 
executive  bureau,  which  is  annexed  hereto  and  marked  Exhibit  X,  shows 
clearly  the  earnest  work  done  by  government  clerks  and  completely 
refutes  the  suggestion  that  their  places  are  sinecures.  Their  fidelity 
and  earnestness  are  largely  due  to  the  consciousness  that  steady  appli- 
cation will  bring  promotion,  and  no  fear  or  favor  will  be  shown  in 
giving  it.  I  invite  especial  attention  to  the  report  of  the  recorder  of 
the  Commission,  which  is  appended  to  the  report  of  the  executive 
secretary,  and  which  probably  gives  a  better  idea  of  the  labors  of  the 
Commission  than  any  more  general  statement  could.  It  is  not  too 
much  to  say  that  the  executive  bureau  is  organized  with  the  utmost 
efficiency  and  dispatches  an  immense  amount  of  work.  I  am  glad  to 
say  that  the  number  of  Filipinos  employed  during  the  present  year  in 
the  bureau  has  increased  150  per  cent  over  previous  years,  and  that  the 
Filipinos  are  displaying  an  adaptability  and  capacity  for  work  which 
justifies  the  prophecy  that  in  ten  years  the  expense  of  carrying  on  the 
government  will  be  largely  decreased  by  the  fact  that  Filipinos  can  be 
had  to  do  the  work  as  well  as  Americans  in  many  positions,  and  at 
very  considerably  less  salaries,  because  the  supply  of  such  clerks  will 
be  far  greater  than  of  American  clerks,  and  because  in  their  own  country 
they  are  able  to  live  on  much  less.  I  append  as  Exhibit  Y  the  execu- 
tive orders  and  proclamations  from  October  1,  1902,  to  September  30, 
1903. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

Wm.  H.  Taft,  Civil  Governor. 

The  Philippine  Commission, 

Manila,  P.  L 


EXHIBIT  A. 


Executive  Oedek,  1       The  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 

V  Executive  Bueeau, 

No.  64.  j  Manila,  July  31,  1903. 

The  following  regulations  will  govern  the  sale  and  distribution  of  rice  furnished 
under  the  appropriation  by  Congress  for  the  relief  of  the  people  of  the  Philippine 
Islands: 

Before  rice  is  furnished  to  any  province  its  provincial  board  will  submit  to  the  civil 
governor  an  estimate  of  the  quantity  of  rice  which  can  be  used  to  advantage  in  a  given 
period  and  a  statement  of  the  conditions  in  the  province  which  make  the  distribution 
of  rice  desirable. 

All  rice  furnished  by  the  civil  government  will  be  consigned  to  the  supervisor  or 
the  supervisor-treasurer  of  the  province  to  which  it  is  shipped.  At  the  time  of  ship- 
ment the  insular  purchasing  agent  will  forward  to  the  insular  auditor  a  copy  of  the 
notice  of  shipment,  together  with  a  statement  of  the  price  at  which  the  rice  is  to  be 
sold,  which  shall  include  cost  of  transportation  and  handling,  but  shall  exclude 
duty,  if  any.  The  expense  of  storing  and  subsequent  handling  of  the  rice  shall 
be  at  the  expense  of  the  province,  except  when  the  civil  governor  shall  order 
otherwise. 

All  rice  shall  be  receipted  for  to  the  insular  purchasing  agent  by  the  supervisor  or 
supervisor-treasurer  to  whom  consigned,  and  shall  be  taken  up  by  the  latter  officer 
who  shall  be  accountable  on  his  official  bond  for  the  same  and  render  accounts 
therefor  to  the  insular  auditor  as  hereinafter  provided. 

Where  the  rice  is  used  for  public  works  a  full  report  of  its  issue  and  distribution 
shall  be  made  to  the  civil  governor,  in  addition  to  the  account  which  is  required 
by  the  Auditor,  with  a  definite  statement  of  the  public  improvement  upon  which  it 
has  been  used,  the  number  of  days  of  labor,  and  the  amount  of  material  secured. 

Xo  rice  shall  be  distributed  gratuitously,  except  in  limited  quantities  to  deserving 
persons  unable  to  work,  and  upon  the  recommendation  and  order  of  the  provincial 
board,  approved  by  the  civil  governor,  to  whom  will  be  made  a  statement  of  the 
peculiar  circumstances  calling  for  such  action. 

In  cases  where  rice  is  sold,  the  proceeds  of  the  sales  will  be  deposited  in  the  provin- 
cial treasury.  The  money  so  received  shall  be  placed  to  the  credit  of  a  "  Congressional 
relief  fund,"  and  thereafter  maybe  disbursed  as  other  funds,  on  the  order  of  the 
provincial  board,  for  public  works,  and  accounted  for  in  the  usual  manner  to  the 
auditor,  full  report  thereon  being  made  to  the  civil  governor. 

The  accounts  of  the  supervisor  or  supervisor-treasurer  to  the  insular  auditor  will  be 
rendered  on  a  regular  property  return,  Auditor's  Form  700,  monthly  instead  of  quar- 
terly, supported  as  follows: 

(a)  In  the  case  of  direct  sales,  by  proper  abstracts,  showing  date  of  sale,  name  of 
purchaser,  quantity  sold,  with  price  and  total  amount  received.  This  abstract  should 
be  certified  as  correct  by  the  person  in  charge  of  the  sales  and  by  the  supervisor, 
and  be  accompanied  by  the  receipt  of  the  provincial  treasurer  for  the  amount  deposited 
in  the  provincial  treasury. 

Sales  to  commercial  firms  will  not  be  allowed  except  upon  advance  approval  of 
the  civil  governor. 

(b)  In  the  case  of  the  issue  of  rice  in  payment  of  labor  performed,  the  regular 
labor  pay  roll,  Provincial  Form  57,  will  be  used,  modified  so  as  to  show  in  the 
columns  marked  "Rate  of  pay"  and  "Amount  paid,"  certain  fixed  units  of  measure 
in  rice  instead  of  money.  The  certificates  at  the  bottom  of  the  roll  should  also  be 
modified  by  substituting  the  words  "issue"  and  "issued,"  respectively,  for  "pay- 
ment" and  "paid."  The  money  value  of  the  rice  so  issued  in  payment  for  labor 
will  be  computed  and  stated  on  the  pay  roll,  and  the  amount  represented  by  such 
money  value  of  such  pay  rolls  will  be  taken  up  by  the  provincial  treasurer  in  his 
revenue  account  as  receipts  from  rice  sales  and  placed  to  the  credit  of  the  aforesaid 

93 


94  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

"Congressional  relief  fund."  Credit  will  be  taken  for  the  same  amount  as  a 
disbursement  for  labor  on  public  works,  the  voucher  being  the  pay  rolls  received 
from  the  supervisor  or  supervisor-treasurer.  The  latter  officer  will  drop  the  rice  so 
disposed  of  on  his  returns,  supporting  the  same  by  the  receipt  of  the  provincial 
treasurer  for  the  amount  represented  by  the  pay  rolls,  and  taken  up  by  the  latter, 
as  in  the  case  of  sales  made  in  the  regular  way. 

(c)  In  case  of  gratuitous  distribution  ordered  by  the  provincial  board  and  approved 
by  the  civil  governor,  the  same  abstract  will  be  used  as  in  the  case  of  sales,  modified 
to  show  gratuitous  distribution  instead  of  sale,  certified  as  correct  by  the  officer  mak- 
ing the  distribution,  which  distribution  will  be  witnessed  by  two  disinterested,  repu- 
table citizens,  whose  certificate  that  they  were  present  and  witnessed  the  issue  must 
appear  on  the  abstract. 

In  order  to  facilitate  the  operation  of  this  order  throughout  the  province,  the  pro- 
vincial supervisor  or  the  supervisor-treasurer  shall  have  power  to  designate  in  writing 
any  municipal  officer  as  his  deputy  for  the  purpose  of  this  issue,  who  shall  serve 
without  additional  compensation. 

Wm.  H.  Taft, 

Civil  Governor. 


[No.  797.] 


AN  ACT  appropriating  the  sum  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars,  in  money  of  the  United  States, 
from  the  fund  of  three  million  dollars  appropriated  hy  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  for  the 
relief  of  distress  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  for  expenditure  under  the  direction  of  the  civil  governor 
upon  resolutions  of  the  Philippine  Commission. 

By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 

Section  1.  The  sum  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars,  in  money  of  the  United 
States,  is  hereby  appropriated  out  of  the  fund  of  three  million  dollars  appropriated 
by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  for  the  relief  of  distress  in  the  Philippine 
Islands,  for  expenditure  under  the  direction  of  the  civil  governor  for  such  purposes 
and  in  such  manner  as  may  from  time  to  time  be  authorized  by  resolutions  of  the 
Philippine  Commission,  and  in  carrying  out  the  intent  of  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States  in  appropriating  the  fund  aforesaid. 

Sec.  2.  The  sum  of  money  by  this  act  appropriated  shall  be  withdrawn  from  the 
insular  treasury  by  requisitions  in  favor  of  the  disbursing  officer  of  the  executive 
bureau  or  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent,  as  the  civil  governor  may  direct,  in  such 
allotments  as  may  from  time  to  time  be  necessary,  and  shall  be  accounted  for  as  pro- 
vided by  law. 

Sec  3.  The  resolutions  of  the  Philippine  Commission  upon  which  the  funds  herein 
appropriated  shall  be  expended  shall  be  printed  and  published  in  quarterly  volumes. 

Sec  4.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage  of 
the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  "  An  act  prescribing 
the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws,"  passed  Sep- 
tember twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

Sec  5.  This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage. 

Enacted,  July  10,  1903. 


[No.  738.] 


AN  ACT  appropriating  the  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars,  in  money  of  the  United  States,  for 
preliminary  expenses  in  the  purchase  of  draft  cattle  for  the  relief  of  agricultural  conditions  in  the 
Philippine  Islands. 

By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 
Section  1.  The  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars,  in  money  of  the  United 
States,  is  hereby  appropriated  out  of  the  three  million  dollars  voted  by  the  Congress 
of  the  United  States  for  the  relief  of  agricultural  depression  in  the  Philippine  Islands 
and  now  on  deposit  in  the  depository  of  the  Philippine  government  in  the  city  of 
New  York  to  the  credit  of  the  insular  treasury,  for  the  preliminary  expenses  of  the 
insular  purchasing  agent  and  other  agents  of  the  insular  government  in  visiting  the 
ports  and  countries  where  draft  cattle  may  be  purchased,  in  paying  agents  for  the 
procuring  of  such  cattle,  in  securing  the  necessary  immunization  against  rinderpest 
of  the  cattle  purchased,  in  paying  the  purchase  price  for  same,  in  chartering  the 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  95 

necessary  transportation  for  their  importation  into  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  all 
other  expenses  incident  to  their  purchase  and  delivery  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Sec.  2.  The  sum  of  money  by  this  act  appropriated  shall  be  expended  by  the  insular 
purchasing  agent,  and  accounted  for  by  him  as  provided  by  law. 

Sec  3.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage  of 
the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  "  An  act  prescribing 
the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws,"  passed  Sep- 
tember twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

Sec.  4.     This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage. 

Enacted,  April  8,  1903. 


[No.  817.] 

AN  ACT  declaring  that  the  presence  of  locusts  in  various  provinces  of  the  islands  so  threatens  the 
food  supplv  for  the  coming  year  as  to  present  a  public  emergency  requiring  radical  action,  and 
authorizing  and  providing  for  the  appointment  of  a  board  in  each  province  with  full  powers  to  call 
upon  all  able-bodied  inhabitants  thereof  to  take  united  action  to  suppress  the  pest,  and  for  other 
purposes. 

Whereas  the  presence  of  locusts  in  various  provinces  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago 
so  threatens  the  entire  food  supply  of  the  islands  for  the  coming  year,  and  presents 
such  an  emergency  and  danger  to  the  welfare  of  the  whole  people  as  to  require 
prompt  and  radical  action  for  its  suppression:  Therefore, 

By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 

Section  1.  Under  the  presidency  of  the  provincial  governor  a  board  is  hereby  cre- 
ated in  each  province  for  the  purpose  of  suppressing  the  locust  pest,  such  board  to 
be  made  up  of  the  members  of  the  provincial  board  and  three  agriculturalists  to  be 
appointed  by  the  civil  governor,  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Commission,  and 
to  be  known  as  the  locust  board.  The  provincial  secretary  shall  act  as  secretary  of 
the  locust  board  without  additional  compensation.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  locust 
board  to  enforce  the  provisions  of  this  act. 

Sec  2.  In  every  province  in  which  a  plague  of  locusts  is  threatened  or  exists 
every  able-bodied  inhabitant,  subject  to  such  regulations  and  limitations  as  the 
board  constituted  under  this  act  may  adopt,  is  hereby  declared  to  be  liable  to 
service  in  suppressing  the  locust  pest..  The  board  is  hereby  empowered  to  issue 
regulations  directing  the  conduct  of  the  persons  summoned  for  the  purposes  of 
this  act  and  to  control  their  operations,  either  directly  or  through  the  municipal 
officers  of  the  various  municipalities  who  are  hereby,  in  respect  to  the  scope  of  this 
act,  made  subordinates  of  the  board  hereby  constituted.  The  regulations  of  the 
board  may  require  that  the  inhabitants  shall  work  en  masse  or  in  such  force  and  in 
such  manner  as  may  be  deemed  by  the  board  most  efficacious  to  the  end  in  view,  or 
the  board  may  require  that  each  inhabitant  subject  to  this  act  shall  collect  a  given 
quantity  of  locusts,  fixing  the  amount  thereof  in  "gantas"  or  "cavanes."  It  is 
hereby  declared  to  be  the  intent  of  this  act  to  give  the  board  hereby  constituted  full 
discretion  in  the  manner  of  suppressing  the  locust  pest.  . 

Sec  3.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  municipal  councilors,  and  of  all  other  municipal 
officers,  upon  the  appearance  of  locusts  within  their  respective  barrios  to  bring  the 
fact  at  once  to  the  attention  of  the  municipal  president,  whose  duty  it  shall  be  to 
take  the  necessary  steps  prescribed  by  the  regulations  of  the  board  hereby  constituted, 
and  to  bring  the  fact  to  the  notice  of  the  board  through  the  provincial  governor. 

Sec  4.  Where  any  persons  summoned  under  this  act  to  the  public  service  herein 
required  shall,  by  reason  of  their  poverty,  be  unable  to  suppprt  themselves  with  food 
during  their  service,  the  board  hereby  constituted  may  authorize  the  municipality  to 
furnish  them  with  sufficient  rice  from  the  store  of  rice  sent  to  the  province  by  the 
civil  governor  and  paid  for  from  the  "congressional  relief  fund,"  reporting  at  once 
to  the  civil  governor,  and  by  telegram  where  possible,  the  amount  needed  for  such 
purpose. 

Sec  5.  Every  person  liable  under  this  act  to  the  lawful  orders  of  the  board  hereby 
constituted  who  shall  fail  to  comply  with  the  same  shall  be  deemed  guilty  of  a  mis- 
demeanor and  shall  be  fined  or  imprisoned,  or  both,  in  the  discretion  of  the  munici- 
pal president,  in  accordance  with  the  regulations  to  be  provided  by  the  board:  Pro- 
vided, however,  That  the  penalty  shall  not  exceed  in  any  case  ten  dollars  fine  or  ten 
days'  imprisonment,  or  both. 

Sec  6.  The  moneys  accruing  from  fines  for  violations  of  this  act  shall  constitute  a 
special  fund  to  be  deposited  with  the  municipal  treasurer  of  the  municipality  in 


96  BEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

which  such  violation  occurs  for  the  purpose  of  being  applied  by  him  in  payment 
for  the  hoppers  or  "loctones"  turned  over  to  him  by  such  persons  as  have  already 
fulfilled  the  requirements  of  the  obligation  imposed  upon  them  by  virtue  of  the  pro- 
visions of  section  two  of  this  act.  The  price  to  be  paid  for  this  purpose  shall  also 
be  determined  and  fixed  in  the  regulations  to  be  adopted  by  the  board  constituted 
under  this  act. 

Sec.  7.  The  board  constituted  by  this  act  is  hereby  authorized  to  purchase  the 
number  of  galvanized-iron  sheets  considered  indispensable  in  the  suppression  of  the 
locusts  by  the  method  of  destroying  them  in  trenches,  reporting  the  amount  needed 
at  once  by  telegram  to  the  civil  governor,  who  is  hereby  authorized  to  expend  such 
amount  as  in  his  discretion  is  needed  for  the  purchase  of  such  galvanized-iron  sheets. 
The  provincial  supervisor  or  supervisor-treasurer  of  the  province  is  required  to  take 
up  such  galvanized-iron  sheets  upon  his  property  return  and  to  duly  account  for  the 
same. 

Sec.  8.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage 
of  the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  ' '  An  act  pre- 
scribing the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws," 
passed  September  twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

Sec  9.  This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage. 

Enacted,  August  3,  1903. 


By  the  Civil  Governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands. 

A  PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas  the  Philippine  Commission  did,  on  the  twelfth  day  of  November,  nine- 
teen hundred  and  two,  pass  the  following  act: 

"AN  ACT  to  provide  against  the  danger  of  famine  in  the  provinces  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago. 

u  By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 

"  Section  1.  To  provide  against  the  danger  of  famine,  due  to  the  short  crop  for  the 
coming  year  in  rice  and  other  food  stuffs  usually  produced  in  the  provinces  of  the 
Philippine  Archipelago,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  all  municipal  presidents  to  call  meet- 
ings of  the  people  of  their  respective  municipalities,  to  notify  them  of  the  impending 
danger  of  famine,  and  to  urge  them  at  once  to  take  steps  to  secure  the  necessary  seed 
and  to  plant  quick-growing  crops  of  corn,  camotes,  rice,  or  other  food  plants,  which- 
ever may  furnish  the  most  abundant  crop  in  the  particular  locality,  sufficient  in 
quantity  to  produce  the  requisite  food  for  the  people  of  the  municipality  for  the  com- 
ing year. 

"Sec.  2.  Any  municipal  president  is  authorized  to  allot  to  the  citizens  of  his 
municipality  such  public  land  as  there  may  be  within  the  boundaries  of  the  munici- 
pality at  present  unoccupied,  for  the  planting  of  the  seed  and  the  raising  of  the  crops 
provided  for  in  this  act. 

"Sec.  3.  The  crops  planted  and  gathered  under  this  act  shall  belong  to  the  persons 
planting  and  gathering  the  same,  even  though  they  be  planted  upon  the  public  land; 
and  no  rent  for  the  public  land  thus  used  shall  be  chargeable  against  the  persons  so 
using  same. 

' '  Sec.  4.  In  cases  where  it  is  impossible  in  the  municipality  or  province  to  secure 
the  proper  seed,  the  municipal  council  shall  call  upon  the  provincial  board  to  pro- 
cure the  needed  seed  through  the  insular  purchasing  agent.  The  provincial  board  shall 
purchase  the  needed  seed  from  the  general  funds  of  the  province,  and  shall  sell  the 
same  to  the  presidents  of  the  municipalities  whose  councils  have  called  for  seed. 
The  seed  furnished  by  a  provincial  board  to  any  municipality  shall  be  receipted  for 
by  the  municipal  president  and  paid  for  out  of  the  municipal  funds  by  order  of  the 
municipal  council.  The  seed  shall  then  be  sold  to  the  residents  of  the  municipality 
at  the  cost  price  thereof.  If  any  person  having  land  of  his  own,  or  tilling  the  public 
land,  shall  be  known  to  be  unable  to  pay  for  the  seed,  the  municipal  president  may 
furnish  him  the  seed  without  receiving  the  price  thereof,  in  which  case  he  shall  col- 
lect an  amount  equal  to  the  value  of  the  seed  furnished  from  the  new  crop,  and  shall 
sell  the  same  and  reimburse  the  municipal  treasury  with  the  proceeds. 

"Sec.  5.  Each  municipal  president  shall  keep  a  record  of  the  amount  of  seed 
furnished  to  the  inhabitants  of  his  municipality  and  the  number  of  hectares  planted 
by  each  inhabitant  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  this  act,  and  it  shall  be 
his  further  duty  to  make  monthly  reports  of  his  proceedings  under  this  act  to  the 
provincial  governor. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  97 

"  Sec.  6.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  provincial  governor  to  see  that  the  municipal 
presidents  discharge  their  duties  under  this  act,  and  if  they  fail  to  do  so  to  suspend 
them  and  bring  them  before  the  provincial  board  to  answer  to  the  charges  of  non- 
compliance therewith. 

"The  provincial  governor  shall  make  monthly  reports  of  the  proceedings  of  the 
municipal  presidents  and  his  own  proceedings  under  this  act  to  the  civil  governor. 

"Sec.  7.  Any  municipal  president  receiving  seed  from  the  provincial  board  under 
section  four  of  this  act  who  shall  appropriate  it  to  his  own  use  or  shall  fail  to  dis- 
tribute it  in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  this  act,  or  who  shall  knowingly  permit  or 
connive  at  the  use  of  the  seed  for  any  other  purpose  than  planting  a  new  crop  as  in 
this  act  provided,  shall  be  held  to  be  guilty  of  embezzlement,  and  shall  be  punished 
by  a  fine  not  exceeding  one  thousand  dollars  or  by  imprisonment  not  exceeding 
three  years,  or  both,  in  the  discretion  of  the  court. 

"Sec  8.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  civil  governor  to  issue  a  proclamation  to  the 
governors  of  the  provinces,  reciting  the  terms  of  this  act  and  directing  them  to  order 
the  municipal  presidents  in  accordance  herewith  to  call  the  people  of  their  respec- 
tive municipalities  together  and  secure  the  action  required  by  this  act. 

"Sec  9.  The  said  proclamation  of  the  civil  governor  shall  be  printed  in  English 
and  Spanish  and  in  the  principal  dialects  of  the  islands,  and  shall  be  forwarded  to  the 
various  provincial  governors  to  be  by  them  distributed  among  the  municipalities  of 
their  respective  provinces. 

"Sec  10.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage 
of  the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  'An  act  prescrib- 
ing the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws,'  passed 
September  twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

"Sec  11.  This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage." 

Now,  therefore,  I,  William  H.  Taft,  civil  governor  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  do 
hereby  direct  all  provincial  governors  to  order  the  municipal  presidents  to  call  the 
people  of  their  respective  municipalities  together  and  secure  the  action  required  by 
the  provisions  of  the  act  just  quoted. 

In  testimony  wThereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  caused  the  seal  of  the 
government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  to  be  affixed. 

Done  at  the  city  of  Manila  this  nineteenth  day  of  November,  one  thousand  nine 
hundred  and  two. 

[seal.]  Wm.  H.  Taft. 

By  the  civil  governor: 

Beekman  Winthrop, 

Acting  Executive  Secretary. 


[No.  517.] 
AN  ACT  to  provide  against  the  danger  of  famine  in  the  provinces  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago. 

By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 

Section  1.  To  provide  against  the  danger  of  famine,  due  to  the  short  crop  for  the 
coming  year  in  rice  and  other  food  stuffs  usually  produced  in  the  provinces  of  the 
Philippine  Archipelago,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  all  municipal  presidents  to  call  meet- 
ings of  the  people  of  their  respective  municipalities,  to  notify  them  of  the  impending 
danger  of  famine,  and  to  urge  them  at  once  to  take  steps  to  secure  the  necessary  seed 
and  to  plant  quick-growing  crops  of  corn,  camotes,  rice,  or  other  food  plants,  which- 
ever may  furnish  the  most  abundant  crop  in  the  particular  locality,  sufficient  in 
quantity  to  produce  the  requisite  food  for  the  people  of  the  municipality  for  the 
coming  year. 

Sec  2.  .Any  municipal  president  is  authorized  to  allot  to  the  citizens  of  his  munici- 
pality such  public  land  as  there  may  be  within  the  boundaries  of  the  municipality  at 
present  unoccupied,  for  the  planting  of  the  seed  and  the  raising  of  the  crops  provided 
for  in  this  act. 

Sec  3.  The  crops  planted  and  gathered  under  this  act  shall  belong  to  the  persons 
planting  and  gathering  the  same,  even  though  they  be  planted  upon  the  public  land, 
and  no  rent  for  the  public  land  thus  used  shall  be  chargeable  against  the  persons  so 
using  same. 

Sec  4.  In  cases  where  it  is  impossible  in  the  municipality  or  province  to  secure 
the  proper  seed,  the  municipal  council  shall  call  upon  the  provincial  board  to  procure 
the  needed  seed  through  the  insular  purchasing  agent.     The  provincial  board  shall 

WAR  1903— VOL  5 7 


98  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

purchase  the  needed  seed  from  the  general  funds  of  the  province,  and  shall  sell  the 
same  to  the  presidents  of  the  municipalities  whose  councils  have  called  for  seed. 
The  seed  furnished  by  a  provincial  board  to  any  municipality  shall  be  receipted  for 
by  the  municipal  president  and  paid  for  out  of  the  municipal  funds  by  order  of  the 
municipal  council.  The  seed  shall  then  be  sold  to  the  residents  of  the  municipality  at 
the  cost  price  thereof.  If  any  person  having  land  of  his  own,  or  tilling  the  public 
land,  shall  be  known  to  be  unable  to  pay  for  the  seed,  the  municipal  president  may 
furnish  him  the  seed  without  receiving  the  price  thereof,  in  which  case  he  shall  col- 
lect an  amount  equal  to  the  value  of  the  seed  furnished  from  the  new  crop,  and  shall 
sell  the  same  and  reimburse  the  municipal  treasury  with  the  proceeds. 

Sec.  5.  Each  municipal  president  shall  keep  a  record  of  the  amount  of  seed  fur- 
nished to  the  inhabitants  of  his  municipality  and  the  number  of  hectares  planted  by 
each  inhabitant  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  this  act,  and  it  shall  be  his 
further  duty  to  make  monthly  reports  of  his  proceedings  under  this  act  to  the  pro- 
vincial governor. 

Sec.  6.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  provincial  governor  to  see  that  the  municipal 
presidents  discharge  their  duties  under  this  act,  and  if  they  fail  to  do  so  to  suspend 
them  and  bring  them  before  the  provincial  board  to  answer  to  the  charges  of  non- 
compliance therewith. 

The  provincial  governor  shall  make  monthly  reports  of  the  proceedings  of  the 
municipal  presidents  and  his  own  proceedings  under  this  act  to  the  civil  governor. 

Sec  7.  Any  municipal  president  receiving  seed  from  the  provincial  board  under 
section  four  of  this  act  who  shall  appropriate  it  to  his  own  use  or  shall  fail  to  dis- 
tribute it  in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  this  act,  or  who  shall  knowingly  permit  or 
connive  at  the  use  of  the  seed  for  any  other  purpose  than  planting  a  new  crop  as  in 
this  act  provided,  shall  be  held  to  be  guilty  of  embezzlement,  and  shall  be  punished 
by  a  fine  not  exceeding  one  thousand  dollars,  or  by  imprisonment  not  exceeding 
three  years,  or  both,  in  the  discretion  of  the  court. 

Sec.  8.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  civil  governor  to  issue  a  proclamation  to  the  gov- 
ernors of  the  provinces,  reciting  the  terms  of  this  act  and  directing  them  to  order  the 
municipal  presidents  in  accordance  herewith  to  call  the  people  of  their  respective 
municipalities  together  and  secure  the  action  required  by  this  act. 

Sec.  9.  The  said  proclamation  of  the  civil  governor  shall  be  printed  in  English  and 
Spanish  and  in  the  principal  dialects  of  the  islands,  and  shall  be  forwarded  to  the 
various  provincial  governors,  to  be  by  them  distributed  among  the  municipalities  of 
their  respective  provinces. 

Sec  10.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage 
of  the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  ' '  An  act  prescribing 
the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws,"  passed  Sep- 
tember twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

Sec  11.  This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage. 

Enacted,  November  12,  1902. 


[No.  495.] 


AN  ACT  appropriating  the  sum  of  two  million  dollars,  local  currency,  for  expenses  in  connection 
with  the  purchase  and  distribution  of  rice  to  inhabitants  of  the  Philippine  Islands  in  provinces  suf- 
fering from  scarcity  of  food,  and  for  other  purposes. 

By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 

Section  1.  The  sum  of  two  million  dollars,  local  currency,  is  hereby  appropriated, 
from  any  funds  in  .the  insular  treasury  not  otherwise  appropriated,  for  expenses  in 
the  purchase  and  distribution  of  rice  for  the  inhabitants  of  the  Philippine  Islands  in 
provinces  suffering  from  lack  of  food. 

Sec  2.  The  purchase  of  rice  shall  be  made  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  in  such 
quantities  and  at  such  prices  and  times  as  the  civil  governor  may  direct.  The  rice 
so  purchased  shall  be  distributed  in  such  manner  and  sold  at  such  prices  and  in  such 
localities  as  the  civil  governor  may  direct;  but  no  sale  shall  be  made  except  for  cash 
nor  at  a  price  less  than  the  actual  cost  thereof,  including  all  expenses  in  connection 
with  the  distribution  and  sale  of  the  same,  such  as  transportation,  shrinkage,  storage, 
and  customs  duties. 

Sec  3.  The  amounts  received  from  the  sale  of  such  rice  shall  be  deposited  in  the 
insular  treasury  as  soon  as  the  same  are  received. 

Sec  4.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage  of 


EEPOET    OP   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  99 

the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  "An  act  prescribing 
the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws,"  passed  Sep- 
tember twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

Sec.  5.  This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage. 

Enacted,  November  4,  1902. 


[No.  828.] 


AN  ACT  authorizing  the  insular  purchasing  agent  and  provincial  boards  to  sell  carabao  and  other 
draft  animals  purchased  out  of  the  congressional  relief  fund  by  the  insular  government  for  the 
purpose  of  restocking  the  islands  with  draft  animals  and  replacing  draft  animals  destroyed  by 
disease  or  other  causes. 

By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 

Section  1.  All  carabao  and  other  draft  animals  purchased  by  the  insular  government 
out  of  the  congressional  relief  fund  shall  be  branded  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent 
with  the  government  brand  and  a  consecutive  number,  of  which  proper  entry  and 
account  shall  be  kept  by  said  insular  purchasing  agent,  together  with  the  name  of 
the  vessel  on  which  the  animals  were  shipped  to  the  islands,  the  number  under 
which  they  were  shipped,  the  date  of  their  arrival  in  the  Philippines,  and  their  final 
disposition  under  proper  regulations  to  be  prescribed  in  executive  orders  by  the  civil 
governor. 

Sec  2.  The  insular  purchasing  agent  may  consign  to  provincial  boards  for  sale 
upon  proper  requisition  such  number  of  said  carabao  or  other  draft  animals  as  may 
be  required  by  the  board  and  authorized  by  resolution  of  the  Commission. 

Sec  3.  The  insular  purchasing  agent  and  provincial  boards  to  which  consignments 
of  carabao  and  other  draft  animals  may  be  made  in  accordance  with  section  two  of 
this  act  are  hereby  authorized  to  sell  such  animals  at  public  auction  or  in  such  other 
manner  as  may  be  authorized  by  resolution  of  the  Commission  to  farmers  and  other 
persons  requiring  and  needing  them  to  perform  work  or  labor  on  the  property  of  the 
buyers  or  on  property  leased,  hired,  or  occupied  by  them,  or  in  or  about  a  business 
owned,  managed,  or  conducted  by  them.  In  case  of  the  sale  of  cattle  under  this  act 
a  certificate  of  purchase  of  the  cattle,  with  the  proper  descriptions,  shall  be  issued  to 
such  purchaser  of  such  cattle  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  or  the  provincial  treas- 
urer for  the  provincial  board,  in  the  form  and  containing  details  to  be  set  forth  in 
regulations  of  the  civil  governor  to  accord,  so  far  as  may  be,  with  certificates  of  pur- 
chase required  by  law  for  private  sales  of  carabao:  Provided,  however,  That  no  stamp 
for  such  sale  shall  be  required. 

Sec  4.  Where  practicable,  reasonable  notice  of  all  sales  of  carabao  and  other  draft 
animals  shall  be  given  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  or  the  provincial  board,  as  the 
case  may  be,  and  if  at  the  time  and  place  of  sale  more  than  one  purchaser  is  present 
the  privilege  of  choice  shall  be  put  up  at  auction  and  awarded  to  the  person  bidding 
the  highest  sum  therefor,  in  addition  to  the  minimum  price  for  each  carabao  pur- 
chased, which  minimum  price  is  hereby  fixed  at  seventy  pesos,  Philippines  currency, 
for  cash  sales,  and  ninety-three  pesos,  Philippines  currency,  for  part  cash  and  part 
credit  sales  as  hereafter  defined,  or  the  equivalent  of  these  prices  in  Mexican  or 
Spanish-Filipino  currency  at  the  official  rate. 

Sec  5.  All  animals  provided  to  be  sold  by  this  act  shall  be  sold  either  for  cash  or 
one-third  cash,  one-third  in  one  year  from  date  of  sale,  and  one-third  in  two  years 
from  date  of  sale,  without  interest,  or  upon  such  other  terms  as  may  be  fixed  by  reso- 
lution of  the  Commission:  Provided,  That  all  deferred  payments  shall  be  secured  by 
pledge,  mortgage,  or  personal  guaranty  satisfactory  to  the  provincial  board  or  the 
insular  purchasing  agent,  as  the  case  may  be:  And  provided  further,  That  any  part  of 
the  purchase  money  unpaid  shall  constitute  a  preferred  lien  on  the  animals  sold,  in 
favor  of  the  insular  government  as  against  all  persons  whomsoever:  And  provided 
further,  That  where  a  purchaser  on  credit  shall  desire  to  anticipate  the  second  install- 
ment by  payment  of  the  entire  price  in  one  year  he  shall  be  allowed  to  satisfy  the 
debt  by  a  total  payment  of  eighty-one  pesos,  Philippines  currency,  instead  of  ninety- 
three  pesos,  as  above  provided. 

Sec  6.  The  insular  purchasing  agent  shall  keep  a  true  and  correct  account  of  all 
sales  made  by  him  under  the  terms  of  this  act,  together  with  the  consecutive  num- 
bers and  brands  of  the  animals  sold,  the  name,  address,  business,  or  occupation  of  the 
purchaser,  the  full  price  for  which  sold,  the  cash  paid,  the  amount  due  and  security 
given  (in  case  of  credit  sales),  and  make  true  report  thereof  to  the  insular  auditor. 


100  KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Sec.  7.  The  provincial  treasurer  shall  keep  a  true  account  of  all  sales  of  animals 
made  by  the  provincial  board  under  the  terms  of  this  act,  together  with  the  consecu- 
tive numbers  and  brands  of  the  animals  sold,  the  name,  address,  business,  or 
occupation  of  the  purchaser,  the  full  price  for  which  sold,  the  cash  paid,  the  amount 
due  and  the  security  given  (in  case  of  credit  sales),  and  make  a  true  report  thereof 
to  the  insular  auditor  and  to  the  insular  purchasing  agent. 

Sec.  8.  No  animal  purchased  under  the  terms  of  this  act  for  which  the  full  price 
has  not  been  paid  and  a  certificate  given  therefor  shallbe  sold,  transferred,  or  pledged 
without  the  permission  of  the  provincial  board  making  the  sale  by  resolution  or  of 
the  insular  purchasing  agent  in  writing,  which  resolution  or  written  permission  shall 
contain  the  name  of  the  first  purchaser  and  of  the  vendee,  transferree,  or  pledgee 
and  his  business  and  address  and  a  description  of  the  animal  with  its  brands,  and 
shall  be  recorded  in  the  books  of  the  provincial  treasurer  and  of  the  insular  pur- 
chasing agent.  In  case  the  permission  is  given  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent,  he 
shall  forward  a  copy  thereof  to  the  insular  auditor  and  to  the  provincial  treasurer  of 
the  province  where  the  animal  was  originally  sold,  and  when  the  permission  is 
granted  by  a  provincial  board  a  copy  of  the  resolution  shall  be  forwarded  by  the 
provincial  treasurer  to  the  insular  purchasing  agent  and  the  insular  auditor.  A  pur- 
chaser or  his  agent  violating  the  provisions  of  this  section  shall  be  punished  by  a 
fine  not  exceeding  five  hundred  Philippine  pesos  or  by  imprisonment  not  exceeding 
one  year,  or  by  both  such  fine  and  imprisonment  as  to  the  court  may  seem  just. 

Sec.  9.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage 
of  the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  ' '  An  act  pre- 
scribing the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws," 
passed  September  twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

Sec.  10.  This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage. 

Enacted  August  7,  1903. 


[No.  786.] 


AN  ACT  appropriating  the  sum  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars,  in  money  of  the  United 
States,  for  expenses  in  connection  with  the  purchase,  sale,  and  distribution  of  rice  to  inhabitants  of 
the  Philippine  Islands  in  the  discretion  of  the  civil  governor. 

By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 

Section  1.  The  sum  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars,  in  money  of  the 
United  States,  is  hereby  appropriated  out  of  the  fund  of  three  million  dollars  appro- 
priated by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  for  the  relief  of  distress  in  the  Philippine 
Islands,  for  expenditure  in  the  purchase  of  rice  for  the  purpose  of  securing  to  the 
inhabitants  of  the  Philippine  Islands  opportunity  to  purchase  rice  at  reasonable  prices 
and  for  the  purpose  of  distributing  rice  gratuitously  to  those  people  who  are  suffering 
from  lack  of  food  and  unable  to  pay  for  the  same. 

Sec.  2.  The  purchase  of  rice,  authorized  by  section  one  hereof,  shall  be  made  by 
the  insular  purchasing  agent  in  such  manner  and  quantities  and  at  such  prices  and 
times  as  the  civil  governor  may  direct.  The  rice  so  purchased  shall  be  distributed 
by  sale  at  such  prices  and  in  such  localities  as  the  civil  governor  may  direct,  or  shall 
be  paid  for  by  work  on  roads  or  other  public  improvements,  or  shall  be  distributed 
in  emergencies  gratuitously  to  starving  people  upon  order  of  the  civil  governor:  Pro- 
vided, however,  That  it  is  the  declared  policy  of  the  Commission  to  distribute  rice 
gratuitously  only  in  cases  of  sudden  emergencies  and  in  all  other  cases  of  destitution 
to  furnish  rice  in  consideration  of  work  done  for  the  public.  Where  distribution  of 
rice,  either  by  sale  or  gratuitously,  is  made  under  the  provisions  of  this  act  for  the 
inhabitants  of  any  province,  such  rice  shall  be  sent  to  the  provincial  supervisor  of 
such  province,  by  him  to  be  distributed  under  the  orders  of  the  provincial  board  and 
the  civil  governor. 

Sec  3.  When  any  of  the  rice  purchased  under  this  actshall  be  sold  by  a  provincial 
supervisor  or  supervisor-treasurer,  as  the  case  may  be,  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  shall 
be  paid  into  the  provincial  treasury  upon  order  of  the  supervisor.  The  provincial 
treasurer  or  provincial  supervisor-treasurer  shall  then  account  to  the  insular  treasurer 
for  all  moneys  thus  received  and  remit  the  same  to  the  insular  treasurer  upon  order  of 
the  insular  auditor.  When  the  rice  shall  be  sold  directly  by  the  insular  purchasing 
agent,  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  shall  be  deposited  in  the  insular  treasmy  forthwith 
upon  order  of  the  auditor.  When  the  rice  is  distributed  for  work  done  or  gratuitously, 
the  supervisor  shall  keep  careful  account  of  the  rice  thus  distributed  and  make 
report  thereof  to  the  insular  auditor,  including  a  statement  of  the  work  done  for  the 
rice  distributed,  with  copy  of  the  receipts  received  by  him  from  the  beneficiaries  or  from 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  101 

the  presidents  or  other  municipal  officers,  through  whom  such  distribution  is  made. 
The  accounting  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  and  the  provincial  supervisors  and 
treasurers  under  this  act  shall  be  in  accordance  with  regulations  to  be  prescribed  by 
the  insular  auditor. 

Sec.  4.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage  of 
the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  "An  act  prescribing 
the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws,"  passed  Sep- 
tember twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

Sec.  5.  This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage. 

Enacted  June  1,  1003. 


EXCERPTS   FROM   THE   MINUTES   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION   CONCERNING   KICE. 

Excerpt  from  minutes  of  July  23,  1903. 

Be  it  resolved,  That  under  act  No.  797  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to 
direct  the  auditor  to  draw  a  warrant  on  the  insular  treasury  in  favor  of  the  provin- 
cial treasurer  of  Albay  for  the  sum  of  twenty-five  thousand  dollars,  United  States 
currency,  the  same  to  be  deposited  in  the  provincial  treasury  of  Albay  and  to  be 
disbursed  upon  the  order  of  the  provincial  board  of  Albay  for  public  improvements 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  furnish  labor  to  the  people  of  the  province  who  shall  be  in 
necessitous  circumstances;  the  disbursement  of  the  funds  to  be  made  by  the  provin- 
cial treasurer  in  accordance  with  law,  subject  to  the  same  accounting  to  the  auditor 
as  provided  for  the  disbursement  of  other  provincial  funds.  The  provincial  treasurer 
is  also  required  to  make  a  full  report  of  the  expenditure  of  this  fund  to  the  civil  gov- 
ernor to  enable  the  civil  governor,  as  required  by  the  act  of  Congress,  to  report  to 
Congress  the  disposition  of  the  money.  The  provincial  board  of  Albay  is  authorized 
to  purchase  rice  with  this  fund  and  to  use  the  rice  in  the  payment  of  labor  in  so  far 
as  it  may  be  wise.  The  provincial  board  of  Albay  may  also  authorize  in  limited 
quantities  the  use  of  rice  purchased  to  relieve  the  wants  of  the  indigent  poor  unable 
to  earn  money  by  labor,  but  the  amount  thus  expended  can  only  be  expended  by 
approval  of  the  provincial  board  concurred  in  by  the  civil  governor. 

Excerpt  from  minutes  of  August  5,  1903. 

On  motion, 

Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  he  is  hereby,  authorized  to  pay,  from  the 
appropriation  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars  made  by  act  No.  797  from  the  Con- 
gressional relief  fund,  a  sum  equivalent  at  the  authorized  rate  of  exchange  to  $130.81, 
Mexican  currency,  to  pay  the  expenses  of  transportation  on  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  sacks  of  rice  furnished  to  the  provincial  government  of  Abra  for  the  relief  of  the 
inhabitants  of  that  province. 

Excerpt  from  minutes  of  August  29,  1903. 

On  motion, 

Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  expend  from  the  fund 
of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars  appropriated  from  the  three  million  dollar  Con- 
gressional relief  fund  by  act  No.  797  and  made  available  for  expenditure  under  his 
direction,  upon  authorization  by  the  Commission,  the  sum  of  two  thousand  dollars, 
Philippines  currency,  to  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  paying  the  charges  of  transporta- 
tion on  five  hundred  piculs  of  rice  from  San  Fernando,  in  thex province  of  La  Union 
to  Baguio,  in  the  province  o-f  Benguet,  which  rice  is  to  be  used  for  the  feeding  of 
laborers  engaged  on  public  improvements,  and  for  other  purposes,  as  directed  by 
the  civil  governor. 

Excerpt  from  minutes  of  September  24, 1903. 

On  motion, 

Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct  an  expenditure 
from  the  funds  appropriated  under  act  No.  797  of  the  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand 
dollars,  United  States  currency,  in  the  purchase  of  rice  and  the  payment  of  trans- 
portation and  other  charges  incident  to  its  distribution  among  the  inhabitants  of  the 
Philippine  Islands,  for  the  purpose  of  relieving  famine  and  distress  therein,  said 
funds  having  been  withdrawn  from  the  insular  treasury  by  accountable  warrant  No. 
3716,  issued  from  the  insular  purchasing  agent's  requisition,  dated  August  12,  1903. 


102  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Excerpt  from  minutes  of  October  1,  1903. 

On  motion, 

Resolved,  That  the  action  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent  in  chartering  the  schooner 
Kodiak  at  thirty  dollars,  United  States  currency,  per  day,  for  a  period  not  to  exceed 
six  months,  to  be  used  in  the  transportation  of  carabao,  rice,  coal,  and  other  govern- 
ment property  between  ports  of  the  archipelago,  for  the  purpose  of  relieving  distress 
among  the  inhabitants  thereof,  be,  and  is  hereby,  approved  by  the  Commission;  and 

Be  it  further  resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized  to  expend 
from  the  funds  appropriated  by  act  No.  797,  out  of  the  Congressional  relief  fund,  a 
sum  not  exceeding  five  thousand  five  hundred  dollars,  United  States  currency,  for 
the  payment  of  the  charter  fee  of  said  schooner  during  such  period  as  the  same  may 
be  in  use  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent. 

Excerpt  from  minutes  of  October  2,  1903. 

On  motion  of  the  president, 

Resolved,  That  for  the  purpose  of  using  the  rice  in  the  suppression  of  the  locust 
pest,  in  the  construction  and  repair  of  roads  and  bridges  and  other  public  works,  and 
for  the  sale  of  rice  in  order  to  prevent  the  excessive  prices  in  parts  of  the  archipelago 
where  such  prices  are  reported,  the  civil  governor  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized  to 
purchase  two  shiploads  of  rice;  one  from  Messrs.  Castle  Brothers,  Wolf  and  Son, 
Saigon  white  rice  No.  2,  at  six  pesos  and  two  centavos,  Philippines  currency,  per 
picul,  duty  paid,  said  shipload  containing  between  twenty-eight  thousand  and  thirty- 
two  thousand  piculs;  and  the  second  shipload  from  Messrs.  Holliday,  Wise  and  Com- 
pany, Rangoon  white  rice  No.  2,  at  six  dollars  and  nineteen  cents,  Mexican  currency, 
per  picul,  duty  paid,  said  shipload  containing  between  twenty-eight  thousand  and 
thirty-two  thousand  piculs;  and  that  the  civil  governor  is  further  authorized  to  dis- 
tribute the  rice  bought  in  the  various  provinces  in  accordance  with  the  methods 
now  provided  by  law  for  the  purposes  above  recited. 

Be  it  further  resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  expend  from 
the  moneys  appropriated  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  by  act  No.  797  a  suffi- 
cient sum  to  meet  the  expenditures  authorized  herein;  these  resolutions  being  adopted 
in  accordance  with  section  two  of  said  act  No.  797. 

Excerpt  from  minutes  of  October  22,  1903. 

On  motion,  it  was 

Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct  an  expenditure 
from  the  funds  appropriated  under  act  No.  797  of  the  sum  of  $88,858.75,  United  States 
currency,  in  payment  of  29,521.18  piculs  of  Saigon  No.  2  rice  purchased  from  Castle 
Brothers,  Wolf  and  Sons  at  6.02  pesos  per  picul,  such  rice  being  required  for  the  pur- 
pose of  relieving  famine  and  distress  within  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Excerpt  from  minutes  of  November  6,  1903. 

On  motion, 

Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct  an  expenditure 
from  the  funds  appropriated  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  by  act  No.  797  of  the 
sum  of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars,  United  States  currency,  in  the  purchase  of  rice 
and  the  payment  of  transportation  and  other  charges  incident  to  its  distribution 
among  the  inhabitants  of  the  Philippine  Islands  for  the  purpose  of  relieving  famine 
and  distress  therein. 


EXHIBIT  B. 


ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  THE  INSULAR  PURCHASING  AGENT  FOR 
THE  PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS  FOR  THE  YEAR  ENDING  SEPTEM- 
BER 30,  1903. 

Office  of  the  Insular  Purchasing  Age^t 

For  the  Philippine  Islands, 
Manila,  P.  I.,  October  15,  1903. 
The  Executive  Secretary, 

Manila,  P.  I. 
Sir:  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  herewith  the  annual  report  of  the  bureau  of  the 
insular  purchasing  agent  for  the  year  commencing  October  1,  1902,  and  ending  Sep- 
tember 30,  1903. 

In  order  to  show  an  aggregate  of  the  business,  as  shown  in  the  detailed  statements 
attached  hereto,  I  have  reduced  the  amount  shown  as  local  currency,  under  the  head 
of  "Purchase  of  supplies,"  to  United  States  currency  at  the  present  legal  rate: 

Purchase  of  supplies  (not  including  rice  or  carabao). 

Total  purchases,  this  office $1, 456, 065. 16 

Transferred  to  United  States 326,  026.  00 

Contracts  awarded,  not  fully  completed 433, 184. 46 

Total  purchases 2, 215, 275.  62 

Of  this  amount  purchases  have  been  made  as  follows: 

Manila  merchants $1,  785,  660.  52 

United  States 327,  782.  31 

Japan 34, 437.  56 

China 27, 449.  67 

Australia 12, 474.  31 

Germany 14, 152.  84 

England 10,  732.  68 

Italy 148.  00 

France 2,  345.  81 

British  East  Indies 91.  92 

Total 2,  215,  275.  62 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  above  that  but  about  14  per  cent  oi  all  the  purchases  have 
been  made  in  the  United  States,  and  but  a  little  over  4  per  cent  in  all  other  coun- 
tries, and  that  over  80  per  cent  of  the  entire  purchase  of  supplies  have  been  made 
through  the  merchants  of  Manila. 

The  two  buyers  of  this  bureau  have  issued  during  this  period  11,840  orders,  making 
an  average  of  38  orders  placed  in  the  local  markets  each  working  day  of  the  year. 

Seven  thousand  and  forty-four  requisitions  were  received  from  the  various  bureaus 
and  provinces,  calling  for  48,590  different  items — an  item  consisting  of  any  quantity 
of  articles;  thus,  150  tons  hay  or  2,000,000  slate  pencils  being  considered  as  one  item. 

The  local  receiving  and  shipping  offices  received  and  delivered  during  the  year 
50,941,122  articles.  The  foreign  and  provincial  shipping  office  received  394,050 
packages,  weighing  62,446,224  pounds,  or  1,244,522  cubic  feet,  making  31,223  tons, 
and  shipped  271,889  packages,  weighing  44,156,465  pounds,  or  749,065  cubic  feet, 
weighing  22,403  tons,  making  a  total  of  53,626  tons  handled. 

There  were  11,459  letters  received  and  8,594  written  and  621  free  entries  issued 

103 


104  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Under  the  provisions  of  Acts  Nos.  495,  786,  and  797  of  the  Philippine  Commission 
this  bureau,  in  addition  to  the  regular  purchase  of  supplies,  has  purchased  rice 
amounting  to  $2,451,168.04  local  currency,  and  has  sold  rice  to  the  amount  of 
$2,310,633.06;  having  on  hand  at  the  present  time  rice  amounting  to  $107,152.84.  A 
full  and  detailed  statement  of  all  rice  transactions  is  attached  hereto. 

Under  an  act  of  the  Commission  a  part  of  the  Congressional  relief  fund  was  set 
aside  to  be  used  for  the  purchase  of  carabao  for  the  purpose  of  restocking  the  Philip- 
pine Islands  by  the  sale  of  carabao  to  the  provinces  depleted  by  rhinderpest.  A  con- 
tract for  10,000  head  of  these  animals  has  been  entered  into  by  this  bureau  with 
Messrs.  Keylock  &  Pratt,  of  Shanghai,  in  deliveries  of  500  per  month.  Up  to  the 
present  but  773  have  been  delivered  under  the  contract,  and  these  are  being  sold  as 
rapidly  as  they  are  permanently  immunized  against  rhinderpest  by  the  bureau  of 
government  laboratories. 

The  demands  on  the  transportation  department  of  this  bureau  are  rapidly  increas- 
ing, and  there  is  now  in  use  in  that  department  18  American  horses,  18  Australian 
horses,  34  mules,  158  native  horses,  80  carromatas,  13  carratelas,  15  escort  wagons,  7 
trucks,  3  delivery  wagons,  5  quilez,  1  calesa. 

Plans  have  been  drawn  for  new  stables,  and  when  completed  the  work  of  this 
department  can  be  carried  on  in  a  more  satisfactory  manner. 

The  total  amount  of  money  received  from  all  sources  and  accounted  for  by  this 
bureau,  as  shown  by  the  attached  statements  of  the  disbursing  officer,  aggregate 
$3,221,803.71  United  States  currency  and  $3,988,108.36  local  currency,  showing  a  bal- 
ance on  hand  of  $65,281.21  United  States  currency.  There  is  also  stock  on  hand  in 
regular  supplies  amounting  to  $571,319.64  Philippine  pesos. 

The  disbursements  and  collections  of  this  amount  entailed  2,539  separate  settle- 
ments, carried  on  3,948  vouchers,  covering  approximately  15,000  invoices,  as  audited 
and  checked  against  12,908  purchase  orders;  the  issuing  of  11,719  invoices  in  quad- 
ruplicate; 718  settlements  with  provinces,  covering  2,193  vouchers,  and  the  settle- 
ment of  2,500  bills  of  lading. 

In  rendering  this  report,  showing  as  it  does  the  purchasing,  handling,  and  shipping 
of  $3,281,000.85  worth  of  property  and  the  accounting  of  $5,021,045.09  United  States 
currency,  I  desire  to  express  my  appreciation  of  the  able  assistance  rendered  the 
chief  of  this  bureau  by  Mr.  Gus  Johnson,  chief  clerk;  Mr.  W.  W.  Garver,  disbursing 
officer;  Mr.  F.  H.  Garrett,  chief  of  property  division;  Mr.  H.  J.  Black  and  J.  N. 
Weir,  local  buyers;  Mr.  S.  J.  Epperly,  chief  record  division;  Mr.  George  Raetzell, 
chief  property  returns,  and  their  assistants.  They  have  worked  many  hours  over- 
time in  order  to  help  in  meeting  the  demands  made  on  this  bureau. 

Respectfully  submitted. 

M.  L.  Stewart, 
Assistant  ana  Acting  Insular  Purchasing  Agent. 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


105 


a     -2 


t 


v. 


OlHiO        O  OO  OO  O  O  O  O  O  to  i 
HO>»        OO  O  O  OO  OO  00  o  o- 


50  oo 

a  a 

18" 


0Q  fl 


O     . 


Pk 


•so>o 


88888 

o  toooo 


OOOOCICNOOOO 

ooooosaiOMOo 

Ot^OOtOCOiOCNOOO 

(Moo  o  odo~o  r-~t~'"T-rorto~i>~ 


'WOO' 

=  =        -   =  ',"  .?io'ood( 


oooooog 


OiO  o 

S~eo"cTo  -*~t>o~ 
H«OOH        lO 


(NO 

■-Tic 


j  g»d 

"x  5 


rg.d 


88 

OO 


to  to 


WH<JE-i 


l  N  M  lO  C  Cl  X  iC  to  to  N  CC  N  CO  H  lO 

icoco-^^roooooiiar-r-t-otf:  x  oj 

.  O  H  H  H  H  H  H  ?1  C-l  Ol  n  CI  CO  CO  CO 
I  CI  CM  CN  CN,  CN  CN  CN  CN  CI  <N  CI  CI  CI  CI  C  I 

ioddddcdddoo'o'doo 

:c;c3c;o3c:c;c:c:c;c;'-:r3c3c3^S 

C3c3c3c£c3c3c3c303c3c3a3c3c3c3 
£££££££££££££££ 


si* 


2. 5^ 


oo- 

O  CN 


■  CC'  CM  tO  'f  l-~ 
i  00  CN  CO  O  CO 
I  -^  lO  LO  l^  I- 
ICN  CNCNCNCN 


SOOOOGOO 

2  fc  &  £  £  fc  £  & 

Pi  if  +2  -e  +2  -e  -tf  - 


oj'ft 


t~  CT5  00   r?  r* 

^i-cooiO 

CM  CN  CN  ,3  •£ 
.     .     -  rc .» 

^  "  ^  p|  Q 


Pi  PI  PI  PI  PI 
o3  OS  o3  'cS  o3 


pi  pi  pi  I *  h- 

-  03  ^f  <U 

„   _,   ^   PI  o 

h  h  ^  oca 

coo303o;o305o3o3o3Mtn 

§o 
rtd 


oioi-iioioiciocccoosoocoeo-^cji      eototo      o>  to  to  o  <?> 

CI  CO  r-l  t-i  i-H  CJ  CI  CM  HHHWflCM      •nHrl         H  CI  C-)  CI  CI 

23 


106 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


•OOOOOOQOOCO        Q  CM  <N  t^  Q        O  O  O  O  O  O  O  00        OO 
S^O  OOCOOOOOCN        ONCOlNO        LOOOOOOO-*        OO 


«o>o*nooow 

S-OiOOCNiOOOOO 


OO 

o  o 

OO 


i  ■>*  o  <o  o  o  o  <»  < 

>  A  O  iH  o  o  o  t-  < 
1 t-  O  lO  O  O  O  CO  i 


ItDO^OOOHMMc 


OO 

do 


0  co 

<v  o> 

c  & 

o  * 


2  to 


8SSS 


ooo 
in-* 

CO  oo 


com 
i>co 
com 


,3  ft 
o  ft 


3888^ 

dddot 

8888? 


88 
88 

OO 

o~o" 


CcNiOT^^fiCNCMcO'* 
'SOIOOOHNMMl 
g<CM  CN  CO  CO  CO  CO  CO  CO  ' 
ft 

^50000000    0; 

2  ££  ££££££. 

^^J6eoc3"C3a3'33cocc, 
3C0G3a3C5C3a3a303" 


s  ^ 


1  "aw* 

,gcoco 

ISoo 


go  £ 
tuoO  cp 

,d  CO 


)  rH  CO 


aHHOO 
rl  5£ 

ftcocococo 

50060000 


10 10 10  *  10  (j  o,5-0  "-0  '^  '^  '~  f-  x  °°  x'  0s  o>  <y>  01 1 


^cocococococococococococococo 


r^     CO     03 


00000000000000 


o  S 


OlOOOM 


1  lO  m  iO  1 
CNOJ(N< 


OHMooaanoooNoooc 

iHrHCNCNCMCNrHl-ICNCOCOCOC 

SP  ft 

5  o 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


107 


'    I"    L*     I 


il>tDO)C»H 


1S1OONO 
O  --C  O  Oi  o 
CN  CN  O  00  I>        H>MCOiO^<«OH(0 


e  i-oooc*oa 


coi>t>      oj  o  cn  i-h  cn  co  - 

CO  t^  IQ        OS  iftiO  < 

tH  O  ->?<         lO  COCO  < 


gioco 

<U  OS  o> 
J-OCN 

5«NCN 

.coco 

CQ  - 

£5 


MC01>001H 
■*t*OIOOOOO 
-#0>CNO00CN 

co^iogg 


COO 

coo 


~.  r. 

5C  t> 


co  o 

c<rco" 


t^iO  o  o 
-<*!  OCO  CO 


CMOIO 

TjieNeo 


u 


coco 
dod 

00  eft 

00 


iO00 

coco' 

CT.IO 

co~co~ 


MCiCOOH 

c  a  a  i>  o  o 

CHlOMOH 


X  O  CN  O  O  CD 

HNiHOMiO 


i  COCOlO  < 
ICC05  1O' 


OlO 

Oh 


sss 


-*tDOMlM 
HHOCOM 

CO  CM  O00  CO 

co~o"iocNeo 


- 


CNCO 


3  »5  rf 

sa:;a*a 

5  >  "  >•  E  o 

J  C  Q.C  t*  CD 

.  Sn     3        3 

D  <d  ^  o  .r  o 

aasfsSa 

$  S  a  g  a>  g 


!>..s 


5  s>  ft 


c  ^C  w 


o  o 


o>  CD 
O  « 
CD  CD 


3  a 

ce  03 


I  a>  cd 

3  a 


OPT) 


o  ft£  ^^  3  ft'fta 


ftt-T     § 
££     g 


VH     7. 


B  -~Z 


a  s  tj  s  a  2  2  ^~  *  a 

"   to  3 


a* 


.-j-^OQEHfiPPEdrHHQPQ 


3  (=1 


Id  la 


2  u 

a  3 

CD  CD 


IS 

CD  01 

a  a 

PP 

22 
•dTJ 

CD  <u 
o  CD 
3  3 
•d'd 

CO  CD 


|g 

3  6 

1ft 

.jJ'cd 

■a'g 

2. a 
S| 

a£ 

<U  CD 
2  g 


CD 


5  -sgi 

P/3  5  ^CD     . 

£"">  "^  .S^02  *a 
3  +^  -^  !3  -t-"  °J 

CD  CD  CD  CD  CD  „, 

ro  3  3  co  3  3 
o3 .OX*  ?3,Q  ri 

g   OQ   CO   CD   co>^ 


Ofc 


N.N'JHXiCHOHOOOOiOiO 
•  Ol  Tl  CI  CO  CI  C-l  CO  CO  CO  CO  CO  CO  CO  r-(  1-1 

^i  fj    5vSa  3 


1  o  o 
OK 


HHHOOl 
^  CO  CO  CO  CN  CO  < 

a     5© 


108 


KEPOftT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Disbursing  officer's  statement  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 

[United  States  currency.] 

RECEIPTS. 

Balance  on  hand  October  1,  1902  (Inclosure  A) $13, 975. 36 

Sundry  refunds  (Inclosure  A) = 4, 913. 40 

From  treasurer  Philippine  Islands,  sundry  warrants 2, 793, 925.  71 

2,812,814.47 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Loss  in  exchange  (Inclosure  A) 7.78 

Transfers  to  officers  (Inclosure  A) 101, 806. 00 

Purchase  of  supplies  ( Inclosure  B) 1, 340, 580. 10 

Purchase  of  rice,  act  495  (Inclosure  C) 723, 640. 37 

Purchase  of  rice,  act  786  (Inclosure  D ) 250, 000. 00 

Furchase  of  rice,  act  797  (Inclosure  D) 81, 820. 82 

Purchase  of  carabao,  act  797  (Inclosure  D) 41, 528. 44 

Contingent  expenses  (Inclosure  B) 23, 125. 24 

Salaries  and  wages 152, 907. 80 

Deposits  with  treasurer  Philippine  Islands 32, 116. 71 

Balance  on  hand  September  30,  1903 65, 281. 21 

Total '. 2,812,814.47 

Statement  of  departmental  sales  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 


Name. 


United  States 
currency. 


Local 
currency. 


Attorney-general 

Auditor,  Philippine  Islands 

Ayunlamiento  building 

Benguet  road 

Magalan  Baguio  road 

Benguet  improvement 

Bilibid  prison 

Board  of  health 

Bureau  of  agriculture 

Bureau  of  architecture 

Bureau  of  archives 

Bureau  of  patents  and  copyright 

Bureau  of  ethnology  and  natural  history 

Bureau  of  forestry 

Government  laboratories 

Bureau  of  mines 

Bureau  of  non-Christian  tribes 

Bureau  of  public  land 

Bureau  of  public  printing 

Bureau  of  public  instruction 

Captain  of  the  port 

City  assessor  and  collector 

City  attorney 

Engineer  in  charge  Calbayog  pier 

City  engineer 

Civil  hospital 

Civil  hospital  at  Baguio 

Civil-service  board 

Collector  of  customs 

Court  of  first  instance,  Manila 

Court  of  first  instance,  Zamboanga 

Court  of  first  instance,  Jolo 

Department  of  city  schools 

Secretary  of  finance  and  justice 

Secretary  of  interior 

Secretary  of  public  instruction 

Department  of  streets,  parks,  etc 

Bureau  of  posts 

Executive  bureau 

Fire  department 

Government  farm,  San  Ramon 

Insular  cold  storage  and  ice  plant 

Intendencia  building 

Municipal  board 

Municipal  court,  Pasig 

City  municipal  court 

Municipal  court,  south  of  Pasig 

Philippines  Constabulary 

Ordnance  department,  Philippines  Constabulary. 

Prosecuting  attorney 

Police  department 

Quarantine  officer 

San  Lazaro  Hospital 

Sheriff  of  Manila 


$8,401.92 

1,089.71 

501. 84 

22, 944. 23 

294.  84 

1,558.34 

37, 927.  53 

25,592.90 

25,201.89 

35, 120. 13 

401. 57 

154.69 

456.53 

6, 972.  32 

22,651.61 

525.  98 

2,016.23 

855. 97 

30, 007. 87 

48, 872. 25 

80.85 

2, 151. 93 

645.28 

186.  74 

154, 924. 97 

10,450.65 

1,564.28 

1, 010. 05 

37, 087. 03 

1,011.68 

6.60 

107.  32 


6.13 


4,054.54 

6,268.19 

100,736.13 

27.94 

74, 235. 95 

486. 41 

1,471.91 

59.70 

72.51 

7.34 

6,467.95 

510. 54 

545. 96 

50,232.04 

4, 454.  52 

30.09 

690. 16 


$3,247.61 
1,688.22 

373. 23 
16,587.49 

398.  75 

214. 24 
102, 304.  60 

66, 151.  69 

20, 920. 84 

181,449.50 

24.61 

142.  70 

1,140.15 

6,098.10 

41,971.65 

53.36 

1,437.86 

21.17 

11, 756. 28 

211, 147. 46 

80.52 

4,139.06 

14,698.83 

4,639.94 

212,458.65 

11,508.53 

6, 051. 44 

730. 30 

26,864.65 

713. 14 


2, 753. 07 

1.43 

6.16 

35.  77 

15,844.11 

524. 48 

819. 23 

9, 637. 61 

86.  78 

80,  635.  02 

860. 14 

2, 289.  54 

407. 28 

37.82 

4, 820. 10 

1, 027. 16 

8, 369. 15 

8,929.81 

131. 10 

904. 69 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


109 


Statement  of  departmental  sales  for  year  ending  September  30,  1903 — Continued. 


Name. 


United  States 
currency. 


Local 
currency. 


Chief  signal  officer 

Supreme  court 

Treasurer,  Philippine  Islands 

U.  S.  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey 

U.  S.  Philippine  Commission 

Weather  Bureau 

Pail  system 

Collector  of  internal  revenue 

Bureau  coast  guard  and  transportation. 

Court  of  customs  appeals 

Insular  purchasing  agent 

Trades  School,  Manila 

Bureau  of  engineering 

Census  bureau 

Potenciana  building 

Official  Gazette 

Exposition  board 

Court  of  land  registration 

Carabao  corral 

Opium  commission 

Register  of  deeds 

Malacafiang 


$8,215.14 

2,653.20 

2, 170. 43 

743.  95 

429.  63 

16, 680.  84 

256. 32 

151, 230. 63 

101.03 

49,759.72 


5,596.69 

2,509.28 

192.  66 

672. 98 

11, 628. 55 


755.  94. 
259.  98 
58.93 
304. 05 
446.  99 


Total. 


988,384.71 


$4.41 

543.35 

5,528.87 

7,284.93 

920. 13 

4, 453.  51 

8, 793. 81 

87.07 

217, 468. 13 

1, 131.  99 

45,391.87 

4, 798. 73 

2, 784. 43 

4, 194.  61 

180. 75 

241.86 

15,325.15 

242. 32 


21.55 
1, 248. 60 


1, 407, 714.  38 


Statement  of  outstandings  from  the  fiscal  year  1902. 
[United  States  currency.] 


Name. 

Amount. 

Name. 

Amount. 

$838. 19 
729.26 

1, 551. 23 

2,636.56 
754.98 

4, 103. 44 
143. 00 

1,252.06 

$13. 75 

Philippines  Constabulary 

Province  of  Capiz 

Province  of  Abra 

824. 21 

Province  of  Masbate 

1, 933. 86 

Insular  cold  storage  and  ice  plant 

17.53 

3.30 

98.45 

14,899.82 

Statement  of  sales  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 


United  States 
currency. 

Local  currency. 

Supplies  to  departments,  Exhibit  A .- 

$988,384.71 
174, 149. 40 

$1,407,714.38 

147,742.06 

1, 085, 532. 79 

482, 110. 12 

735, 618. 42 

9, 628. 60 

Supplies  to  provinces,  Exhibit  B 

Rice,  act  495,  Exhibit  C 

Rice,  act  495,  Exhibit  D 

Rice,  acts  786  and  797,  Exhibit  E 

5,282.27 

1,500.00 

10.21 

Carabao,  act  797 

Miscellaneous  sales,  etc 

820. 66 

Total 

1, 169, 326.  59 

3,869, 167. 03 

Memorandum  of  accounts  outstanding  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 


United  States 
currency. 

Local  currency. 

Account  sales  of  rice,  act  495 

$48, 351. 02 
56, 813. 60 

Account  sales  of  supplies  to  provinces 

$54,852.83 
14, 899. 82 

Account  sales  to  sundry  provinces  and  departments,  fiscal  year  1902.. 

Total 

69, 752.  65 

105, 164.  62 

110 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Cashier's  statement  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 


United  States 
currency. 

Local 
currency. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local 
currency. 

October  1,1902,  cash 
on  hand 

$3, 630. 50 
403,848.53 

$51, 310. 74 
2, 898, 794.  99 
1,037,182.47 

By  sundry  deposits 
with   treasurer 
Philippine    Is- 
lands   

$408, 989. 24 

Receipts  from  sales 

of  supplies 

Receipts  from  sales 

$3, 988, 108. 86 

Total 

Receipts  from  sales 
of    carabao,     act 
797 

1,500.00 

10.21 

Receipts  from  mis- 
cellaneous sources 

820. 66 

Total  . . 

408,989.24 

3,  988, 108.  86 

408, 989.  24 

3,  988, 108. 86 

Exhibit  B. 
Statement  of  provincial  sales  and  indebtedness  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 


Sales. 

Outstandings. 

Name. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local  cur- 
rency. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local  cur- 
rency. 

Province  of  Abra 

$309. 65 

515.  62 
3,675.68 
7,605.80 

162.04 
1,171.50 

136.  41 
3, 260.  05 
6, 973.  26 

877. 43 
1, 039. 19 
2, 427.  76 
2, 503. 10 

214. 46 
2, 037.  29 

159. 79 
4, 001. 07 
1,649.27 

188. 82 
5, 817. 60 
1,464.86 
7, 309. 28 
1, 718. 80 

3, 037.  38 

75.73 

484. 50 

168.  99 

824. 56 

8, 520.  07 

1, 109. 03 

754.  33 

2, 262. 07 

112. 90 

12.10 

23.66 

1, 176.  46 

5,  310.  76 

2,474.36 

615. 76 

923.  46 

90.30 

1, 753.  90 

32.10 

14,286.09 

3, 656.  53 

8, 469. 51 

135. 24 

2, 694. 30 

$251.  98 

340. 37 

3,  994. 09 

2,  974. 18 

112. 36 

1,363.03 

120.  98 

2,  779.  90 

6, 611. 82 

1, 057. 46 

1,586.87 

2, 612. 28 

2, 968. 25 

851. 02 

4, 136.  92 

16.12 

1,246.26 

1,028.75 

17.79 

5,411.80 

1, 599. 86 

577. 39 

965. 58 

$309.  65 

502. 13 

1,  534.  91 

5,262.43 

126.  99 

9.87 

$391. 19 

276. 87 

286.11 

Province  of  Albav 

1,041.82 
101.54 

Province  of  Bataan 

Province  of  Batangas 

Province  of  Benguet 

69.85 

Province  of  Bohol 

1,  710.  32 

2, 483.  86 
828.  78 
493.  34 
612.  21 

1, 144.  83 
54.62 

2, 003.  34 
159.  79 
468.  35 

1, 022. 11 
159. 49 

5,763.15 
582. 26 

1,580.24 
194. 26 

3,  037. 38 
75.73 

1,788.45 

Province  of  Bulacan 

434. 60 

3,111.40 

Province  of  Cavite 

1, 012. 85 

Province  of  Cebu 

2, 385.  90 

District  Commander,  Basilan 

179.  69 

Province  of  Iloilo 

5, 095. 68 

District  Commander,  Pollock 

16.12 

Province  of  Ilocos  Sur 

110.  62 

Province  of  Ilocos  Norte. . . 

989.00 

Province  of  Isabela 

Province  of  La  Union 

11,844.05 

Province  of  Lepanto-Bontoc 

35.81 

Province  of  Levte 

28.82 

Province  of  Laguna 

318. 56 

Philippine      Constabulary,    commissary 
officer 

Province  of  Masbate 

545.42 

Lieut.  W.  C.  Hannum 

99.69 

7.98 

2, 378.  43 

7, 381. 27 

88.00 

356.  91 

321.  64 

1,945.43 

Province  of  Marinduque 

Province  of  Misamis 

394.  91 
8, 520. 07 
168. 23 
411.  99 
672. 83 
112. 05 

1, 192.  21 

Province  of  Mindoro 

6, 508. 93 

Province  of  Nueva  Ecija 

Province  of  Nueva  Viscava 

241.  71 

Province  of  Occidental  Negros. . . 

164. 45 

Lieut.  W.  A.  Mitchell 

1, 945. 43 

Lieutenant  Ryan 

Lieutenant  Rand 

158. 53 

591.  67 
2, 494. 89 
3, 245.  62 

378.41 
2, 812. 27 

117.  23 
5,449.05 
2, 936.  05 
30, 170. 28 
9,  725. 89 
5, 518.  39 

127. 17 

2, 129. 24 

2.71 

2.71 

5.23 
247.  60 
1, 674. 32 
768.  82 
306.  09 
669.  92 

121  55 

Province  of  Pangasinan 

166. 16 

Province  of  Pampanga 

54.91 

Province  of  Romblon 

79.20 

Province  of  Rizal 

1, 309. 86 

Province  of  Surigao 

Province  of  Samar 

344.  57 

32. 10 

5, 183.  07 

1,383.63 

1, 941.  46 

132. 05 

708.  61 

Lieut,  C.  O.  Sherill 

2, 936.  05 

7,174  09 

Province  of  Tarlac 

1, 593.  50 
1  702  31 

74  04 

Province  of  Paragua 

375. 98 

Postmaster,  Cebu 

1.42 

1.42 

1.42 

52.03 

258. 50 

Postmaster,  San  Isidro 

Postmaster,  Calbavog 

Capt.  J.  B.  Barnes 

203. 59 
550.00 

Capt.  D.  H.  Boughton 



KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Ill 


Statement  of  provincial  sales  and  indebtedness  for  the  year  ending  September  30, 1903 — Con. 


Sales. 

Outstandings. 

Name. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local  cur- 
rency. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local  cur- 
rency. 

S3. 86 
355. 85 
274. 08 

811. 88 

652.38 

33, 127. 68 

22, 370.  24 

253.00 

1,894.88 

683.77 

1,875.29 

30.12 

70.47 

35.75 

2.50 

1.42 

1.42 

Lieut.  Earl  C.  Brown 

82.75 
136.44 
875.29 

5, 436.  68 

8855.89 

Ensrineer  in  charge  Jolo  pier 

262. 66 
965.  91 
11.98 

2.51 

35.75 

2.50 

147. 11 

Engineer  in  charge  Iligan  wharf 

54.78 

Engineer  in  charge  Calbayog  pier 

11.98 

Total 

174, 149.  40 

147, 742. 06 

54,852.83 

56, 813.  60 

Statement  of  purchases  paid  for  and  bureau  equipment  and  expense  for  the  year  ending 

September  30,  1903. 


Local 
currency. 

United  States 
currency. 

Purchase  of  supplies: 

Coal 

8415, 006. 60 

230, 147. 66 

413,  208.  98 

138,325.91 

77, 108. 67 

57, 130. 55 

150, 709. 53 

182,026.51 

18, 798. 10 

12, 808. 30 

50, 621. 74 

83, 749. 89 

73, 007. 46 

51,561.07 

19, 370. 91 

108, 416. 64 

76,681.95 

574, 674. 04 

851, 733. 06 

Lumber 

20, 876. 13 

Hardware 

49, 433.  88 

Office  supples 

19, 688.  53 

Office  furniture 

12, 515.  09 

Typewriters 

4, 097. 50 

2,725.78 
18, 124. 24 

Vehicles 

1,  667.  41 

3,540.13 

Machinery 

16, 098.  02 

9, 914.  90 
8, 190. 77 

Cement  and  lime 

Freight 

3, 710. 79 

Clothing  and  materials 

1,798.53 

7,020.74 

3,  202. 42 

33,313.10 

2,  733,  354. 51 

267,  651.  02 

Purchase  of  rice: 

Act  495 

1, 806,  793. 33 
237,481.51 

1, 266.  38 
153, 068.  77 
181, 820. 82 

Act  786 

Act  797 

2,  044, 274. 84 

336, 155.  97 

Purchase  of  carabao: 

Act  797 

41, 528. 43 

Bureau  equipment  and  expense: 

Repairs  to  transportation 

196.  57 

35, 267.  00 

3,  374. 92 

Rent  of  offices,  etc 

7, 606.  52 

Incidental 

175. 58 

38, 838.  49 

7,  782. 10 

Salaries  and  wages 

286, 159.  02 

42,142  88 

Total  disbursements 

5, 102, 626.  86 

695, 260. 40 

112 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Statement  of  disbursements  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903,  showing  to  whom 
(individuals  or  firms)  payments  have  been  made. 


To  whom  paid. 


United  States 
currency. 


Local 
currency. 


Philippine 
currency. 


H.  W.  Peabody&Co 

E.  C.  McCullough  &  Co 

Frank  L.  Strong 

A.  S.  Watson  &  Co 

San  Nicholas  Iron  Works 

Manuel  Earnshaw  &  Co 

M.  Garchitoreno 

John  T.  Pickett 

Bazar  Velasco 

Boie  &  Schadenberg 

Erlanger  &  Galinger 

A.  Grossman 

Manila  Railway  Co.  (Limited) . 

Standard  Oil  Co.  of  New  York 

American  Drug  Co 

Pacific  Oriental  Trading  Co 

Insular  Cold  Storage  and  Ice  Plant 

Philippine  Gaslight  Co 

Mariano  Uy  Chaco 

Squires  &  Bingham 

Warlomont  Hos 

Henry  D.  Woolfe 

American  Bazar .'. 

Compafiia  Maritima 

Carmen  &  Co 

Castle  Bros.,  Wolf  &  Sons 

Ynchausti  &  Co 

Shewan,  Tomes  &  Co 

Holliday,  Wise  &  Co 

Philippine  Lumber  and  Development  Co 

Frank  S.  Bourns 

Civil  Supply  Store 

R.  V.  R.  Penelosa 

American  Hardware  and  Plumbing  Co 

Wm.  Wesley  &  Sons 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co 

Suca.  de  R.  Bren 

American  Book  and  News  Co 

Cameron  &  Mclaughlin 

Manila  Navigation  Co 

Bilibid  Prison '. 

Zee  Tai  On 

Stahl  &  Rumcke 

H.  S.  Townsend 

B.  W.  Cadwallader  &  Co 

Pedro  Blanc 

W.  T.  Nolting 

C.  N.  Ferricr 

M.  Fuster  &  Co 

C.  Fressel  &  Co 

Macondry  &  Van  Buskirk 

Warner  Barnes  &  Co 

Mnreaida  &  Co 

Luis  R.  Yangco 

A.  F.  Allen 

Macondray  &  Co 

A.  Roensch  &  Co 

Caldcr  &  Co 

Bazar  Siglo  XX 

C.  E.  Lemunyon 

Eastern  Extension,  Australasia  and  China  Telegraph  Co. 

F.  W.  Home 

A.  Richt er  &  Co 

American  Commercial  Co 

Botica  Santa  Cruz 

Jose  Q.  Ho 

Michael,  Gaspar,  Grant  Co 

Viuda  de  Tan  Auco 

North  American  Trading  Co 

Smith  Bell  &  Co .... . 

Viuda  y  Sucesora  de  Zobel 

Sociedad  de  los  Telefonos  de  Manila 

Suiliong  &  Co , 

A.J.Gies 


Cull  &  Maddy 

Hongkong  and  Shanghai  Bank 

M.A.Clarke 

Quartermaster's  Department,  TJ.  S.  Army . . . 

Pedro  P.  Roxas 

Kwong  Wah  Hing  &  Co 

California-Manila  Lumber  Commercial  Co. 


SI,  170. 40 


$49, 199. 96 
107, 949. 17 
80,950.79 

2, 177.  41 
28, 462. 74 
19, 802. 76 

3, 639.  76 
19,125.82 
35,460.90 

5, 623. 71 
31,443.52 

7, 436. 16 

1,059.81 
16,837.25 

2, 007.  75 
31,139.70 
11, 378. 45 

6. 350. 19 
130, 790. 11 

2,  823. 82 

2,207.29 

649. 96 

1, 474. 25 

38,  969. 62 

681. 96 

96,  651.  60 

22,688.89 

44, 408. 99 

436,829.44 

6, 216. 81 

32, 726.  94 

5,789.22 

2. 727. 25 
72,  Oil.  72 

1, 860.  69 

37, 672.  41 

228. 60 

5, 744.  04 

12, 512.  75 

42, 955.  39 

972.  38 

12, 664. 18 

8. 042. 26 
289.  04 

21,619.62 

3,904.95 

390.  93 

281.00 

2, 908. 95 

2, 275. 00 

727.  34 

120, 098. 04 

2, 978. 12 

13,  743. 54 

8,437.22 

27, 454.  50 

3, 494. 59 

287, 177. 24 

909.  93 

911. 22 

1, 629. 92 

19,397.02 

1, 277. 12 

11,  720.  72 

1, 744. 18 

3. 182. 20 
1,489.10 
1, 513. 12 
1, 050. 31 

15,  968. 00 

308.90 

33.00 

143,489.70 

13, 622.  90 

936.  73 

587, 274. 81 

4,491.02 

45,574.42 

17,308.04 

182. 19 

55, 653. 56 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


113 


Statement  of  disbursements  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903,  etc. — Continued. 


To  ay  horn.  paid. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local 
currency. 

Philippine 
currency. 

Ralli  Bros 

$734, 237. 13 

5,027.85 

734.  00 

191.  60 

1,744.50 

8, 813. 67 

3, 890. 20 

156.  50 

201, 103. 68 

3, 395. 55 

900.  00 

246.  09 

305.  50 

4, 193.  79 

220. 46 

171. 10 

129. 29 

6, 612. 10 

1, 325.  00 

551.44 

401. 63 

51.00 

70.00 

612. 00 

1,338.75 

3, 907. 84 

5, 707.  50 

1, 690.  00 

85.00 

6, 796. 40 

1, 428. 00 

891. 19 

475. 00 

1, 560. 00 

30.88 

28, 690.  92 

857. 50 

171. 50 

5, 224. 06 

267. 70 

188. 90 

1,326.00 

1,-135.28 

250. 00 

14,003.00 

588. 00 

200. 00 

147. 00 

250. 00 

17, 194. 69 

675. 00 

796. 25 

1,  975. 00 

2, 198. 95 

1,537.30 

187. 33 

13,458.57 

8,453.34 

46.30 

1,  627. 40 

359. 32 

86, 470. 01 

633. 00 

2, 262. 92 

22. 00 

366. 12 

9, 192. 00 

793.  99 

203. 85 

40.00 

488.75 

148.  23 

245. 98 

937. 07 

2,273.14 

18, 225. 15 

16,816.48 

116. 00 

830. 49 

30, 255. 27 

643. 55 

169. 68 

Sv  Chui  Chin 

$127. 87 

528. 00 

Ker  &  Co 

Smith  &  Reed 

50.00 

A.  J.  Coffee  Co 

H  S  Jo;,es 

S.  D.  Martinez 

292. 82 

F.M.  Kendall 

4,  769. 38 

Rich  &  Rosenberg 

12, 180. 00 

J.  R.  Edgar 

G.  W.  Hollis 

J.  C.  Raymond 

McLeod  &  Co 

B.  F.  Tavlor 

D.  W.  Rilev  &  Co 

J.  Kernan 

H.  R.  Spencer 

1,407.07 
7, 385. 76 

John  Lysaught  &  Co 

366. 00 

S.  W.  Ferrv 

J.  C.  Ryan 

Helen  M.  Green 

F.  W.Nash 

C.  H.  Lamb 

Compania  Nayier  Mercantil  Filipina 

Tan  Dico 

C.  A.  Clark 

E.  W.  MacDaniel 

3, 910. 95 

R.  V.  Dell 

D.  H.  Ward 

F.  Moffatt 

Dorr  &  Co 

J.  W.  Grey 

J.  B.  Thomas  &  Co 

129. 73 

G.  Ocampo 

3,377.05 

J.  Hoffmann 

A.  Siebrand  Sigart 

783. 07 

187  32 

H.  S.  Crocker  &  Co 

Sunico  y  Hermanos 

1, 398. 47 

Electrical  Construction  Co 

R.  Ong  Pin 

603. 80 

Martinez  y  Guzman 

Mitsu  Busan  Kaisha 

8, 960. 70 

M.  Barreto 

E.  Herbert 

Chofre  &  Co 

\  u  Biao  Sontua 

Rieardo  Flores 

800. 00 

M.  Moreno 

Hidalgo  &  Co 

Gomez  &  Co 

13.05 

Gee  Hi 

78  26 

M.  C.  Santiago 

Si  Giang 

Kwong  Ong  Long  &  Co 



C.  Alkan 

1,  690.  00 

F.  R.  Button 

800. 50 

Union  Truck  Co 

M.  SDyestre 

American  Sheet  and  Metal  Works 

144. 88 

German  &  Co 

Compania  General  de  Tabaco  de  Filipinas 

Eastern  Electric  Co 1 

WAR  1903 — TOT,  5- 


114 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Statement  of  disbursements  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903,  etc. — Continued. 


To  whom  paid. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local 
currency. 

Philippine 
currency. 

S  C  Farnham  Boyd  &  Co                                

$5, 397. 69 

1, 981. 67 

372. 50 

268. 80 
2, 193. 70 

963. 00 

176.  70 

2, 306. 36 

412. 10 

12.60 

15,323.96 

2.00 

2, 251. 00 

6.00 

40.00 

4, 161. 96 

70.13 

409. 99 

186. 25 

754.  96 

471. 10 

539. 35 

5,400.20 

36.14 

507.  36 

61, 256. 00 

76.80 

13.00 

3.00 

518.70 

682. 50 

420. 00 

6, 841.  90 

200. 00 

320. 00 

2, 035.  73 

48.00 

3, 588.  67 

223. 34 

50.55 

501.  79 

82.20 

196. 00 

936. 00 

14.00 

4.30 

105. 81 
6.30 

1,535.80 

325. 00 

165. 00 

991. 67 

220. 00 

8.00 

354.96 

12.50 

332. 84 

160. 00 

202. 00 

87.30 

615.  70 

37.50 

433. 31 

50.00 

241, 775.  00 

1,202.65 

4,321.45 

10.42 

280.  00 

756. 38 

1, 917. 50 

4.00 

638.  94 

226. 16 

15.60 

650. 44 

98.88 

18.20 

68.12 

10.40 

17, 627.  98 

1, 095.  95 

$41.58 

280. 00 

744. 00 

40.00 

1, 412. 54 

125.  22 

366. 46 

C.  K.  Zorn 

M.  Tagawa  &  Co 

W.  W.  Richards 

F.  0.  Roberts 

380. 00 

2, 543.  28 

J.  Geronimo 

8.09 

W.  Ah ern  &  Co 

D.  Mann 

Manila  Sheet  Metal  Works 

1, 117. 38 

F.  Gutierrez  &  Co 

110. 33 

M.  K.  N  ewman  &  Co 

10.00 

United  States  Sail,  Tent  and  Awning  Co 

E.  Spitz 

274. 20 

P.  Hernandez 

D.  Enfransia 

Yick  Fat 

F.  Burton 

T.  J.  Wolf 

J.  Arrila . 

J.  Hewitt 

J.  P.  Yutico 

Yu  Chui  Co 

Armstrong  &  Mackav 

72.% 

Dan  Fingco 

Viuda  de  E.  Boca 

F.  Reyes 

Talabarceria  Progreso 

M.  Kraus 

Go  Angco 

E.  F.  Ongcapin 

J.  R.  Edgar  Co 

E.  de  Mercaida 

2, 078. 43 

D.  Bodero 

Lyon  &  Wolfson 

A.  Bryan 

283.  62 

J.  R.  Martin,  U.  S.  N 

C.  Martin 

L.  S.  Bliss 

H.  B.  Matthews 

F.  A.  Gantz 

Z.  K.  Miller , 

Ballv  Paper  Mills  Co 

H.  St.  John  Jackson 

J.  Vil  Bouchewitch 

A.  W.  Po ber ■ 

Juan  Hing 

KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


115 


Statement  of  disbursements  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903,  etc. — Continued. 


To  whom  paid. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local 
currency. 

Philippine 
currency. 

$3.28 

45.80 

2,302.73 

4.20 

8, 201. 36 

15.80 

818.06 

451.41 

117. 00 

10.00 

1, 353. 83 

89,554.12 

68.20 

200.  00 

2, 129. 95 

650. 00 

559.  39 

200. 00 

150. 00 

2, 106. 00 

65.00 

520. 00 

130.  00 

300. 00 

394.47 

30.00 

1,750.00 

585. 00 

600.00 

200. 00 

385. 00 

2,  761. 75 

333.  50 

7.50 

64.50 

101. 40 

5.00 

5.00 

6.60 

2.40 

200. 00 

5. 578. 66 
536. 18 

60.00 

830. 00 

1,  923.  71 

10,313.74 

86.59 

460. 17 

1, 338. 50 

34.43 

754. 00 

433.46 

340.85 

96.20 

48.00 

4,171.84 

77.76 

25.00 

35.65 

325.00 

802.72 

88.66 

596.70 

603. 08 

300. 00 

480.00 

6, 494. 00 

2.45 

1. 193. 67 
141.  30 
692. 99 
273. 13 

45.00 

37.77 

288. 00 

46.86 

26.50 

30.00 

392. 50 

250.  00 

10.00 

N   W  McAllen 

$2, 498. 30 

Findlav  &  Co                  

E.  G.  Shields 

T  Joseph                            

D  Hardie                                                 

12.18 

A  Villan  ..               

W.  G.  Hagle 

C.  A.  Kahlhaurn 

L.  Boehimer  &  Co 

A.  Luniere  &  ses  Fils 

Cox  Seed  Co 

H.  J.  Andrews  &  Co 

U.  Gallino 

J.  A.  Johnson 

Chas.  Esplin,  jr 

J.  D.  Coolev 

1,002.18 

E.  Brammer 

Moreno  y  Ca 

M.  Henry 

U.  Batanante 

Yap  Coa  Fuion 

Chartered  Bank  of  India,  Australia,  and  China 

Janarmal  Tejoomal  &  Co „• 

Via  Oluis 

Sol  Berliner 

Kwong  Hop  Sang 

If.  Genato 

P.  Canuel 

C.  Aguino 

116 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Statement  of  disbursements  for  the  year  ending  September  SO,  1903,  etc. — Continued. 


To  whom  paid. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local 
currency. 

Philippine 
currency. 

H.  Finkel 

$399. 42 
200.  00 
250. 00 

1, 858. 75 
253. 11 

1, 143.  34 
324.  59 
866. 89 
850. 10 
218.  65 

2,  715.  55 
10, 495. 03 

199.  50 
10,  578.  40 

1.00 

59.85 

1, 732.  76 

66.50 

85.25 

592. 00 

34.00 

212. 40 

25.00 

162.  00 

62.50 

88.00 

80.00 

955.  43 

400.  00 

106.  48 

142.  65 

183. 14 

10.00 

250.  00 

469.  50 

235. 56 

6, 103. 23 

135.  00 

80.00 

720.  20 

6,046.91 

117.  30 

7.10 

447.  30 

3,887.75 

15.00 

188.  00 

3, 508.  79 

7, 719.  30 

45.50 

175.  00 

200.  00 
20.67 

731.  07 
5.00 

49.00 
375.  00 
148.  87 

69.83 

450. 00 

330. 00 

2.40 

1,232.58 

120.  00 

36.00 

36.00 

30.00 
1, 040.  00 

40.00 
250.  00 
980.  00 

41.75 

80.00 

283.  53 

4.20 

140. 00 

69.70 
126.  72 

15.00 
180. 00 

97.20 

262.  80 

2.40 

G  E  Stechert                                     

C  E  Helves..                              

$212. 60 

498. 00 

T  T.  Collins 

690. 00 

77, 488. 38 

459. 80 

A.  Ortiz 

S.  Shigematsu 

18,  766.  68 

E.  Thompson  &  Co. .  „ 

W.  G.  Skidmore 

E.  W.  Ladd 

3,659.83 

E.  H.  Hunter  &  Co 

Bur.  of  Veirtas 

D.  Moranan 

7.37 

221.56 

D.  Salvacion 

Miles  Hyul 

Allen  G.  Baker 

A.  G.  Tracy 

Primetico  Mudina 

J.  Boardman,  jr 

J.  Reyes 

C.  D.  Rhodes 

C.  Hock 

Yu  Chuan 

Mrs.  W.  F.  Taf  t 

J.  Sober 

105. 50 

A.  H.  Higley 

R.  Perez 

Portifo  &  Co 

R.  Jaconson 

F.  Llanes 

REPORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


117 


Statement  of  disbursements  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903,  etc. — Continued. 


To  whom  paid. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local 
currency. 

Philippine 
currency. 

E.H.Cole 

$6.37 

1, 654.  76 

13.00 

96.00 

17.65 

778. 05 

38. 45 

116.50 

100.  00 

20. 00 

408. 00 

446. 25 

340. 00 

652.  00 

26. 00 

12.00 

15.00 

263. 75 

21.50 

483.  50 

56.25 

18.00 

143. 55 

160.  00 

280. 00 

90.44 

25.10 

28.35 

190. 00 

132. 00 

300. 00 

333. 00 

162. 04 

5.00 

29.84 

122.  54 

100. 00 

122.  50 

40.00 

9.00 

40.00 

8.00 

8.50 

10.00 

10.00 

8.50 

10.00 

3.40 

8.00 

21.56 

588. 00 

49.00 

50.00 

9.75 

6.75 

21.00 

3.00 

110. 00 

65.00 

66.00 

10.00 

29.16 

40.00 

18.  38 

176. 00 

4.90 

13.47 

16.00 

27.93 

34.30 

3.00 

Oliver  &  Trill 

81, 121. 00 

Tan  Tan 

58.33 

F  R  Miller                                                                    

C  Pedilo                                                                

P  G  Son                                                   

J  T.  Sebree                                               

1,263.65 

C.  Heinszen  &  Co 

570. 47 

13.04 

T.  Codv 

M.  Montanes 

T.  E.  Samson 

Dv  Sing  Sia 

T.  Nenwtrth 

J.  F.  Dostal 

W.  N.  Swarthout '. 

Dv  Ang  Co 

M.  de  Castro 

T.  Clements 

A.  Rullo 

R.  Fidel 

P.  Trinidad  &  Co 

La  Democratica 

J.  N.  Wolfson 

60.00 

30.00 

D.  Ty  Angeo 

Kelley  &  Wolf 

Thacker,  Spink  &  Co 

10.43 

Ong  Laico ' 

C.  B.  Weltner 

9.60 

J.  Wr  Collins 

American  Optical  Co 

A.  C.  Monks 

J.  R.  Calder  Smith 

48.00 

Francisco  Barrios 

543. 40 

36.00 

H.  Diralan 

70.43 

E.  H.  Behr 

42.00 

J.  L.  Barrett 

i 

6.09 

1 

86.47 

1 

284. 60 

E.  Chase 

140. 00 

E.  de  la  Cruz ' 

100. 44 

H.  E.  Deputv i 

90.00 

Donaldson,  Sims  &  Co 1 

8, 322.  36 

528.  59 

F.  Fanlo ' 

315. 00 

118 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION, 


Statement  of  disbursements  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903 — Continued. 


To  whom  paid. 

United  States 
currency. 

Local 
currency. 

Philippine 
currency. 

S.  Farrell                      

$246. 00 

900.00 

5.00 

F.  E.  Green                                          

2,075.40 
61.04 

F.  W.  Greer  .  .                            

250. 0U 

H.  L.  Heath ...                            

174.  78 

4.21 

E.  T.  Hitch 

20.00 

Lib.  de  R.  Bren 

93.  22 

114. 78 

P.  Martel  . .                                      

22.46 

150.00 

Meyer,  Wilson  &  Co 

928. 88 

332. 00 

608. 70 

F.  Mountz 

44.78 

116. 09 

42.00 

C.  W.  O'Brien 

1, 700. 00 

Padern  y  Moreno  &  Co 

1, 198. 87 

33.38 

T.  E.  Prendergast , 

106. 74 

52.17 

V.  Perez 

2.00 

310.00 

J.  Porcuna '. 

27.30 

120.00 

Santiago  Hospital 

869. 56 

9.39 

M.  Sison 

82.17 

4, 563. 60 

W.  F.  Stevenson  &  Co 

64, 761. 80 

B.  F.  Sturtevant  Co 

1, 447. 20 

Jose  Tan  Sunco 

11.30 

7.50 

Van  Buskirk,  Crook  &  Co 

9.00 

2.00 

W.  Watson  &  Sons 

744.37 

W.  L.  Whitcomb 

2, 510. 90 

H.  F.  Wilson 

13.20 

1, 538. 32 
116. 10 

Grant  &  Co 

$41.04 
7.00 

G.  Y.  Taylor 

Total 

$1,170.40 

4, 816, 472. 84 

1,103,894.28 

Exhibit  C. 

Disbursing  officer's  statement  of  famine  relief  fund,  act  495,  for  the  year  ending 

30,  1903. 
[Local  currency.] 


1903. 

Nov. 

11 

15 

25 

Dec. 

10 

10 

23 

Jan. 

16 

Feb. 

28 

Apr. 

17 

June  30 

July  25 


From  whom  received. 

Treasurer,  Philippine  Islands: 

WarrantNo.  2132 

Warrant  No.  2146 

Warrant  No.  2189 

Warrant  No.  2277 

Warrant  No.  2278 

Warrant  No.  2353 

Ralli  Bros.,  refund 

Treasurer,  Philippine  Islands: 

Warrant  No.  2739 

Warrant  No.  3048 

Warrant  No.  3445 

E.  C.  McCullough  &  Co.,  refund 

Treasurer,  Philippine  Islands,  warrant  No.  3529. 


Total  receipts,  all  sources. 


Rice. 


Purchase,      Ogtag. 


Total. 


$870,840.00 
250, 000.  00 
300, 000. 00 
150, 000. 00 
150, 000.  00 
50, 000.  00 
2.13 

20, 000. 00 
8,425.00 

13, 625. 00 

400.00 

4,600.00 


1,817,892.13 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


ny 


Disbursing  officer's  statement  of  famine  relief  fund,  act  495,  for  the  year  ending  September 

30,  1903— Continued. 


Rice. 


Purchases. 


Contingent 
expenses. 


Total. 


Dec. 


1903. 
Nov.  14 
14 
26 
26 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
2 
2 

4 
5 
5 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

11 

16 

17 
IS 
19 
19 

26 
26 
26 
27 

31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
5 


Jan. 


Feb. 


To  whom  paid. 


Suiliong  &  Co.,  21,000  piculs  of  rice 

Suiliong  &  Co.,  262  rice  mats 

E.  F.  Ongcapin,  on  account 

Clarke  &  Co.,  29,605.59  piculs  of  rice 

E.  E.  A.  &,  C.  Telegraph  Co.,  sundry  telegrams  . . . 

Leon  F.  Bliss,  foreman 

H.  B.  Matthews,  foreman 

Frank  A.  Gantz,  foreman 

Talmon  K.  Miller,  foreman 

C.  Findlay,  reimbursement  for  sundry  telegrams. 
Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co., 

lighterage 

Clarke  &  Co.,  on  account 

E.  E.  A.  &  C.  Telegraph  Co.,  sundry  telegrams 

N.  W.  Mc Allen,  foreman 

Ong  Chunanco,  300  rice  mats 

Clarke  &  Co.,  balance  on  45,312.96  piculs  of  rice  . . 

W.  E.  Sherman,  lighterage 

do 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co., 

lighterage 

Hamilton  King,  consul  fees  and  telegrams 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co., 

lighterage 

Denis  Freres,  29,131.35  piculs  of  rice — part 

OngU.  Co.,  300  rice  mats 

E.  F.  Ongcapin,  on  account 

Warner  Barnes  &  Co. ,  freight  for  account  of  Denis 

Freres 

Ong  U.  Co.,  600  rice  mats 

Ong  TJ.  Co.,  300  rice  mats 

Pedro  P.  Roxas,  rent  of  warehouse 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co., 

lighterage 

Leon  F.  Bliss,  foreman 

W.  S.  Beebe,  foreman 

Antonio  Villar,  watchman 

J.  N.  Neill,  foreman 

Pedro  Ishmael,  watchman 

Z.  K.  Miller,  foreman 

Chin  Jaine,  candles 

H.  B.  Matthews,  foreman 

T.  Cobarrubias,  rent  of  warehouse 

E.  Davies,  foreman 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co., 

lighterage 

Ralli  Bros.,  100,000  sacks  rice 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co., 

lighterage 

M.  F.  Ong  Ongco,  300  rice  sacks 

H.  D.  Andrews  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

Suiliong  &  Co.,  600  rice  sacks 

E.  Davies,  foreman 

L.  F.  Bliss,  foreman 

H.  B.  Matthews,  foreman 

Z.  K.  Miller,  foreman 

J.  N.  Neill,  foreman 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co., 

freight 

W.  E.  Sherman,  lighterage 

Sundry  persons,  labor 

Do 

Do 

Treasurer,  Philippine  Islands,  refund 

E.  F.  Ongcapin,  balance  on  35,000  piculs  of  rice.. 

H.  J.  Andrews  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

T.  Cobarrubias,  rent  of  warehouse 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co., 

lighterage 

G.  Schneegans,  United  States  consul,  Saigon,  bal- 
ance on  account  Denis  Freres 

E.  C.  McCullough  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

Smith,  Bell  &  Co. ,  demurrage 

Holliday,  Wise  &  Co.,  insurance 

Chas.  Yarneberg,  freight 

Pedro  P.  Roxas,  rent  of  warehouse 

Chee  Kim  Leong,  loading  rice 

Chas.  Yarneberg,  freight 

I  Sundry  persons,  labor 


8143, 220. 00 


137,000.00 
170, 232. 14 


122, 572. 80 


144, 316.  74 

"  75,"  666."  66' 

7, 237.  94 


734, 237. 13 


28, 875.  00 


18, 587. 50 


$65.  50 


284. 20 
113. 10 
15.60 
15.60 
89.70 
45.80 

3, 100. 00 


294. 92 
10.00 
75.00 


525. 00 
829. 50 


2,042.88 
559. 39 


2, 488. 40 
75."6o" 


150.00 

75.00 

5,016.75 

3, 359. 58 
382. 20 
101.40 

5.00 
288.60 

5.00 
399.44 

6.60 
113. 10 
450. 66 
353.78 

1,018.95 


7,027.00 
48.00 
823.  34 
165. 00 
182.40 
143. 64 
97.46 
161. 30 
141.35 

3,372.67 

85.50 

598.50 

12.00 

222. 50 


1, 330.  00 
1, 064. 00 


5, 366.  70 


573.  33 
1, 428. 57 
7, 680. 00 
1,064.00 
2, 566. 26 
59.85 
1,822.10 

159.50 


$143,220.00 

65.50 

137, 000.  00 

170, 232. 14 

284. 20 

113. 10 

15.60 

15.60 

89.70 

45.80 

3, 100. 00 

122,572.80 

294. 92 

10.00 

75.00 

149,304.96 

525.00 

829.50 

2,042.88 

559. 39 

2,488.40 

144, 316.  74 

75.00 

75, 000. 00 

7, 237. 94 

150. 00 

75.00 

5, 016. 75 

3, 359. 58 
382.  20 
101.40 

5.00 
288. 60 

5.00 
399. 44 

6.60 
113. 10 
450.66 
353. 78 

1,018.95 
734,237.13 

7,027.00 

48.00 

823.34 

165. 00 

182. 40 
143.64 

97.46 
161. 30 
141.35 

3, 372. 67 

85.50 

598. 50 

12.00 

222. 50 

3,265.00 

28,  875.  00 

1, 330. 00 

1,064.00 

5, 366. 70 

18, 587. 50 

573. 33 

1,428.57 

7,680.00 

1,064.00 

2, 566. 26 

59.85 

1,822.10 

159. 50 


120 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Disbursing  officer's  statement  of  famine  relief  fund,  act  495,  for  the  year  ending  September 

SO,  1903 — Continued. 


Rice. 


'•"'-' 'SSf 


To  whom  paid — Continued, 

Philippine  Transportation  and  Construction  Co. 

lighterage 

E.  E.  A.  &  C.  Telegram  Co.,  sundry  telegrams . . . 

E.  C.  McCullough  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

Compania  Maritima,  charter  steamship  Heim.. 

Mariano  Uy  Chaco,  sack  twine  and  needles 

Sundry  persons,  labor 

H.  J.  Andrews  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

E.  F.  Ongcapin,  insurance  and  housing 

Tan  Tan,  loading  rice 

W.  E.  Sherman,  lighterage 

T.  Cobarrubias,  rent  of  warehouse 

Sundry  persons,  labor 

Pedro  P.  Roxas,  rent  of  warehouse 

Henry  Fleischer,  checker  on  steamship  Heim.. 

Sundry  persons,  labor,  steamship  Heim 

Horace  L.  Higgins,  freight 

John  Boardman,  jr.,  freight 

J.  Reyes,  hire  of  cascos 

Ong  Chuanco,  300  rice  mats 

Ynchausti  &  Co.,  towing  steamship  Kodiak 

F.  Danielson,  loading  rice 

Manila  Pilots'  Association,  pilotage 

Manila  Navigation  Co.,  lighterage 

Reider  Jacobsen,  services  as  checker 

Fernando  Llanes,  services  as  checker 

Nils  Hyul,  services  as  checker 

Sundry  persons,  labor 

T.  Cobarrubias,  rent  of  warehouse 

H.  J.  Andrews  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

Tan  Tan,  loading  rice 

do 

Pedro  P.  Roxas,  rent  of  warehouse 

Manila  Navigation  Co.,  lighterage 

Tan  Tan,  loading  rice 

Ong  Chuanco,  200  rice  mats 

E.  C.  McCullough  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

Tan  Tan,  loading  rice 

H.  R.  Spencer,  freight 

J.  N.  Neill,  foreman 

Sundry  persons,  labor 

T.  Cobarrubias,  rent  of  warehouse 

Smith  Bell  &  Co. ,  hire  of  lorcha 

Tan  Tan,  loading  rice 

Michael  &  Caspar,  tow 

Manila  Navigation  Co.,  lighterage 

Chas.  A.  Clark,  freight 

Pedro  P.  Roxas,  rent  of  warehouse 

Calixto  Garcia,  labor 

T.  Clements,  labor 

Eduardo  Bulos,  labor 

Alberto  Rullo,  labor 

B.  Maglabang,  labor 

Sundry  persons,  labor 

Rafael  Fidel,  labor 

E.  C.  McCullough  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

T.  Cobarrubias,  rent  of  warehouse 

Pedro  P.  Roxas,  rent  of  warehouse 

Endres  Herbert,  freight 

Armstrong  &  McKay,  freight 

Frank  S.  Bourns,  freight 

E.  C.  McCullough  &  Co.,  rent  of  warehouse 

Manila  Navigation  Co.,  freight 

F.  Danielson,  lighterage 

Sundry  persons,  labor 

do 

do 

J.  W.  Collins,  foreman 

Lizarraga  Hermanos,  freight 

E.  E.  A.  &  C.  Telegraph  Co.,  sundry  telegrams. . 

Treasurer,  Philippine  Islands,  refund 

Compania  Maritima,  freight 

Pedro  P.  Roxas,  rent  of  warehouse 


Total 

Balance  on  hand,  Sept.  30 


$1, 713, 855. 46 


$432.  00 

34.47 

400. 00 

4, 950. 00 

4.65 

128.  50 
1,330.00 

250. 00 

132.40 

192. 80 

1,064.00 

111.00 

2, 508.  38 

4.00 

11.25 

402.  27 

1,232.58 

12.00 

75.00 

48.45 

65.00 

74.82 

115.  05 

3.00 

2.40 

6.00 

187. 50 

1, 020. 00 

510. 00 

184. 80 

20.00 

2, 460. 14 

44.60 

113.  65 

50.00 

800.  00 

101.  30 

891. 19 

53.55 

30.00 

1,000.00 

250.  00 

129.  90 
30.00 

903. 56 

1,135.28 

2,363.66 

7.00 

8.50 

10.00 

10.00 

8.50 

29.00 

10.00 

400. 00 

980. 00 

4, 363.  66 

1, 155. 18 

249. 38 

925.  75 


661. 25 

75.00 

42.00 

192. 00 

889. 35 

18.38 

78.00 

5.15 


2, 370. 18 
312. 50 


95, 220. 55 


1,815,974.81 
1,917.32 


1, 817, 892. 13 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


121 


Statement  of  famine  rice,  Act  495,  sold  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  (to  be  accounted  for 
by  him ) ,  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 

[Local  currency.] 


Date. 


To  whom  sold. 


Unit. 


Quantity 


Price 
per 

unit. 


Amount. 


Collected. 


Balance. 


1903. 
Jan.     7 


30 


Feb.  21 
Mar.  23 


Apr. 


13 


May  11 
15 

June  2 
2 

Aug.  2 
18 
18 

Apr.   30 


Jose  Q.  Ho 

Z.  F.  Tinco 

Philippines  Con- 
stabulary. 

....do 

Armstrong  &  Mac- 
kay. 

E.  F.  Ongcapin 

McLeod  &  Co 

Florente  Ternate. 
Smith  Bell  &Co... 

TySue 

Chau  Bundo 

do 

....do 

F.  S.  Bourns 

Tu  Teco 

E.  F.  Ongcapin  — 

Co.  Jico 

McLeod  &  Co 

do 

Compania  General 

de  Tabacos  de 
Filipinas. 

Chan  Bundo 

Frank  S.  Bourns.. 

M.  Linyap 

Frank's.  Bourns. . 

Philippines  Con- 
stabulary. 

do 

do 

Frank  S.  Bourns.. 

do 

Florente  Ternate . 

A.S.Reich 

Frank  S.  Bourns.. 

Chan  Bundo 

Maraqumafire  suf- 
ferers. 

I.  P.  A.  stock 

do 


Sacks,  damaged  . . 

do 

Pounds 


....do 

Sacks . 


Piculs 

....do 

Sacks 

....do 

do 

Piculs,  sweepings . 
Sacks,  Calcutta . . . 

Piculs,  Saigon 

Piculs 

Piculs,  sweepings . 

Piculs 

....do 

do 

Sacks 

Piculs 


do 

do 

do 

Piculs,  Calcutta.. 
Pounds,  Siam 


do 

do 

Piculs,  Calcutta... 

....do 

Lot  of  sweepings.. 
Piculs,  sweepings. 
Piculs,  Calcutta... 

Piculs 

do 


Piculs,  white 
Sacks 


1,941 

695 

100, 800 

161, 280 
5,700 

12,469 
10, 039^ 
500 
500 
1,500 
782. 12 
190 
137. 63 
8,128 
71.52 
15, 000. 305 
6,370§£ 
12, 177 
10 
17, 034.  31 


65.38 
25,310.25 
1,000 
23, 053. 83 
107,520 

196, 224 
27,  776 
12,230.11 
23, 562. 4 
1 

6, 791. 57 
785.84 
182. 10 

3,134.25 

44| 


$3.70 
5.60 
.045 

.045 
6.00 

6.20 

6.375 

6.00 

6.00 

6.00 

5.50 

6.00 

6.50 

5.00 

6.70 

6.375 

6.375 

6.375 

6.00 

6.375 


7.06 
5.00 
6.00 
5.00 
.0475 

.0475 

.0475 
5.00 
5.00 


5.00 
(a) 
6.75 

6.50 
6.00 


$7, 181. 70 
3,892.00 
4,536.00 

7,257. 
34, 200. 00 

77, 307. 80 

64, 000. 46 

3, 000. 00 

3, 000. 00 

9,000.00 

4, 301. 66 

1, 140. 00 

894.  60 

40, 640. 00 

479. 19 

95, 626. 94 

40, 614.  66 

77, 633.  09 

60.00 

108, 593. 73 


460. 93 
126, 551. 25 

6, 000. 00 
115, 269. 40 

5,107.20 

9, 320. 64 

1, 219.  36 

61, 150. 55 

117, 812. 00 

595. 56 

66.61 

33, 957. 85 

2, 794. 22 

1,229.17 

20, 372.  62 
266. 00 


$7, 181. 70 
3,892.00 
4, 536. 00 

7,257.60 
34, 200. 00 

77, 307.  80 

64, 000. 46 

3, 000. 00 

3,000.00 

9, 000. 00 

4, 301.  66 

1, 140. 00 

894. 60 

40,640.00 

479. 19 

90,000.00 

38,000.00 

77, 633.  09 

60.00 

106, 000.  00 


460.  93 

126, 551. 25 

6,000.00 

115, 269. 40 


$5, 620. 94 
2,  614. 66 


,73 


5, 107. 20 


9,  320. 64 
1,219.36 


61,150.55 

117, 812. 00 

595. 56 

66.61 

33, 957. 85 

2,794.22 


1,229.17 


Total 


1,085,532.79 


1, 037, 182. 47 


a  Auction  sale. 


122  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Exhibit  D. 


Statement  of  famine  rice,  Act  495,  transferred  to  provinces  for  the  year 
September  SO,  1903. 

[Local  currency.] 


To  whom  transferred. 


Quantity.     Price 


Value. 


Mar. 


1902. 

Dec.   20 

24 

19 

11 

1903. 

Jan.    30 

22 

22 

22 

Feb.  14 

20 

20 

21 

1 

4 

5 

6 

23 

23 

23 

Apr.     2 

3 

23 

28 

May     1 

4 

8 

7 

16 

18 

21 

21 

June  26 


Treasurer,  Sorsogon 

Do 

Treasurer,  Mindoro 

Supervisor,  Oriental  Negros. . 

Do 

Governor,  Tayabas 

Do 

Do 

Captain  Boughton,  Batangas 
Supervisor,  Oriental  Negros. . 
Captain  Boughton,  Batangas 

Treasurer,  Sorsogon 

Treasurer,  Zambales 

Captain  Boughton,  Batangas 
Supervisor,  Oriental  Negros  . 

Governor,  Samar 

C.  O.  Salamague 

Treasurer,  Sorsogon 

Supervisor,  La  Union 

Supervisor,  Oriental  Negros.. 

Do 

Treasurer,  Sorsogon  

Supervisor,  Oriental  Negros  . 

Treasurer,  Tayabas 

Supervisor,  Oriental  Negros.. 

Supervisor,  Abra 

Treasurer,  Occidental  Negros 

Supervisor,  La  Union 

Treasurer,  Sorsogon 

Governor,  Tayabas 

Do 

Supervisor,  Cebu 

Total 


Piculs. 

819. 85 
7, 768. 93 

660. 80 
1,803.67 


531.  00 
413. 65 
450. 00 
020. 11 

157. 02 
555. 55 
000. 00 
813.87 

505. 03 
005.  53 
092.  70 
299.  99 
251. 38 
108.36 
621.82 
546.26 
243. 63 
676. 36 
265. 80 
432.  72 
687. 35 
202.  73 
303.  35 
249. 46 
621. 82 
486.  54 
676.  36 


$6.50 
6.50 
7.00 
6.50 


6.50 
6.50 
6.50 
6.50 
6.10 
6.50 
6.10 
6.50 
7.00 
6.45 
6.75 
6.75 
6.75 
6.75 
6.50 
6.75 
6.75 
6.75 
7.00 
7.00 
7.00 
6.75 
6.75 
6.50 
7.00 
7.00 
7.65 
7.00 


$5, 329.  03 

50, 498. 05 

4, 625. 60 

11, 723. 86 


16,451.50 

13, 688.  73 

2, 925. 00 

13, 130.  72 

13, 157. 82 

16, 611. 07 

6, 100. 00 

5,290.16 

3,535.21 

6,485.67 

20, 875. 72 

15, 524. 93 

1,696.81 

14,231.43 

10,541.83 

17,187.25 

21,894.50 

38,315.43 

23, 000. 60 

17,029.04 

18,811.45 

1, 368. 43 

35,  797. 61 

14, 621. 49 

11,352.74 

3, 405. 78 

43, 424. 15 

3,478.51 


71, 788.  57 


482,110.12 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


123 


c  o  5  a  c  w  g  x  . 
oo  ooo3oo: 


r  c  c  o  -  -  c  ::  r 
oho  o      inio 


HtOtDMflfflOVI 


I  CM  OI>  OO 


iO  O  t-  O  <N  Tt<  i 


O0003X'VOl0)C!T)iiOmt-XflMOiCTj<HH(OH'*H 
COCNt^OCJ-^-tfii-lcOOOOiOaOlMOOOCOOi'- 

oa      10  OS  co      i-i      t-icoih 


CMOiCOO 

co      efeoeo 

CO        CO        <N 


i  coco  co 

CN 


CJ  cj 
bfiS 

c  a 

33  03 

i» 


ex 3c 

c  a 

33  o 


MOO 

cot>od 


coo 

i-l  lO 


co  x  -^ 

u~  ".O  CO 

•c  —  *1 


II' 


„  a 

a^S 

~  n  o  a  d 

•S-S  >>      <0 

ft  Sh    g    M    « 

t-S  ft-o  a 

CM  ~   ft  =0X2 


O  O  O  £  o 
Pus 


0~^= 

cj"^^  ca 


o  bo 

si 

biT5 
a  ij 


is  a>©a  cj'Offlo'S'13 

t;   s.  S.  —c  -/: ■  rn  so  aj  l,     . 


££££££££ 


=3  o>  a> 


aoooccoooo 


03  si  =3  £  c3  g  33  =3-33 


O      •   b0 

S  3  5P-a  -5  -a  o 
•2  -c  o  o^  6  cs 

aS~ogo« 

-    _  w  o3  §  c3  c3 
.2.2-3  bo  $_ bcii 

c3  c3  ^rj  c3  r-i  c3  cM 

Q^^^-g  org 

c3  03  ft  «  X)  »  « 


O  *-i 

0  ft 

S*8 


S^'Cra 

cjmC    . 
Il-jg  6 

r=3=3  bJo.2 

;a;a  org 
^a  o>  b 

WWoS 


iL'.L'IKSiSTlOO 

■  r-i  ci  ~i  n  i—  cn  co  co 

!^   ^   ft 

I  p     R     s> 
>i-9    "S    m 


124 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


asoooooiOiOto 

(NOvOOiOOCOJXM 


S88! 


OOO-^OOOlOOiOOQOOOlOiONtO 
CN  MN  SO  lO  Tj<  lO  t-  -#  -<+i  rH  r-l 
^  rH         HHM  lC 


>  I>  CO  CO  00  O  (M  "*  i 

i«(NOOiMOH( 

>  CO        t~  00<M        CT> 


S3  w 

«  9. 


OrtH 


oioood 

r- 1  CO 


0>  <D 

bom 


•2§ 
bod 

Is 


3  O  bOh/DojOaS  _ 


H  O 

be* 

53 


r  §  g  S  s 


b£ 


be- 


c-3  §o  ©S  S"C^wc.2  or^  o  ft 


2-C543S3? 


OP'! 


./O-^.t 


2lll^l^8l|ll^J| 


^6 

Mo 


_  t-T  s-T  f-T 

+^000^)1-1^3;     I 

52  ,o  ,o  ,o  -£  ;d  -^  o  S-i 

©   CC   CO   CO  ^  *+"<  ■— '   fl  f-h    ^    '  "  -  - 

'  fl  o  o  o.2.2.2§n 

^  p,  p,  pa  p  q  a  § 

:  co  73  -d  -d  ^  M  M  ojfrt 

HCOCGCOrH'rH'rH'OEH 


P    £ 


c 

cS  co 

*P. 
-d  M 
c  © 
o5  ho 

OjrH 

IS 

-gts 


•S   •  ,m  •  £  ^  M  n     ^-"  aO  m  Q  ^  < 


to  p 
co^-j 
03  -d 

-^  £ 
o  © 

ft<u 

'3  "3 


>.b 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 
Exhibit  E. 


125 


Statement  of  rice  distribution  under  provisions  of  Acts  786  and  797,  Congressional  relief 
fund,  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 

[Local  currency.] 


To  whom  transferred. 


Piculs. 


Price. 


Value. 


Governor,  Benguet 

Supervisor: 

Occidental  Negros 

Union 

Samar 

Bulacan 

Oriental  Negros 

Capiz 

Bulacan 

Capiz 

Pampanga 

Tayabas 

Tavabas 

Iloilo 

Mindoro 

Antique 

Cavite 

Sorsogon 

Cebu 

Tayabas 

Batangas 

Ilocos  Norte 

Abra 

Tayabas 

Ilocos  Sur 

Ilocos  Norte 

Misarnis 

Batangas 

Batangas 

Masbate 

Oriental  Negros 

Pangasinan 

Nueva  Ecija 

Batangas 

Ambos  Camarines 

Occidental  Negros 

Zambales 

Ilocos  Norte 

Benguet  road 

Government  farm,  Zamboanga 
Supervisor: 

Cavite 

Capiz 

Mindoro 

Lepanto-Bontoc 

Union 

Ilocos  Norte 

Ilocos  Sur 

Tarlac 

Tayabas 

Tayabas 

Tarlac 

Zambales 

Surigao 

Abra 

Ilocos  Norte 

Misarnis 

Occidental  Negros 

Iloilo 

Antique 

Capiz 

Laguna  

Cavite 

Cebu 

Total 


494. 30 

,  943.  75 
988.  75 
,997.94 
,997.94 
,996.91 
,  198.  76 
,  996. 91 
799. 18 
,994.78 
,497.43 
,497.43 
,  994. 85 
998. 97 
500. 66 
,  973.  53 
,  999. 95 
,480.97 
501. 84 
,000.00 
,  000. 00 
,000.00 
500. 00 
,  000. 00 
700.  00 
500. 00 
,  000. 00 
,000.00 
,  000. 00 
,000.00 
100. 00 
,000.00 
,  000. 00 
,  000. 00 
,  000. 00 
400. 00 
109. 75 
70.31 
,  000. 00 

000. 00 
000. 00 
000. 00 
110. 00 
000. 00 
000. 00 
000. 00 
988. 35 
983. 10 
981. 25 
979. 56 
559. 50 
33.70 
987. 00 
467. 50 
988. 75 

978. 65 

491. 66 
746.  90 
991.  91 
313.  60 
991. 77 
965.  68 


$6.50 

6.75 

6.60 

6.85 

6.50 

6.85 

6.90 

6.50 

6.90 

6.60 

6.75 

6.75 

6.75 

6.75 

6.75 

6.50 

6.75 

6.75 

6.90 

6.75' 

6.85 

6.85 

6.90 

6. 8225 

6. 8225 

7.10 

6.75 

6.75 

6.75 

6.85 

6.75 

6.58 

6.75 

7.00 

6.75 

7.10 

6.50 

6.50 

7.10 

6.65 
6.90 
6.75 
6.70 
6.75 
6.85 
6.85 
6.70 
8.00 
7.50 
7.50 
7.40 
7.40 
7.60 
7.60 
7.85 
7.50 
7.50 
7.50 
7.25 
7.50 
7.50 
7.45 


$3, 212.  95 

33. 370. 31 

6,416.87 
13, 685. 89 
12, 9S6. 61 
20,528.83 

8,271.44 
19,  479. 91 

5,514.34 
32, 935. 55 
16,857.65 

16. 857. 65 
33, 715. 24 

6,743.05 
3, 379. 45 
12,827.94 

26. 999. 66 
30, 246. 54 

3,462.70 
6, 750. 00 

13,700.00 
6,850.00 
3,450.00 
6, 822. 50 
4, 775. 75 
3, 550. 00 
6,  750. 00 

13, 500. 00 
6, 750. 00 

27, 400. 00 

675.00 

6,580.00 

13,500.00 
7,000.00 

27,000.00 

2,840.00 

715.17 

457.02 

7, 100. 00 

6, 550. 00 

6, 900. 00 

13, 500. 00 

737.00 

6, 750. 00 

6,850.00 

6, 850. 00 

6, 621. 94 

7,864.80 

7, 349. 37 

22,346.70 

11,540.30 

249. 38 

7, 501. 20 

18, 753. 00 

23, 461.  69 

29, 839. 87 

18,687.45 

5, 601. 75 

7, 191. 35 

2,352.00 

7,438.28 

36. 994. 32 


105,  793. 79 


735,618.42 


126 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Exhibit  F. 

Statement  of  distribution  of  corrugated  iron  under  the  provisions  of  Acts  786  and  797,  Con- 
gressional relief  fund,  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1903. 


1903. 


Aug.  19 
19 
19 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

Sept.    8 


To  whom  issued. 


Supervisor: 

Ilocos  Sur 

Cavite 

Batangas 

Occidental  Negros. 

Pampanga 

Tayabas 

Oriental  Negros  . . . 

Pangasinan 

Nueva  Ecija 

Zambales 

Tayabas 

Capiz 

Bataan 

Union 

Abra 

Northern  Viscaya  . 

Cagayan 

Samar 

Tayabas 

Iloilo 

Antique 

Bulacan 

Cagayan 


Total 258,326 


Quantity 


Pounds. 

12,387.5 

3,233 

6,825 

48, 385 

16, 800 

3, 412.  5 

11, 375 

3,233 

28,000 

2,800 

3, 412.  5 

11,850 

2,600 

10,  750 

11,200 

14,000 

2,150 

8,750 

3, 412. 5 

32,250 

10,750 

10,750 

10,750 


Price. 


$0.  034 
.0322 
.034 
.0337 
.0332 
.0332 
.0342 
.0332 
.0332 
.0362 
.0332 
.092 
.083 
.083 
.083 
.085 
.085 
.0762 
.0353 
.083 
.083 
.083 
.043 


Value. 


United 

States 

currency. 


$421. 18 
104. 10 
232. 05 

L,  630.  57 
557.  76 
113. 29 
389.02 
107. 33 
929.  60 
101. 36 
113.  30 


120.  46 


462. 25 


5, 282. 27 


Local 
currency. 


81,090.20 
215.80 
892.25 
929.60 
1,190.00 
182. 75 
182.75 


2, 676. 75 
892.25 
892.25 


9,628.60 


EXHIBIT  C. 


REPORT  OF  THE  INSTJLAR  PURCHASING  AGENT  AS  TO  CARABAO 
TO  NOVEMBER  20,  1903. 

Office  of  the  Insular  Purchasing  Agent 

for  the  Philippine  Islands, 
Manila,  P.  I. ,  August  13,  1903. 
Sir:  I  have  the  honor  to  report  that  under  Act  No.  828  and  under  resolution  of 
the  Philippine  Commission  under  date  of  August  7  I  have  sold  the  following  described 
carabao : 

MALVINO  DE  JESUS,  AGRICULTURIST,  GUAGUA,  PAMPANGA. 


Sex. 

C.  G.  No. 

Shippers' 
No. 

Approxi- 
mate age. 

Transfer 
certifi- 
cate No. 

Value. 

96 
97 

384 
334 

Years. 
7 
7 

1 

2 

$100.00 

Do 

100. 00 

RICARDO  VELEZ  CORRALES,  AGRICULTURIST,  GUAGUA,  PAMPANGA. 


Male... 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Female 

Do. 

Do. 
Male... 
Female 
Male... 

Do. 
Female 
Male... 
Female 
Male... 
Female 


74 

367 

7 

3 

81 

98 

9 

4 

90 

296 

7 

5 

99 

375 

6 

6 

100 

368 

9 

7 

101 

103 

10 

8 

116 

336 

8 

9 

126 

43 

8 

10 

127 

266 

7 

11 

132 

56 

8 

12 

133 

361 

8 

13 

134 

218 

8 

14 

136 

341 

9 

15 

141 

183 

7 

16 

142 

338 

8 

17 

146 

381 

10 

18 

$70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 


JOSE  DE  JESUS,  AGRICULTURIST,  POROC,  PAMPANGA. 


Male... 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Female 


137 

78 

145 

188 
168 


285 
352 
566 
580 


$70. 00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 


FRANCISCO  DE  GUITERRES,  AGRICULTURIST,  POROC,  PAMPANGA. 


Male... 

Do. 

Female 

Male... 


150 

(«) 

8 

24 

162 

609 

8 

25 

164 

574 

6 

26 

163 

(a) 

8 

27 

a  Lost. 


$70.00 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 


127 


128  JREPOBT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

The  above  sales  were  for  cash,  the  first  two  at  $100  being  selected  by  the  buyer, 
and  the  balance  being  taken  as  turned  out  by  this  bureau.  Transfer  certificates  have 
been  issued  in  each  case,  and  will  be  accounted  for  to  the  auditor. 

In  selling  the  above  carabao  I  find  that  purchasers  prefer  a  large  percentage  of 
females,  and  would  recommend  that,  if  possible,  the  contractor  send  at  least  50  per 
cent  females. 

Very  respectfully,  M.  L.  Stewart, 

Assistant  Insular  Purchasing  Agent. 
Chairman  of  Committee  on  Sale  op  Carabao, 

Manila,  P.  I. 
(Through  executive  secretary. ) 

General  statement  carabao,  November  20,  1903. 

Shanghai 
currency. 

Purchased  under  old  contract 649,  at  $75 $48,675 

Dying  at  Shanghai  after  inoculation,  old  contract.       435,  at  $40 17, 400 

Purchased  under  new  contract 721,  at  $79 56, 979 


Total 1,805 123,054 

Actually  received  and  accepted 1 ,  370 

Total  amount  paid 123,054 

Which  amounted  to,  at  time  of  payment,  at  the  current  rate  of  exchange,  $118,805.45, 
Philippine  currency. 

Disposition: 

By  transfer — 

Rizal  Province 105 

Bataan  Province 230 

Laguna  Province 51 

Occidental  Negros 20 

Zamboanga 33 


441 

By  sale 91 

23,  at  $100 $2,300 

68,  at    $70 , 7,060 


9,360 

Dead,  after  acceptance 429 

On  hand: 

Santa  Mesa _• 370 

Pasay 29 

399 

In  charge  Lack  &  Davis 7 

Missing 3 

1,  370 


EXHIBIT  D. 


STATEMENT    SHOWING    ACTUAL    EXPENDITURES    UNDER    THE 
CONGRESSIONAL  RELIEF  FUND. 

The  Government  op  the  Philippine  Islands, 

Office  of  the  Auditor, 
Manila,  December  1,  1903. 

Sir:  In  compliance  with  your  verbal  request  of  recent  date,  I  have  the  honor  to 
submit  herewith  a  special  report  covering  operations  under  the  Congressional  relief 
fund  to  this  date  since  the  same  was  made  available  to  the  insular  government. 

The  original  appropriation  by  Congress  was  of  the  sum  of  $3,000,000,  United  States 
currency,  entered  on  the  books  of  the  auditor  as  5*6,000,000. 

The  first  appropriation  made  from  this  relief  fund  was  by  Act  No.  738  of  the  sum 
of  1*200,000,  or  §100,000  United  States  currency,  "for  the  preliminary  expenses  of 
the  insular  purchasing  agent  and  other  agents  of  the  insular  government  in  visiting 
the  ports  and  countries  where  draft  cattle  may  be  purchased,  in  paying  the  purchase 
price  of  same,  in  chartering  the  necessary  transportation  for  their  importation  into 
the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  all  other  expenses  incident  to  their  purchase  and 
delivery  in  the  Philippine  Islands. ' '  This  appropriation  was  fully  withdrawn  April 
27,  1903,  by  warrant  No.  3060,  payable  to  the  insular  purchasing  agent.  The  sum  of 
5*196,239. 02  was  recently  repaid  to  the  insular  treasury,  leaving  the  net  withdrawals 
but  5*3,760.98  which  substantially  represents  the  expense  of  the  acting  insular  pur- 
chasing agent  while  in  China  making  the  preliminary  contracts  as  contemplated. 

By  Act  750  of  the  Commission,  an  appropriation  of  an  indefinite  sum  was  made 
to  reimburse  the  insular  purchasing  agent  for  food  supplies  and  tents  issued  under 
authority  of  the  Commission  for  the  relief  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  of  Mariquina 
who  were  rendered  homeless  by  a  fire  in  that  town  on  April  26,  1903.  The  insular 
purchasing  agent's  claim  for  reimbursement  under  this  act  has  not  been  settled. 

The  next  appropriation  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  was  of  the  equivalent  of 
5*500,000,  by  Act  No.  786,  "for  expenditure  in  the  purchase  of  rice  for  the  purpose 
of  securing  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  Philippine  Islands  opportunity  to  purchase  rice 
at  reasonable  rates  and  for  the  purpose  of  distributing  rice  gratuitously  to  those  peo- 
ple who  are  suffering  from  lack  of  food  and  unable  to  pay  for  the  same."  This  act 
provided  that  the  purchase  of  rice  should  be  made  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent 
in  such  manner  and  quantities  and  at  such  prices  and  times  as  the  civil  governor 
might  direct,  and  the  law  further  provided  that  the  rice  should  be  distributed  in  such 
localities  as  the  civil  governor  might  direct  or  applied  to  payment  for  work  on  roads 
or  other  public  improvements,  in  addition  to  gratuitous  distribution  to  starving  peo- 
ple upon  the  order  of  the  civil  governor.  Act  No.  786  was  amended  by  Act  No.  814, 
and  in  order  to  carry  out  the  provisions  of  Act  No.  786,  as  amended  by  Act  No.  814, 
executive  order  No.  64  was  issued,  as  follows: 

Executive  Order,  ^  The  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 

>■  Executive  "Bureau, 

No.  64.  J  Manila,  July  31,  1903. 

The  following  regulations  will  govern  the  sale  and  distribution  of  rice  furnished 
under  the  appropriation  by  Congress  for  the  relief  of  the  people  of  the  Philippine 
Islands: 

Before  rice  is  furnished  to  any  province  its  provincial  board  will  submit  to  the 
civil  governor  an  estimate  of  the  quantity  of  rice  which  can  be  used  to  advantage 
in  a  given  period  and  a  statement  of  the  conditions  in  the  province  which  make  the 
distribution  of  rice  desirable. 

All  rice  furnished  by  the  civil  government  will  be  consigned  to  the  supervisor  or 
the  supervisor-treasurer  of  the  province  to  which  it  is  shipped.  At  the  time  of  ship- 
ment the  insular  purchasing  agent  will  forward  to  the  insular  auditor  a  copy  of  the 
notice  of  shipment,  together  with  a  statement  of  the  price  at  which  the  rice  is  to  be 

WAK  1903— VOL  5 9  129 


130  REPORT    OF    THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

sold,  which  shall  include  cost  of  transportation  and  handling,  but  shall  exclude  duty, 
if  any.  The  expense  of  storing  and  subsequent  handling  of  the  rice  shall  be  at  the 
expense  of  the  province,  except  when  the  civil  governor  shall  order  otherwise. 

All  rice  shall  be  receipted  for  to  the  insular  purchasing  agent  by  the  supervisor  or 
supervisor-treasurer  to  whom  consigned,  and  shall  be  taken  up  by  the  latter  officer, 
who  shall  be  accountable  on  his  official  bond  for  the  same,  and  render  accounts  there- 
for to  the  insular  auditor  as  hereinafter  provided. 

Where  the  rice  is  used  for  public  works  a  full  report  of  its  issue  and  distribution 
shall  be  made  to  the  civil  governor,  in  addition  to  the  account  which  is  required  by 
the  auditor,  with  a  definite  statement  of  the  public  improvement  upon  which  it  has 
been  used  the  number  of  days  of  labor,  and  the  amount  of  material  secured. 

No  rice  'shall  be  distributed  gratuitously,  except  in  limited  quantities,  to  deserving 
persons  unable  to  work,  and  upon  the  recommendation  and  order  of  the  provincial 
board,  approved  by  the  civil  governor,  to  whom  will  be  made  a  statement  of  the 
peculiar  circumstances  calling  for  such  action. 

In  cases  where  rice  is  sold,  the  proceeds  of  the  sales  will  be  deposited  in  the  pro- 
vincial treasury.  The  money  so  received  shall  be  placed  to  the  credit  of  a  "  Con- 
gressional relief  fund,"  and  thereafter  may  be  disbursed  as  other  funds  on  the  order 
of  the  provincial  board,  for  public  works,  and  accounted  for  in  the  usual  manner  to 
the  auditor,  full  report  thereon  being  made  to  the  civil  governor. 

The  accounts  of  the  supervisor  or  supervisor-treasurer  to  the  insular  auditor  will 
be  rendered  on  a  regular  property  return,  auditor's  Form  700,  monthly  instead  of 
quarterly,  supported  as  follows : 

(a)  In  the  case  of  direct  sales,  by  proper  abstracts,  showing  date  of  sale,  name  of 
purchaser,  quantity  sold,  with  price  and  total  amount  received.  This  abstract  should 
be  certified  as  correct  by  the  person  in  charge  of  the  sales  and  by  the  supervisor,  and 
be  accompanied  by  the  receipt  of  the  provincial  treasurer  for  the  amount  deposited 
in  the  provincial  treasury. 

Sales  to  commercial  firms  will  not  be  allowed  except  upon  advance  approval  of  the 
civil  governor. 

(6)  In  the  case  of  the  issue  of  rice  in  payment  of  labor  performed,  the  regular 
labor  pay  roll,  provincial  Form  57,  will  be  used,  modified  so  as  to  show  in  the  col- 
umns marked  "Rate  of  pay"  and  "Amount  paid,"  certain  fixed  units  of  measure  in 
rice  instead  of  money.  The  certificates  at  the  bottom  of  the  roll  should  also  be 
modified  by  substituting  the  words  "issue"  and  "issued,"  respectively,  for  "pay- 
ment" and  "paid."  The  money  value  of  the  rice  so  issued  in  payment  for  labor 
will  be  computed  and  stated  on  the  pay  roll,  and  the  amount  represented  by  such 
money  value  of  such  pay  rolls  will  be  taken  up  by  the  provincial  treasurer  in  his 
revenue  account  as  receipts  from  rice  sales  and  placed  to  the  credit  of  the  aforesaid 
"Congressional  relief  fund."  Credit  will  be  taken  for  the  same  amount  as  a  dis- 
bursement for  labor  on  public  works,  the  voucher  being  the  pay  rolls  rece:ved  from 
the  supervisor  or  supervisor-treasurer.  The  latter  officer  will  drop  the  rice  so  dis- 
posed of  on  his  returns,  supporting  the  same  by  the  receipt  of  the  provincial  treas- 
urer for  the  amount  represented  by  the  pay  rolls,  and  taken  up  by  the  latter,  as  in 
the  case  of  sales  made  in  the  regular  way. 

(c)  In  case  of  gratuitous  distribution  ordered  by  the  provincial  board  and  approved 
by  the  civil  governor  the  same  abstract  will  be  used  as  in  the  case  of  sales,  modified 
to  show  gratuitous  distribution  instead  of  sale,  certified  as  correct  by  the  officer 
making  the  distribution,  which  distribution  will  be  witnessed  by  two  disinterested, 
reputable  citizens,  whose  certificate  that  they  were  present  and  witnessed  the  issue 
must  appear  on  the  abstract. 

In  order  to  facilitate  the  operation  of  this  order  throughout  the  province,  the  pro- 
vincial supervisor  or  the  supervisor-treasurer  shall  have  power  to  designate  in  writing 
any  municipal  officer  as  his  deputy  for  the  purpose  of  this  issue,  who  shall  serve 
without  additional  compensation. 

Wm,  H.  Taft,  Civil  Governor. 

Withdrawals  have  been  made  to  date  from  the  funds  appropriated  by  act  No.  786, 
as  follows: 

June  10,  warrant  No.  3344 f*200,000 

July  22,  warrant  No.  3530 200,000 

Sept.  22,  warrant  No.  3877 100,000 

Total 500,000 

A  repayment  of  1*6,137.54  was  made  to  this  appropriation  and  again  withdrawn, 
leaving  the  net  withdrawals  at  the  full  amount  appropriated. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  131 

It  is  not  practicable  at  this  time  to  state  the  actual  expenditures  under  these 
various  subappropriations,  but  the  same  will  be  submitted  at  the  earliest  practicable 
date. 

Act  No.  795  appropriated  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  the  sum  of  1*3,000  for 
certain  contingent  expenses  of  the  Government  laboratories  for  reimbursement  to 
that  bureau  for  expense  incurred  in  immunizing  and  caring  for  draft  animals,  and 
this  appropriation  was  withdrawn  July  11,  1903,  by  warrant  No.  3471,  in  the  sum  of 
!P3,000.  There  has  been  repaid  to  this  appropriation  the  sum  of  n, 853. 87,  leaving 
the  net  withdrawals  for  the  purpose  named  !P1,146.13. 

Act  No.  797  made  an  appropriation  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  of  $500,000, 
equivalent  to  !P1,000,000,  "for  expenditure,  under  the  direction  of  the  civil  governor, 
for  such  purposes  and  in  such  manner  as  might  from  time  to  time  be  authorized  by 
resolutions  of  the  Philippine  Commission  and  in  carrying  out  the  intent  of  the  Con- 
gress of  the  United  States  in  appropriating  the  fund  aforesaid."  The  withdrawals 
under  these  resolutions  are  of  such  recent  date  that  accounts  of  the  expenditures 
made  have  not  been  rendered  with  sufficient  completeness  to  permit  of  any  state- 
ment at  this  time  of  the  actual  disbursements  thereunder. 

July  22,  1903,  by  warrant  No.  3528,  the  sum  of  1*30,000  was  withdrawn  pursuant 
to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Philippine  Commission,  dated  July  10: 

"On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  insular  purchasing  agent  be,  and  he  is  hereby,  authorized  and 
directed  to  provide  transportation  for  all  carabaos  to  be  sold  in  the  provinces  and  to 
make  requisition  for  the  expenses  of  such  transportation  in  accordance  with  act  num- 
bered seven  hundred  and  ninety-seven,  these  expenses  of  transportation  to  include 
also  the  lighterage  of  cattle  from  ships  in  Manila  Bay,  or  wherever  the  ships  bring- 
ing the  cattle  from  foreign  countries  are  anchored,  to  the  shore;  and  also  the  expenses 
of  the  maintenance  of  the  cattle,  including  the  rent  of  suitable  places  for  yarding  the 
same  pending  their  transportation  to  the  provinces  where  they  are  to  be  sold;  and 
also  the  expenses  of  branding  the  cattle  with  the  Government  brand,  the  same  to 
bear  consecutive  numbers  and  series;  and 

"Be  it  further  resolved,  That  the  insular  purchasing  agent  be,  and  he  is  hereby, 
directed  to  keep  a  careful  and  separate  account  of  the  cattle  purchased  and  of  the 
expenses  connected  with  the  purchase,  distribution,  care,  and  sale  of  the  cattle  and 
of  the  proceeds  received  therefrom;  and 

"Be  it  further  resolved,  That  a  copy  of  these  resolutions  be  forwarded  to  the  insular 
purchasing  agent. ' ' 

On  July  25,  by  warrant  No.  1539,  the  sum  of  !P50,000  was  withdrawn  pursuant 
to  the  following  "resolution  of  the  Philippine  Commission,  dated  July  23: 

' '  Whereas  one  hundred  thousand  dollars  in  Mexican  currency  was  collected  by 
forced  contributions  to  the  insurgents  during  the  insurrection  from  the  inhabitants 
of  the  province  of  Albay  at  a  time  prior  to  American  occupation  of  that  province;  and 

"Whereas  there  is  much  evidence  to  show  that  this  one  hundred  thousand  dol- 
lars was  embraced  in  a  draft  which  was  subsequently  seized  by  the  United  States 
Government,  and  the  proceeds  of  the  draft  turned  into  the  insular  treasury;  and 

' j  Whereas  the  conditions  in  the  province  of  Albay  are  such  as  to  require  the  insti- 
tution of  public  works  with  a  view  to  furnishing  labor  to  the  people  thereof;  and 

' '  Whereas,  although  the  facts  enumerated  above  do  not  form  the  basis  of  any  legal 
claim  for  the  return  of  the  money  referred  to  from  the  insular  treasury  to  the  people 
of  the  province  of  Albay,  the  circumstances  nevertheless  present  an  equitable  basis 
for  action  in  the  discretion  of  the  Commission  in  this  regard  in  view  of  the  present 
needs  of  the  province; 

"Now,  therefore,  be  it  resolved,  That  under  act  No.  797  the  civil  governor  is 
hereby  authorized  to  direct  the. auditor  to  draw  a  warrant  on  the  insular  treasury  in 
favor  of  the  provincial  treasurer  of  Albay  for  the  sum  of  twenty-five  thousand  dollars 
United  States  currency,  the  same  to  be  deposited  in  the  provincial  treasury  of  Albay 
and  to  be  disbursed  upon  the  order  of  the  provincial  board  of  Albay  for  public 
improvements  in  such  a  manner  as  to  furnish  labor  to  the  people  of  the  province 
who  shall  be  in  necessitous  circumstances;  the  disbursement  of  the  funds  to  be  made 
by  the  provincial  treasurer  in  accordance  with  law,  subject  to  the  same  accounting 
to  the  auditor  as  provided  for  the  disbursement  of  other  provincial  funds.  The 
provincial  treasurer  is  also  required  to  make  a  full  report  of  the  expenditure  of  this 
fund  to  the  civil  governor  to  enable  the  civil  governor,  as  required  by  the  act  of 
Congress,  to  report  to  Congress  the  disposition  of  the  money.  The  provincial  board 
of  Albay  is  authorized  to  purchase  rice  with  this  fund  and  to  use  the  rice  in  pay- 
ment of  labor  in  so  far  as  it  may  be  wise.  The  provincial  board  of  Albay  may  also 
authorize  in  limited  quantities  the  use  of  the  rice  purchased  to  relieve  the  wants  of 
the  indigent  poor  unable  to  earn  money  by  labor,  but  the  amount  thus  expended  can 


132  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

only  be  expended  by  approval  of  the  provincial  board,  concurred  in  by  the  civil 
governor. ' ' 

Only  July  30,  by  warrant  No.  3609,  the  sum  of  1*10,000  was  withdrawn  pursuant 
to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Philippine  Commission,  dated  July  27: 

"Whereas,  the  employment  of  additional  veterinarians  and  inoculators  by  the 
board  of  health  for  the  Philippine  Islands  for  the  purpose  of  combating  the  spread 
of  disease  among  draft  cattle  in  the  islands  is  considered  by  the  Commission  to  be  a 
proper  charge  against  the  three  million  dollar  relief  fund  voted  by  the  Congress  of 
the  United  States; 

"Now,  therefore,  be  it  resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to 
expend  from  the  fund  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars,  appropriated' from  the  three 
million  dollar  relief  fund  by  act  No.  797,  and  made  available  for  expenditure  under 
the  direction  of  the  civil  governor,  upon  authorization  by  the  Commission,  the  sum 
of  twenty-nine  thousand  one  hundred  and  forty  dollars  United  States  currency,  for 
the  payment  of  the  following  expenses: 

' '  Salaries  and  wages,  board  of  health  for  the  Philippine  Islands,  nineteen  hundred 
and  four;  one  supervisor  of  inoculating  veterinarians  and  of  inoculators,  at  eighteen 
hundred  dollars  per  annum;  nine  veterinarians,  class  seven,  twenty  inoculators, 
class  A,  seventeen  thousand  one  hundred  dollars; 

"For  the  payment  of  services  and  expenses  of  interpreters  in  provinces  to  aid 
inoculators  etc.,  one  thousand  dollars; 

"Transportation,  board  of  health  for  the  Philippine  Islands,  nineteen  hundred 
and  four,  for  the  actual  and  necessary  traveling  expenses,  including  subsistence,  of 
the  veterinarians  and  inoculators  while  on  duty  in  the  provinces,  eleven  thousand 
and  forty  dollars." 

On  August  20,  by  warrant  No.  3716,  the  sum  of  3*200,000  was  withdrawn  pursuant 
to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Commission,  dated  September  24: 

"On  motion, 

' '  Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct  an  expenditure 
from  the  funds  appropriated  under  act  No.  797  of  the  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand 
dollars  United  States  currency,  in  the  purchase  of  rice  and  the  pajmient  of  trans- 
portation and  other  charges  incident  to  its  distribution  among  the  inhabitants  of  the 
Philippine  Islands  for  the  purpose  of  relieving  famine  and  distress  therein,  said  funds 
having  been  withdrawn  from  the  insular  treasury  by  accountable  warrant  No.  3716, 
issued  upon  the  insular  purchasing  agent's  requisition,  dated  August  12,  1903." 

On  August  27,  by  warrant  No.  3778,  the  sum  of  5*2,000  was  withdrawn  pursuant 
to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Commission,  dated  August  18: 

"On  motion, 

11  Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  expend  from  the  fund  of 
five  hundred  thousand  dollars  appropriated  "from  the  three  million  dollar  Congres- 
sional relief  fund  by  act  No.  797,  and  made  available  for  expenditure  under  his  direc- 
tion, upon  authorization  by  the  Commission,  the  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand  dol- 
lars United  States  currency,  to  be  used  for  the  following  purposes: 

"For  the  payment  of  an  assistant  foreman,  at  $3.50  United  States  currency,  per 
day,  whose  employment  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  for  the  purpose  of  superin- 
tending, under  his  direction,  the  sale  and  care  of  carabaos  purchased  by  the  insular 
government,  is  hereby  authorized; 

' '  For  the  payment  of  transportation  expenses  of  employees  of  the  insular  purchasing 
agent,  engaged  in  the  sale  or  care  of  carabaos  in  an  amount  not  to  exceed  twenty- 
five  dollars  United  States  currency,  per  month;  and 

' '  For  the  purchase  of  carabao  carts  and  yokes  to  be  used  in  connection  with  the 
care  of  carabaos  in  charge  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent;  and 

"Beit further  resolved,  That  Commissioner  Luzuriaga,  chairman  of  the  committee 
on  the  purchase  and  sale  of  carabaos  be,  and  he  is  hereby,  authorized  to  extend  the 
contract  entered  into  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  with  the  firm  of  Lack  &  Davis 
for  the  care  and  feeding  of  carabaos  loelonging  to  the  insular  government  as  he  may 
deem  wise." 

On  August  31,  by  warrant  No.  3805,  the  sum  of  5*2,000  was  withdrawn  pursuant  to 
the  following  resolution  of  the  Commission,  dated  August  29: 

"On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  expend  from  the  fund 
of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars,  appropriated  from  the  three  million  dollar  Con- 
gressional relief  fund  by  act  No.  797,  and  made  available  for  expenditure  under  his 
direction,  upon  the  authorization  of  the  Commission,  the  sum  of  two  thousand  dol- 
lars Philippine  currency,  to  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  paying  the  charges  of  trans- 
portation on  five  hundred  piculs  of  rice  from  San  Fernando  in  the  province  of  La 
Union,  to  Baguio  in  the  province  of  Benguet,  which  rice  is  to  be  used  for  the  feeding 


EEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  133 

of  laborers  engaged  in  public  improvements,  and  for  other  purposes,  as  directed  by 
the  civil  governor." 

On  September  11, 1903,  by  warrant  No.  3834,  the  sum  of  1*49,033.88  was  withdrawn 
pursuant  to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Commission,  dated  September  7: 

' '  On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  he  is  hereby,  authorized  to  expend  from 
the  appropriation  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars,  made  by  act  No.  797  from  the 
Congressional  relief  fund  and  made  available  for  expenditure  in  his  discretion,  upon 
authorization  by  resolution  of  the  Commission,  the  sum  of  $24,516.94  in  money  of 
the  United  States,  to  be  devoted  to  the  payment  of  drafts  against  the  insular  purchas- 
ing agent  on  account  of  carabaos  purchased  by  the  insular  goverment  under  the  con- 
tract Vith  Messrs.  Keylock  &  Pratt,  of  Shanghai,  in  such  amount." 

On  September  24,  by  warrant  No.  3920,  the  sum  of  1*364.34  was  withdrawn,  pur- 
suant to  the  following  resolutions  of  the  Commission,  dated  July  30  and  August  5, 
respectively : 

"Resolved,  That  the  expenses  of  the  trip  of  the  superintendent  of  the  government 
laboratories  to  Shanghai  and  return  should  properly  be  paid  out  of  the  fund  of  five 
hundred  thousand  dollars,  appropriated  from  the  three  million  dollars  Congressional 
relief  fund  by  act  No.  797,  and  made  available  for  expenditure  under  the  direction 
of  the  civil  governor  upon  authorization  of  the  Commission,  and  that  authorization 
for  this  action  by  the  civil  governor  be  hereby  conveyed." 

On  motion, 

' '  Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  he  is  hereby,  authorized  to  pay,  from 
the  appropriation  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars,  made  by  act  No.  797,  from  the 
Congressional  relief  fund,  a  sum  equivalent,  at  the  authorized  rate  of  exchange,  to 
$130.81,  Mexican  currency,  to  pay  the  expenses  of  transportation  on  one  hundred 
and  twenty-five  sacks  of  rice  furnished  to  the  provincial  government  of  Abra  for  the 
relief  of  the  inhabitants  of  that  province." 

On  September  28,  by  warrant  No.  3939,  the  sum  of  1*18,961.90  was  withdrawn, 
pursuant  to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Commission,  dated  September  24, 1903: 

1 '  The  chairman  of  the  committee  oh  the  purchase  and  sale  of  carabao  presented 
to  the  Commission  correspondence,  under  dates  of  September  23  and  September  24, 
1903,  Executive  Bureau  File  No.  30, 275- All,  between  the  committee  and  the  insular 
purchasing  agent,  in  regard  to  payment  for  carabao  purchased  by  the  insular  gov- 
ernment from  Messrs.  Keylock  &  Pratt,  of  Shanghai,  China.  It  appearing  from 
the  communication  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent  that  there  is  now  due  Messrs. 
Keylock  &  Pratt  the  sum  of  $4,200,  Shanghai  currency,  for  56  carabao,  under  the 
old  contract,  at  $75  each;  $13,825  for  175  carabao,  delivered  under  the  new  contract, 
at  S79  each;  and  $1,360  for  34  carabao,  which  died  under  immunization,  and  for 
which  the  government  is  obliged  to  pay,  under  the  old  contract,  the  sum  of  $40 
each,  making  a  total  of  $19,385,  Shanghai  currency;  and  it  appearing  that  the  sum  of 
818,461.90  in  Philippines  currency  is  the  equivalent  on  this  date  of  $19,385  in 
Shanghai  currency,  the  whole  amount  reported  due  to  Messrs.  Keylock  &  Pratt: 

" Now  therefore  be  it  resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct 
the  expenditure  of  $18,461.90,  Philippines  currency,  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent, 
from  the  fund  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars  appropriated  from  the  three-million- 
dollar  Congressional  relief  fund  by  act  No.  797,  and  made  available  for  expenditure 
under  his  direction  upon  authorization  of  the  Commission  for  the  payment  of  the 
above  account  of  Messrs.  Keylock  &  Pratt:  Provided,  That  this  authorization  of  the 
insular  purchasing  agent  to  pay  this  amount  is  with  the  reservation  of  the  right  of 
the  government  to  exact  from  Messrs.  Keylock  &  Pratt  an  adjustment  of  claims 
existing  in  favor  of  the  government  against  them  for  prior  deliveries,  as  per  their 
telegrams  and  letters." 

On  October  24,  by  warrant  No.  4047,  the  sum  of  1*12,000  was  withdrawn,  pursuant 
to  the  following  resolutions  of  the  Commission,  dated  July  27  and  September  9, 
respectively: 

(Resolution  of  July  27,  authorizing  employment  of  additional  veterinarians,  etc., 
is  quoted  above  under  warrant  No.  3609. ) 

"Whereas  the  civil  governor  did,  on  August  8, 1903,  in  conformity  with  an  informal 
agreement  with  the  Commission,  advise  the  provincial  governors  of  all  provinces  that 
a  daily  allowance  of  five  Philippine  pesos  for  traveling  expenses  would  be  made  to 
the  agricultural  members  of  the  locust  boards  authorized  by  act  No.  817,  while  said 
members  were  engaged  in  the  work  of  the  boards  and  away  from  their  usual  places 
of  residence,  such  days  to  be  certified  by  the  provincial  governors:  Therefore, 

"Be  U  resolved,  That  the  action  of  the  civil  governor,  as  above  set  forth,  be,  and  the 
same  is  hereby,  confirmed  by  the  Commission,  and  that  the  civfl  governor  is  hereby 
authorized  to  pay  the  traveling  expenses  above  referred  to  out  of  the  appropriation 


134  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars  made  by  act  No.  797  from  the  Congressional 
relief  fund,  which  is  available  for  expenditure  by  him  upon  authorization  of  the 
Commission." 

On  October  26,  by  warrant  No.  4058,  the  sum  of  P\L77, 717.50  was  withdrawn,  pur- 
suant to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Commission,  dated  October  22: 

"  On  motion  it  was  resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct 
an  expenditure,  from  the  funds  appropriated  under  act  797,  of  the  sum  of  $88,858.75, 
United  States  currency,  in  payment  of  29,521.18  piculs  of  Saigon  No.  2  rice  purchased 
from  Castle  Brothers,  Wolf  &  Sons  at  IP6.02  per  picul,  such  rice  being  required  for 
the  purpose  of  relieving  famine  and  distress  within  the  Philippine  Islands." 

On  October  27,  by  warrant  No.  4059,  the  sum  of  !P19, 144.53  was  withdrawn,  pur- 
suant to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Commission,  dated  October  23: 

On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct  an  expenditure 
from  the  funds  appropriated  under  act  No.  797  of  the  sum  of  nine  thousand  five 
hundred  and  seventy-two  dollars  and  twenty-seven  cents,  United  States  currency, 
in  payment  of  two  hundred  and  forty-nine  head  of  carabao,  purchased  from  Messrs. 
Keylock  &  Pratt  for  distribution  and  sale  within  the  Archipelago,  to  relieve  distress 
therein." 

The  following  resolutions  of  the  Commission  were  passed  under  the  dates  indi- 
cated, the  expenditures  thereunder  authorized  being  made  proper  charges  against 
the  Congressional  relief  fund.  The  accounts  arising  under  these  resolutions  have  not 
yet  been  rendered  to  the  auditor  with  sufficient  completeness  to  enable  definite  state- 
ment at  this  time  of  the  actual  expenditures  made: 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  July  31,  1903: 

"On  motion  it  teas  resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized 
to  employ  Benito  Laureano,  the  person  recommended  by  Commissioner  Luzuriaga, 
at  a  salary  of  one  hundred  dollars,  United  States  currency,  per  month,  who  shall 
visit  Shanghai,  China,  and  there,  under  the  supervision  of  Veterinarian  Slee,  now 
on  duty  at  Shanghai,  inspect  the  carabaos  presented  for  fulfillment  of  the  con- 
tract of  Messrs.  Keylock  &  Pratt,  and  that  Mr.  Laureano  be  allowed  his  actual  pas- 
sage expenses,  first  class,  from  Manila  to  Shanghai  and  return,  and  three  dollars, 
United  States  currency,  per  day  for  his  subsistence  and  all  other  expenses  while  in 
Shanghai;  all  of  the  money  expended  under  this  resolution  to  be  charged  to  the 
fund  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars  appropriated  from  the  three  million  dollar 
Congressional  relief  fund  by  act  No.  797,  and  made  available  for  expenditure  under 
the  direction  of  the  civil  governor,  upon  authorization  by  the  Commission;  and 

"Be  it  further  resolved,  That  a  copy  of  this  resolution  be  sent  to  the  auditor  and  to 
the  disbursing  officer  of  the  executive  bureau,  and  that  the  disbursing  officer  of  the 
executive  bureau  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized  to  advance  to  Mr.  Laureano  a  suffi- 
cient sum  with  which  to  purchase  his  passage  and  to  meet  the  expenses  of  his  trip, 
not  to  exceed  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars,  United  States  currency,  which  sum  shall 
be  accounted  for  as  provided  by  law." 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  August  3,  1903: 

"On  motion, 

"  Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized  to  expend  from 
the  sum  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars,  appropriated  by  act  No.  797  from  the 
Congressional  relief  fund,  to  be  expended  by  the  civil  governor  upon  authorization 
of  the  Commission,  the  sum  of  seven  hundred  and  fifty  dollars,  United  States  cur- 
rency, for  the  purpose  of  combating  the  locust  pest  in  the  province  of  Abra." 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  September  7,  1903: 

"On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be  authorized  to  place  at  the  disposal  of  the 
committee  on  the  purchase  and  sale  of  carabaos  the  sum  of  ten  thousand  dollars  in 
money  of  the  United  States,  to  be  expended  out  of  the  appropriation  of  five  hundred 
thousand  dollars  made  by  act  No.  797  out  of  the  Congressional  relief  fund,  and  made 
available  for  expenditure  by  the  civil  governor,  upon  authorization  by  the  Commission, 
said  sum  to  be  expended  as  may  seem  wise  to  the  committee,  in  the  construction  of 
shelters,  corrals,  and  other  means  for  the  custody,  care,  and  support,  pending  their 
sale,  of  carabaos,  owned  by  the  insular  government." 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  September  23,  1903: 

"It  appearing  to  the  Commission  that  a  sum  of  mony  is  required  immediately  for 
the  construction  of  a  suitable  shelter,  on  the  hacienda  of  Senor  Lopez,  near  Orani, 
Bataan,  for  employees  engaged  in  the  care  of  carabaos,  purchased  by  the  insular 
government;  for  the  construction  of  corrals  in  which  to  keep  carabao  purchased  by 
the  government,  during  the  night  time  and  while  they  are  being  inoculated;  for  the 


REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  135 

payment  of  the  necessary  labor  to  be  employed  for  the  herding  and  care  of  carabaos; 
for  the  necessary  contingent  expenses  arising  from  the  care  of  said  carabaos  in  the 
province  of  Bataan,  near  the  municipality  of  Orani:"  Now,  therefore, 

"Be  it  resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  expend  from  the 
appropriation  made  by  act  No.  797,  out  of  the  Congressional  relief  fund,  the  sum  of 
five  hundred  dollars,  United  States  currency,  to  be  expended  for  the  purposes  here- 
inbefore mentioned;  and 

"Be  it  further  resolved,  That  these  funds  be  withdrawn  upon  requisition  in  favor  of 
the  disbursing  officer  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent,  as  provided  by  section  2  of 
act  No.  797,  and  transfer  of  the  same  directed  to  the  provincial  supervisor-treasurer 
of  Bataan,  who  is  authorized  to  expend  such  moneys  for  the  purpose  above  set  forth, 
upon  vouchers  to  be  approved  by  the  provincial  board  of  that  province." 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  September  25,  1903: 

"  On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized  to  direct  the 
insular  purchasing  agent  to  purchase  five  hundred  shovels  and  five  hundred 
crowbars  and  to  forward  the  same  to  the  supervisor  of  the  province  of  Kizal  for 
use  in  the  suppression  of  locusts  and  in  road  work;  and  that  the  provincial  supervisor 
shall  take  up  such  property  upon  his  property  accounts  as  in  cases  of  other  property 
of  the  province,  and  be  accountable  for  the  same  according  to  law;  and 

"Be  it  further  resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized  to  pay 
for  such  supplies  from  the  funds  appropriated  by  act  No.  797  from  the  Congressional 
relief  fund." 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  October  1,  1903: 

"On  motion, 

"Resolved,  Thatthe  action  of  the  insular  purchasing  agent  in  chartering  the  schooner 
Kodiac  at  thirty  dollars,  United  States  currency,  per  day,  for  a  period  not  to  exceed 
six  months,  to  be  used  in  the  transportation  of  carabao,  rice,  coal,  and  other  govern- 
ment property,  between  ports  of  the  archipelago,  for  the  purpose  of  relieving  dis- 
tress among  the  inhabitants  thereof,  be,  and  is  hereby,  approved  by  the  Commission; 
and 

"  Be  it  further  resolved,  Thatthe  civil  governor  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized  to 
expend  from  the  funds  appropriated  by  act  No.  797,  out  of  the  Congressional  relief 
fund,  a  sum  not  exceeding  five  thousand  five  hundred  dollars,  United  States  currency, 
for  the  payment  of  the  charter  fee  of  the  said  schooner,  during  such  period  as  the 
same  may  be  in  use  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent." 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  October  1,  1903: 

"On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  insular  purchasing  agent  be,  and  is  hereby,  authorized  to 
make  a  contract  with  the  agent  of  the  owners  of  the  Santa  Mesa  estate  for  the  rental 
of  a  tract  of  land  for  the  pasturage  of  carabao,  at  the  rate  of  seventy-five  centavos, 
Philippines  currency,  per  month  per  head;  and  he  is  further  authorized  to  incur  the 
necessary  expense  of  employing  men  to  guard  the  carabao  and  of  erecting  the  neces- 
sary shelter  for  the  men  and  the  necessary  corrals  for  the  cattle  for  use  at  night;  and 
the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct  the  payment  of  a  sufficient  sum  to 
meet  the  expenditures  authorized  by  this  resolution  out  of  the  appropriation  of  five 
hundred  thousand  dollars,  made  by  act  No.  797,  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund." 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  October  26,  1903 : 

"On  motion  of  Commissioner  Smith, 

"Resolved,  That  the  carabao  of  the  insular  government,  purchased  from  the  Con- 
gressional relief  fund,  be  placed  in  charge  of  Mr.  A.  J.  Washburn,  manager  of  the 
Culion  stock  farm,  whose  duty  it  shall  be  to  make  all  provision  for  their  pasturage, 
care,  feed,  and  interisland  shipment  under  the  direction  o£  1;he  insular  purchasing 
agent;  that  Mr.  Washburn  shall  have  authority  to  employ  the  necessary  labor  to 
enable  him  properly  to  perform  the  duties  thus  imposed,  payment  for  same  to  be 
made  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent  on  his  certificate  as  to  the  time  labor  was 
employed;  that  the  insular  purchasing  agent  is  hereby  authorized  to  assign  to  Mr. 
Washburn  one  saddle  horse  and  equipment  therefor,  to  be  used  by  him  in  the  per- 
formance of  his  duties  under  this  resolution,  and  if  necessary  to  purchase  such  horse 
and  equipment  for  this  purpose;  and  that  the  salary  of  Mr.  Washburn,  now  paid  out 
of  the  appropriation  for  the  bureau  of  agriculture,  as  well  as  the  funds  necessary  to 
carry  out  the  provisions  of  this  resolution,  be  paid  by  the  insular  purchasing  agent,  on 
approval  of  the  committee  on  purchase  and  sale  of  carabao  out  of  the  ten  thousand 
dollars  set  aside  by  resolution  of  the  Commission,  dated  September  1, 1903,  from  the 
three  million  dollar  Congressional  relief  fund  for  the  custody,  care,  and  support  of 
government  carabao,  pending  their  sale." 


136  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  November  21,  1903: 

"On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  be,  and  he  is  hereby,  authorized  to  pay  from 
the  appropriation  of  five  hundred  thousand  dollars,  made  by  act  No.  797,  from  the 
Congressional  relief  fund,  a  sum  equivalent,  at  the  authorized  rate  of  exchange,  to 
$692.41,  Mexican  currency,  for  the  expenses  of  transportation  from  the  ship's  side 
into  the  province  of  Abra,  and  storage  en  route  of  one  thousand  sacks  of  rice  furnished 
to  the  provincial  government  of  Abra  for  the  subsistence  of  the  inhabitants  of  that 
province  while  engaged  in  the  destruction  of  locusts." 

Under  these  resolutions  a  total  sum  of  ¥=571,222.15  has  been  withdrawn  from  the 
treasury,  and  repayment  has  been  made  amounting  to  1*7,060,  leaving  net  withdrawals 
amounting  to  1*564,162.15,  and  balance  to  the  credit  of  the  subappropriation  on  the 
books  of  the  auditor  of  1*435,337.85. 

On  June  30,  1903,  the  sum  of  $1,000,  United  States  currency,  equivalent  to  1*2,000, 
was  appropriated  by  act  No.  793  as  a  loan  to  the  province  of  Batangas,  "to  be  used 
by  the  provincial  board  as  it  might  deem  wise  in  aid  of  the  municipality  of  Batangas 
to  meet  the  emergency  presented  by  a  fire  destroying  its  market  and  rendering 
homeless  a  large  number  of  its  people."  This  sum  wTas  withdrawn  August  8,  on 
settlement  warrant  No.  1652. 

Under  date  of  October  2,  1903,  by  act  No.  918,  the  Commission  appropriated  the 
sum  of  $25,000,  United  States  currency,  equivalent  to  1*50,000,  from  the  Con- 
gressional relief  fund,  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  a  wagon  road  from  Pasacao  to 
Nueva  Caceres,  in  the  province  of  Ambos  Camarines,  the  said  appropriation  to  be 
expended  for  labor  and  material  in  money  or  in  rice,  as  the  civil  governor  might 
direct.     The  sum  of  1*10,000  was  withdrawn  by  warrant  No.  4116,  November  13. 

Under  date  of  October  3,  by  act  No.  920,  the  sum  of  $84,000,  United  States  cur- 
rency, equivalent  to  1*168,000,  was  appropriated  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund 
for  the  purpose  of  constructing  roads  and  necessary  bridges  thereon  as  follows: 

For  a  road  from  Vigan  to  Bangued,  in  the  provinces  of  Ilocos  Sur  and  Abra, 
1*80,000. 

For  the  construction  of  a  road  from  Bacon  to  Bulasan,  connecting  the  Pacific 
Ocean  and  China  Sea,  via  Sorsogon,  Gubat,  and  Barcelona,  in  the  province  of  Sorso- 
gon,  1*80,000. 

For  the  Padre  Juan  Villaverde  trail,  Bayombong  to  San  Nicolas,  provinces  of 
Nueva  Vizcaya  and  Pangasinan,  1*8,000. 

From  these  appropriations  the  sum  of  1*4,000  was  withdrawn,  under  date  of  Octo- 
ber 28,  by  warrant  No.  4072,  for  one-half  of  the  sum  appropriated  for  the  Villaverde 
trail.  The  sum  of  !P10,000  was  withdrawn  November  20,  by  warrant  No.  4140,  for 
the  Vigan-Bangued  road,  and  PIS, 000  was  withdrawn  for  the  Bacon-Bulasan  road, 
by  warrant  No.  4166,  November  24. 

On  October  8  the  following  resolution  was  passed  by  the  Commission  for  the 
improvement  of  the  Pancipit  River,  Batangas  Province: 

"On  motion, 

'  '■Resolved,  That  the  consulting  engineer  be  directed  to  prepare,  as  soon  as  possible, 
detailed  plans,  and  to  draw  up  the  specifications  and  contract  for  the  construction 
of  locks,  dams,  bridges,  embankment  dredging,  and  other  works  involved  in  the 
improvement  of  the  Pancipit  River,  and,  upon  the  completion  of  this  work,  to 
advertise  the  same  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  Act  No.  584,  section  6,  for 
at  least  thirty  days;  and,  upon  opening  bids  for  this  work,  that  the  consulting 
engineer  be  further  directed  to  draft  and  submit  an  act  or  resolution  providing  for 
the  necessary -appropriation  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund,  for  the  prosecution 
of  the  work,  before  contracts  for  the  same  are  entered  into. ' ' 

This  resolution  contemplates  an  expenditure  of  approximately  1*370,000,  but,  as 
indicated  by  the  resolution,  no  appropriation  thereunder  has  as  yet  been  made. 

Under  date  of  November  7,  by  warrant  No.  4094,  the  sum  of  1*200,000  was  with- 
drawn pursuant  to  the  following  resolution  of  the  Philippine  Commission,  dated 
November  6: 
"On  motion, 

"Resolved,  That  the  civil  governor  is  hereby  authorized  to  direct  an  expenditure, 
from  the  funds  appropriated  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  by  Act  No.  797,  of 
the  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars,  United  States  currency,  in  the  purchase 
of  rice  and  the  payment  of  transportation  and  other  charges  incident  to  its  distribu- 
tion among  the  inhabitants  of  the  Philippine  Islands  for  the  purpose  of  relieving 
famine  and  distress  therein." 

On  November  27,  by  warrant  No.  4200,  the  sum  of  1*2,093.16  was  withdrawn  under 
resolutions  of  July  30  and  September  8,  respectively,  already  quoted. 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  137 

Under  date  of  November  20,  by  Act  No.  1000,  the  sum  of  P=234,000,  equivalent  to 
$117,000,  United  States  currency,  was  appropriated  from  the  Congressional  relief 
fund  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  roads  and  bridges  in  the  province  of  Cebu,  as 
follows:  For  the  Carcal-Barili  road,  P=56,000;  for  the  Sogod-Putad  road,  P=178,000. 

No  withdrawals  have  as  yet  been  made  from  this  appropriation. 

Under  date  of  November  27,  the  Commission  passed  the  following  resolution: 

' '  Upon  motion  of  the  president,  it  was 

"  Resolved,  That  the  sum  of  two  thousand  seven  hundred  dollars.  United  States  cur- 
rency, should  be  expended  from  the  appropriation  made  by  Act  797,  from  the  Con- 
gressional relief  fund,  in  the  purchase  of  a  well-boring  machine  for  use  in  the  province 
of  Ambos  Camarines  to  secure  good  water  for  the  people  of  that  province." 

No  withdrawal  has  been  made  as  yet  under  this  resolution. 

Under  date  of  November  30,  by  Act  No.  1015,  the  sum  of  $87,000,  United  States 
currency,  equivalent  to  1*174,000,  was  appropriated  from  the  Congressional  relief 
fund,  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  a  wagon  road  from  Pagbilao  to  Atimonan,  in  the 
province  of  Tayabas.    No  withdrawals  have  as  yet  been  made  under  this  appropriation. 

Under  date  of  November  30,  by  Act  No.  1016,  the  sum  of  $180,000,  equivalent  to 
1*360,000,  was  appropriated  from  the  Congressional  relief  fund  for  the  purpose  of 
constructing  the  Capiz-O'Donnell-Iba  wagon  road  in  the  province  of  Tarlac  and 
Zambales.     No  withdrawals  have  as  yet  been  made. 

It  therefore  appears  that  of  the  total  sum  of  1*6,000,000  appropriated  by  Congress, 
the  sum  of  1*2, 691, 000  has  been  appropriated  or  allotted  by  the  Philippine  Commission 
for  the  purposes  herein  named,  and  that  net  withdrawals  from  such  allotments  have 
been  made  amounting  to  1*1, 312, 162.42,  leaving  a  balance  to  the  credit  of  the  allot- 
ments amounting  to  PI, 378,837. 58.  There  was  in  the  Treasury  on  December  1,  to 
the  credit  of  the  Congressional  relief  fund,  a  balance  unappropriated  of  T 3, 309, 000, 
and  a  balance  of  the  original  fund  in  the  Treasury,  allotted  and  unallotted,  amounting 
to  ^4,687,837.58. 

I  submit  herewith  a  tabulated  statement  comprehending  the  figures  above  given. 
Kespectfully, 

A.  L.  Lawshe,  Auditor. 

The  Civil  Governor. 


138 


KEPORT    OP    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


g 

CO 

0 
Pi 

oj 

-a 

fl 

-d 

r 

e3 

2 

im 

^H 

,C 

fl 

o 

t 

d 

o 

O 

gft£ 
pii 


oo     oo< 


oo 
cm~o~ 


ooo 


33   o 


A3* 

fc.g 


cd'-h  « 

m  d  U 


£■9 


8§S! 

OOOi 


d  o3  £*£ 

d'C&g 

o  oo  £ 
S2£g 


OO 

88 


888 


88 

O  O 


ooo      oo 


18    8 


6|g 


0-^Ot>'r>rHOCCT>05CDCOiO-^'     O     CT> 
!OTt<M^Mt»(NMOHt»OM     CM     CO 

CO  CO  CO  CO  CO  CO  CO  r-l  00  CO  CO  CO  CO     CO     CO 


I>  0PO>Tf  O 
Tf  iC>  uO  Gi  O 
O     OOO     CM 


O  PI 

o  g 


NO(^l(Noo^^'NlOOO^ 

CMrHCMCNiCSi-KNCNCOCMC 

^adS'S'addd^^^ffl    &  &o    ooo    o    do      ooo 


03  O 

•g-S 

05  O 

8* 

,o:d 
«_> 

^'o 

g-s 

d.2 

0)  o 

>■  o 

to£ 


35  o 
CO 

a)  d 
o.d 


IrtOOoSSOOOOOO 

o'd'd'd+a  5>'d'0'c)'0'Ord 
■  c  ft 

,    .  OK 

\(k    •    <    .OH 


n  <» 
o  O 

IS 


■O'g 

£  ° 


S  i-d  *■ 


§d«I 

O  2  03^ 

03 


d|l&l 

o,  p  ■£  q  d 


a 


o  o  o    o   —  £  sr'.S 
-d-o-d  'd    d  9frz>m 


d.2*P§! 


0)    03   (j 
'd  rj^ 


ioS" 


o5  o 


t>so 
d 
o 
u 


d  pj  o  d  o3 
Ph  o  d  oh 

o  i3  03  J3  o 

CO  03  (^  a;  O 

d  d 

Q.rH 

o 


2  'd  ftP 
d    ci  rs  n 


2  5.19 


dt  °.s.s 
5  ft'&'S' 

_g      OOO 
O      (D  0)  0) 

En    ooo 

d  d  a 

03    03    03 


ocor--Ttiooo5i>oiOTj(i>a5C<icocoocs 

i-H  CN  <N  <N  rH  CM   CO   CM  CM   CM  CM   CO 


£og 

P2W 


o  o 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


139 


3  O  3 

8§8 


O  iT5  Ttf         to  00 


s-ga 


■d 

ill 

Hi 


3      3  3         O  3  3 


lO  i — 1         , — I  T 


033 
3-3  3 
333 
3~iOTt<" 


is 


s° 


§.2   . 


o  o 

■gg 


a*s 


0-*01>5CH»asO)tOOOiO-<f  3  3  1>  00  i 

O'tfCOt-eOt-NWOHNOM  CS  CO  Tt<  iO^uj     <_i 

o  ::  l^  x  r-  r  ^  l".  c  t^  t»  »  w  3  3  3  3  3  o    cs 

MWMMMXMmKMKCJW  CO  CO  -" 


■*  ■>*  -^      rj<      i-H  • 


°s 

O  oS 


^0(NNXHNlflOO>HH 
<NrH!N!NCNr-i<NCSC0O4C<IC0i-H 


©  o" 


o  O 


5  S 

as 


tod  ^ 

.5  rrr 


<a 


bc^  be 


S3 


rN 


d  v 

>  O  3 

|S  Fh  <» 

S3  ^ 

d  c3-t3 

^  s.5 

pi 

o 


o 


Woft 

«*h  cs  ©_,      _,  «u 
o  o  «-i~  c^  *h 

'--»*5*§S£g8gg 


-co 

0  3 


M« 


fl  > 


^   r  ' 


oooo    o    o    o    oo 
"CCCC    "3    'C    *C    'C'C  o    o 


o 


cv  cS  aS 

£.5.5 
p/fl'E 

oS  O  O 

OOO 
©  ©  © 

cS  oS  oS 


5  5  = 

c^5 


o  o 


x  to 

CO  X 


3COt^-*COC7st^OLO"tt^3e>JCOco30i 

i-ieNC^(Ni-ic»      co      oi'M      cm  c^i      co 

■S  b'JW^'S  6f  &Plli?  E3>1a  jb"S  +*+*  l»  b"S, 

=  =  r~=  =  ~=  =  o"=o^«os^ 

iO  r- 

3  3 
1>  l- 


CO  00  o 

ClH^l 
l-  3  3 


EXHIBIT  E. 


[No.  781.] 

AN  ACT  amending  act  numbered  one  hundred  and  seventy-five,  entitled  "An  act  providing  for  the 
organization  of  an  insular  constabulary  and  for  the  inspection  of  the  municipal  police,"  and  acts 
numbered  six  hundred  and  ten,  six  hundred  and  eighteen,  and  six  hundred  and  nineteen,  amenda- 
tory thereof. 

By  authority  of  the  United  States,  be  it  enacted  by  the  Philippine  Commission,  that: 

Section  1.  The  civil  governor,  or  the  provincial  governor  with  the  approval  of  the 
civil  governor,  is  hereby  authorized,  whenever  in  his  judgment  the  public  interest 
will  be  subserved  thereby,  to  place  the  municipal  police  of  the  respective  municipali- 
ties of  any  province  under  the  control  of  the  senior  inspector  of  constabulary  on  duty 
in  the  province  at  the  time.  The  senior  inspector  in  such  case  is  hereby  authorized 
and  empowered,  under  the  general  supervision  of  the  provincial  governor,  to  con- 
trol and  direct  the  movements  of  the  municipal  police  and,  with  the  approval  of  the 
provincial  governor,  to  discharge  any  member  of  the  police  force  and  substitute  a  fit 
and  suitable  resident  of  the  municipality  in  his  place.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the 
senior  inspector  when  thus  placed  in  charge  of  the  municipal  police  of  a  province  to 
see  that  they  are  properly  uniformed,  drilled,  and  disciplined.  When  thus  vested 
with  authority  over  the  municipal  police  he  shall  see  that  all  lawful  orders  of  the 
provincial  governor,  municipal  president,  and  others  in  authority  are  executed  as 
provided  by  the  municipal  code  and  amendments  thereof,  and  shall  further  see  that 
all  proper  arrests  are  made  for  violations  of  law  or  municipal  ordinances,  and  in  case 
of  emergencies  is  authorized,  under  the  general  supervision  of  the  provincial  gov- 
ernor, to  unite  the  forces  of  the  various  municipalities  of  the  province  in  suppressing 
ladronism  or  brigandage  or  other  grave  violations  of  the  law  which  threaten  the 
peace  of  the  entire  community;  and  he  may  also  unite  the  constabulary  forces  under 
his  command  with  the  municipal  forces  in  the  execution  of  his  authority  for  this 
purpose. 

Sec  2.  It  is  hereby  made  the  duty  of  the  provincial  board  of  each  and  every 
province  to  prescribe  a  suitable  uniform  for  the  municipal  police  of  each  and  every 
municipality,  with  a  proper  insignia  to  indicate  the  municipality  to  which  the  police 
belong.  Authority  is  also  hereby  given  the  provincial  board  of  each  province  to  fix 
the  number  of  police  which  is  required  to  be  maintained  by  each  and  every  munici- 
pality of  the  province.  In  the  event  that  the  provincial  board  shall  find  that  any 
municipality  is  unable  properly  to  uniform  and  maintain  the  number  of  policemen 
fixed  by  the  provincial  board,  the  latter  is  authorized  to  vote  necessary  aid  for  the 
maintenance  of  such  police  out  of  provincial  funds.  In  the  event  the  provincial 
board  should  not  have  provincial  funds  adequate  for  this  purpose  it  niay  apply  to  the 
Commission  for  aid  in  this  behalf. 

Sec  3.  Whenever  the  chief  of  Philippines  Constabulary  shall  report  to  the  civil 
governor  that  in  any  province  the  efficiency  of  the  constabulary  of  the  province  is 
being  interfered  with  by  frivolous  arrests  and  unfounded  prosecutions  leading  to  the 
imprisonment  of  members  of  the  constabulary  and  their  unnecessary  detention  from 
duty,  it  shall  be  in  the  power  of  the  civil  governor,  if  he  finds  the  report  to  be  well 
founded,  by  executive  order  to  make  the  following  section  numbered  four  applicable 
to  the  method  of  arrests  in  such  province  instead  of  the  ordinary  method  of  arrests 
now  in  force.  But  until  the  civil  governor  shall  issue  such  executive  order  the  section 
following  shall  have  no  force  and  effect,  and  it  shall  cease  to  have  effect  as  may  be 
provided  in  said  order. 

Sec  4.  When  in  respect  to  any  province  the  civil  governor  shall  issue  the 
executive  order  described  in  the  next  preceding  section,  and  any  officer  or  member 
of  the  Philippine  Constabulary  shall  in  such  province  be  charged  with  the  violation 
of  any  criminal  law  or  ordinance  and  a  warrant  is  issued  for  the  arrest  of  the  alleged 
offender,  such  warrant  shall  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  a  constabulary  officer  on 

140 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  141 

duty  ir  the  province  for  execution;  and  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  said  officer  to  arrest 
such  person  and  bring  him  before  the  justice  of  the  peace  or  officer  issuing  such 
warrant,  to  be  dealt  with  as  the  law  directs.  No  officer  or  member  of  the  police  of  a 
municipality  in  such  province  shall  have  authority  to  arrest  an  officer  or  member  of 
the  constabulary  upon  any  criminal  charge,  save  for  a  criminal  offense  committed 
in.  his  presence,  and  when  such  offense  is  committed  in  his  presence  it  shall  be  the 
duty  of  the  municipal  officer  making  the  arrest  to  deliver  the  prisoner  to  the  nearest 
constabulary  officer  on  duty  in  the  province  with  a  statement  of  the  cause  of  the 
arrest  of  the  offender  and  the  names  of  the  witnesses  to  the  offense;  and  it  shall  be 
the  duty  of  the  constabulary  officer  receiving  the  prisoner,  as  soon  as  practicable,  to 
bring  him  before  a  justice  of  the  peace,  or  the  court  of  first  instance  of  the  province, 
to  be  dealt  with  as  the  law  directs.  In  case  the  justice  of  the  peace  shall  bind  over 
any  officer  or  member  of  the  constabulary  to  answer  a  criminal  charge  and  the 
defendant  fails  to  give  bail,  when  the  offense  is  bailable,  the  defendant  shall  be 
delivered  to  the  custody  of  the  senior  inspector  of  constabulary  on  duty  in  the  prov- 
ince for  safe-keeping;  and  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  inspector  to  safely  guard  and 
keep  the  prisoner  and  produce  him  before  the  court  of  first  instance,  as  required  by 
law,  to  be  dealt  with  as  the  law  directs;  and  such  prisoner  shall  be  committed  to  the 
provincial  jail  by  the  inspector,  if  necessary  for  safe  custody. 

Sec.  5.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  all  municipal  officers,  as  soon  as  practicable,  to  give 
notice  to  the  provincial  governor,  or  inspector  of  constabulary  in  the  province,  of 
the  presence  of  any  bands  of  ladrones  or  brigands  or  other  persons  threatening  the 
peace  of  the  community  within  their  jurisdiction,  or  any  act  of  robbery  or  theft  by 
such  bands,  when  the  offenders  are  at  large;  and  any  violation  of  the  provisions  of 
this  section  shall  be  punished  by  a  fine  not  exceeding  one  thousand  dollars  and 
imprisonment  not  exceeding  two  years. 

Sec.  6.  In  provinces  which  are  infested  to  such  an  extent  with  ladrones  or  outlaws 
that  the  lives  and  property  of  residents  in  the  outlying  barrios  are  rendered  wholly 
insecure  by  continued  predatory  raids,  and  such  outlying  barrios  thus  furnish  to 
the  ladrones  or  outlaws  their  sources  of  food  supply,  and  it  is  not  possible  with 
the  available  police  forces  constantly  to  provide  protection  to  such  barrios,  it 
shall  be  within  the  power  of  the  civil  governor,  upon  resolution  of  the  Philip- 
pine Commission,  to  authorize  the  provincial  governor  to  order  that  the  residents 
of  such  outlying  barrios  be  temporarily  brought  within  stated  proximity  to  the 
poblacion  or  larger  barrios  of  the  municipality,  there  to  remain  until  the  necessity 
for  such  order  ceases  to  exist,  and  during  such  temporary  residence  it  shall  be  the 
duty  of  the  provincial  board,  out  of  provincial  funds,  to  furnish  such  sustenance  and 
shelter  as  may  be  needed  to  prevent  suffering  among  the  residents  of  the  barrios 
thus  withdrawn,  and  in  case  the  provincial  funds  are  not  adequate  for  such  purpose 
application  may  be  made  to  the  Commission  for  an  appropriation  to  meet  the 
exigency. 

Sec.  7.  Act  Numbered  Six  hundred  and  eighteen  is  hereby  amended  by  inserting 
immediately  after  section  one  the  following: 

"Sec.  2.  The  pay  of  an  assistant  chief  and  lieutenant-colonel,  not  an  army  officer, 
shall  be  not  less  than  two  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  and  not  exceed- 
ing three  thousand  five  hundred  dollars  per  annum,  the  amount  to  be  fixed,  within 
the  limitations  above  mentioned,  by  the  civil  governor.  The  grade  of  major  and 
senior  inspector  is  hereby  created,  at  a  salary  of  two  thousand  dollars  per  annum. 
The  chief  of  Philippines  Constabulary  is  hereby  authorized  and  empowered  to  select 
from  the  most  meritorious  of  the  captains  and  senior  inspectors  of  constabulary,  not 
exceeding  four  in  number,  officers  of  this  grade.  The  chief  of  Philippines  Constabu- 
lary is  further  authorized  and  empowered  to  increase  the  pay  of  ten  of  the  most 
meritorious  and  deserving  captains  and  senior  inspectors  of  constabulary  from  the 
amount  now  fixed  by  law  to  a  sum  not  exceeding  one  tnousand  eight  hundred 
dollars  per  annum,  and  he  is  further  authorized  to  increase  the  pay  of  a  like  number 
of  first  lieutenants  and  inspectors  of  constabulary  to  an  amount  not  exceeding  one 
thousand  two  hundred  dollars  per  annum:  Provided,  however,  That  the  total  number 
ot  constabulary  officers  as  now  provided  by  law  shall  not  be  increased." 

Said  act  is  further  amended  by  changing  section  two  to  be  section  three  and 
section  three  to  be  section  four. 

Sec  8.  The  public  good  requiring  the  speedy  enactment  of  this  bill,  the  passage 
of  the  same  is  hereby  expedited  in  accordance  with  section  two  of  "An  act  prescrib- 
ing the  order  of  procedure  by  the  Commission  in  the  enactment  of  laws,"  passed 
September  twenty-sixth,  nineteen  hundred. 

Sec  9.  This  act  shall  take  effect  on  its  passage. 

Enacted,  June  1,  1903. 


EXHIBIT  F. 


TESTIMONY  TAKEN  AT  MALACNAN  PALACE  FEBRUARY  16,  1903, 
RELATIVE  TO  THE  VALUE  OF  LANDS  OWNED  BY  THE  RELI- 
GIOUS ORDERS. 

The  first  witness  called  was  Senor  JUAN  VILLEGAS,  who  testified  as  follows: 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name  and  age? 

Senor  Villegas.  My  name  is  Juan  Yillegas,  and  I  am  47  years  old. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  profession? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  was  an  assistant  in  the  department  of  public  works,  both  local 
and  general,  during  the  Spanish  regime. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  that  involve  any  knowledge  of  surveying? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  I  am  a  graduate  in  that  profession. 

Governor  Taft.  Have  you  any  local  familiarity  with  any  of  these  estates,  especially 
the  Imus  estate? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  while  in  the  employ  of  the  government  as  established  in 
the  Philippine  Islands  make  a  survey  of  the  Imus  estate? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  make  this  yourself,  personally? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  make  this  map  here? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  were  you  directed  to  do? 

Senor  Villegas.  My  orders  were  to  survey  the  entire  two  estates  of  San  Juan  and 
San  Nicolas. 

Governor  Taft.  Had  you  any  duty  as  to  valuation? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir.  During  the  time  of  the  Spanish  Government  I  had  made 
some  valuations  and  I  was  also  ordered  by  Mr.  Legarda  to  make  the  valuation  of  this 
estate. 

Goverror  Taft.  Did  the  making  of  valuations  come  within  your  profession? 

Senor  Villegas.  During  the  time  of  the  Spanish  Government  I  made  some  valua- 
tions of  private  properties,  but  up  to  the  present  time  I  have  not  made  any  valuations 
of  haciendas  or  estates. 

Governor  Taft.  What  do  you  mean  by  private  properties? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  mean  the  property  belonging  to  private  persons  and  not  to 
corporations. 

Governor  Taft.  Agricultural  or  business  property? 

Senor  Villegas.  City  property. 

Governor  Taft.  Have  you  ever  made  any  valuations  of  agricultural  property? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  did  you  get  your  valuations  if  you  had  never  had  any  experi- 
ence before? 

Senor  Villegas.  It  was  because  I  had  studied  both  agriculture  and  topography  at 
the  University  of  Santo  Tomas.  My  brother  during  the  time  of  the  Spanish  Govern- 
ment gave  me  a  great  deal  of  practical  work  in  the  shape  of  surveying  and  of  judging 
the  value  of  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Agricultural  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  My  experience  of  agricultural  land  has  been  with  the  estate  of  San 
Francisco  de  Malabon  and  with  the  estate  of  Malita.  I  have  been  nearly  two  years 
in  the  former  place  and  also  a  length  of  time  in  the  second  place,  and  my  work  as  a 
surveyor  and  going  over  this  land  has  given  me  a  knowledge  of  its  valuation. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  prepare  a  valuation  of  this  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

142    . 


REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  143 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Did  you  make  this  valuation  through  your  own  proper  knowl- 
edge of  the  facts? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  I  made  conscientiously,  and  through  my  love  for  the 
government. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  How  is  it,  if  you  have  testified  that  you  do  not  know  the  pres- 
ent value  of  the  lands,  that  you  are  able  to  make,  in  view  of  this  assertion,  a  valu- 
ation of  the  land  now?  You  have  declared  in  your  testimony  that  you  do  not  know 
the  present  actual  value  of  this  land.  How  is  it  possible  for  you  to  have  made  out  a 
valuation  of  this  land  in  view  of  your  assertion? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  valuation  has  been  made  according  to  my  knowledge  of  the 
value  of  the  lands  before  the  land  assessment  was  placed. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  But  the  fact  remains  that  you  do  not  know  the  present  actual 
value  of  the  lands? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  do  not  know  the  actual  present  value  of  the  lands  because  the 
valuation  has  been  made  since  the  assessment  of  the  land  tax. 

Governor  Taft.  When  was  that  placed? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  believe  in  the  month  of  July  or  September — somewhere  around 
that  neighborhood — of  last  year. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Do  you  know  if,  since  the  imposition  of  the  land  tax,  the 
value  of  the  land  has  increased,  or  has  decreased? 

Senor  Villegas.  In  parts  of  Luzon  it  has  decreased  and  in  parts  it  has  increased. 
The  decrease  is  owing  to  the  loss  of  cattle,  while  other  lands  have  increased  because 
of  the  fact  that  they  work  at  them. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  That,  however,  is  simply  incidental.  Is  it  not  true  that  with 
the  return  of  plenty  of  draft  cattle  the  value  of  the  lands  will  go  up? 

Governor  Taft.  I  want  to  ask  when  he  made  the  valuation  of  this  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  If  I  remember  correctly,  it  was  either  during  the  month  of 
December,  1901,  or  in  the  month  of  January  of  1902. 

Governor  Taft.  When  you  made  that  valuation,  did  you  make  the  valuation  as 
of  that  time? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  repeat  my  first  question  to  you,  and  I  ask  you  what  value 
did  you  give  to  the  dollar  when  you  placed  the  value  on  these  lands? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  gave  it  the  same  value  as  the  current  local  value  of  the  peso. 

Governor  Taft.  Two  to  one? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  value  is  given  at  its  local  current  value  at  par  with  gold. 

Governor  Taft.  What  was  the  current  value  at  that  time? 

Senor  Villegas.  Eight  reales  silver. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  mean  the  current  value  of  the  peso  in  December  of  1901, 
and  January,  1902  ? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  that  is  what  I  mean. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  remember  what  it  was,  how  many  pesos  were  worth  a 
gold  dollar? 

Senor  Villegas.  They  were  at  par  at  that  time. 

Governor  Taft.  What  do  you  mean  by  par? 

Senor  Villegas.  That  they  were  not  subject  to  an  exchange,  not  as  they  are  now, 
at  2.66. 

Governor  Taft.  What  was  it  if  it  was  not  2.66? 

Senor  Villegas.  Equal  in  value  to  the  Spanish  dollar. 

Governor  Taft.  In  January  of  last  year? 

Senor  Villegas.  Either  in  "December  of  1901,  or  January,  1902;  yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  mean  that  you  could  get  a  gold  dollar  for  a  Mexican  peso? 
Is  that  what  you  mean? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  peso  at  that  time  was  not  subject  to  discount  as  the  Mexican 
peso  is  to-day.  As  I  understand  it,  the  Mexican  peso  is  worth  64  cents  to-day,  but  at 
that  time  it  was  worth  100  cents. 

Governor  Taft.  He  evidently  does  not  understand  us.  This  was  in  December  of 
1901,  wasn't  it? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  started  the  survey  on  the  23d  of  December,  1901,  and  continued 
it  until  it  was  finished  in  the  month  of  January,  1902. 

Governor  Taft.  You  have  made  this  assessment  in  Mexican  dollars,  haven't  you? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  If  you  wished  to  state  that,  instead  of  in  Mexican  dollars,  in 
American  dollars,  at  the  time  you  made  this  survey,  would  you  estimate  it  at  the 
same  amount  in  American  dollars  that  you  have  in  Mexican  dollars,  or  not?  At  the 
time  that  you  made  this  survey  how  many  Mexican  dollars  could  you  get  for  an 
American  dollar,  gold? 


144  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Seiior  Villegas.  Two  dollars  American. 

Governor  Taft.  If  you  were  to  estimate  this  in  American  dollars— for  instance, 
you  have  an  estimate  here  of  150  dollars  Mexican  a  hectare  of  first-class  land — how 
many  dollars  would  that  be  in  American  at  the  time  the  assessment  was  made? 

Sehor  Villegas.  I  would  value  it  in  proportion  to  the  difference  in  value  between 
the  silver  and  the  gold. 

Governor  Taft.  What  was  the  difference  between  silver  and  gold? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Nothing,  only  that  $1  gold  was  worth  $2  Mexican. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  witness  has  contradicted  himself  repeatedly,  for  he  has 
repeatedly  said  from  the  beginning  that  his  idea  of  the  Mexican  dollar  as  made  in 
this  assessment  was,  that  it  was  equivalent  to  a  Spanish  peso  or  duro  of  8  reals,  and 
that  the  Spanish  peso  or  duro  of  8  reals  was  equivalent  to  a  gold  dollar.  Afterwards 
there  was  a  small  change  of  5  cents  or  something  like  that.  It  is  not  for  us  to  find 
out  what  the  actual  difference  was  between  the  two  moneys,  but  what  was  the  value 
of  it  in  the  mind  of  the  man  who  made  the  assessment  at  that  time. 

Governor  Taft.  It  seems  to  me  that  the  witness  and  his  excellency  have  misunder- 
stood each  other.  I  have  never,  that  I  recollect,  had  any  conversation  with  this  wit- 
ness on  this  subject  at  all.  The  witness  says  that  he  estimated  this  at  the  time  when 
Mexican  and  gold  were  at  par.  For  as  much  as  two  years  Mexican  and  gold  were  at 
par  in  the  sense  that  one  was  worth  twice  the  other;  and  as  I  have  understood  the 
witness  that  is  what  he  meant  when  he  said  that  they  were  at  par,  and  that  his  esti- 
mate in  Mexican  is,  as  he  said,  at  the  current  rate  of  exchange  at  par,  which  was  par 
and  not  one  to  two  or  2.66. 

Mr.  McCregor.  If  he  had  been  asked  what  the  value  of  this  land  was  in  1884  or 
1885,  would  he  have  put  the  sum  in  Mexican  dollars  as  he  has  to-day? 

Seiior  Villegas.  When  I  made  this  valuation  I  took  into  consideration  the  actual 
value  of  the  land  at  that  time. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Then  you  would  not  have  put  the  same  value  on  it  in  1884  or  1885? 

Seiior  Villegas.  No,  I  would  not. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Would  you  have  put  it  at  more  or  less? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Lower.  The  price  of  land  has  lowered  in  parts  of  the  island  of 
Luzon,  through  scarcity  of  carabaos,  and  it  has  risen  in  other  parts. 

Governor  Taft.  What  he  said  was  that  he  thought  that  the  land  now  was  worth 
less  than  when  he  made  the  estimate,  because  of  the  scarcity  of  carabaos  and  of 
laborers. 

Mr.  McGregor.  He  said,  I  believe,  that  he  would  have  put  the  value  lower  in  the 
years  I  mention.     Why  would  he  have  put  it  lower? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Because  there  has  been  a  small  percentage  of  increase  in  the 
value  of  the  land  since  that  time  up  to  the  present  time. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Is  that  the  reason  you  would  have  put  it  different,  on  account  of 
the  increase  in  the  value  of  the  land? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McGregor.  If  the  value  of  the  land  had  remained  the  same  would  you  have 
put  the  same  value  on  it  if  it  had  not  risen  in  value  ? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir;  I  would  have  put  it  10  per  cent  less. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Why? 

Seiior  Villegas.  On  account  of  the  lack  of  labor  that  there  was  at  that  time. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Otherwise  you  would  have  given  it  the  same  value? 

Seiior  Villegas.  I  think  the  value  has  increased,  because  there  are  a  greater  num- 
ber of  people  there,  and  therefore  there  would  be  more  call  for  the  products  of  the 
land. 

Mr.  McGregor.  My  idea  was  right,  that  he  would  have  put  the  same  valuation  on 
the  land  if  the  circumstances  had  been  the  same.  At  that  time  a  Mexican  dollar 
was  equal  to  a  gold  dollar. 

Governor  Taft.  This  witness  says  now  that  he  put  an  estimate  on  the  land  in 
Mexican  dollars  and  he  put  it  at  the  current  rate  of  exchange.  Was  it  first-class 
land? 

Seiior  Villegas.  That  is  governed  altogether  by  certain  conditions;  for  instance, 
soil  and  subsoil,  and  cultivation;  the  state  of  cultivation  of  the  land,  character  of  the 
soil,  and  other  conditions.  But  I  should  judge  that  first-class  land  is  land  that  will 
yield  from  80  to  100  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  that  land,  in  order  to  yield  as  much  as  that,  have  to  be 
irrigated? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  second-class  land? 

Seiior  Villegas.  It  is  land  where  the  bed  rock  comes  up  nearer  to  the  surface,  or, 
in  other  words,  where  the  soil  is  not  so  deep. 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  145 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  crops  do  they  get  from  first-class  land  in  a  year? 

Senor  Villegas.  Two  crops  a  year. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  crops  do  they  get  from  second-class  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  same  number  of  crops,  but  as  the  composition  of  the  soil  is 
different,  being  a  poorer- class  of  soil,  the  yield  is  not  so  great. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  yield  of  second-class  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  From  50  to  60  cavanes  of  palay. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  all  this  land  rice  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir;  other  crops  are  grown,  such  as  sugar. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  ought  first-class  sugar  land  to  produce? 

Senor  Villegas.  From  25  to  30  pilous  of  sugar  to  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  does  second-class  sugar  land  produce? 

Senor  Villegas.  From  16  to  20  pilons. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  like  to  ask  whether  through  Cavite,  through  this  prov- 
ince, and  Bulacan,  first-class  rice  land  among  farmers,  among  people  that  deal  in  that 
kind  of  property,  has  a  fixed  value  for  sale,  so  that  the  people  understand  what  -the 
value  is? 

Senor  Villegas.  At  the  time  I  made  this  valuation  such  land  was  thought  to  be 
worth  150  pesos  a  hectare.  If  capitalists  were  ready  with  money  to  buy  land  in 
large  amounts  it  might  possibly  be  bought  for  less  than  that,  and  in  small  lots  more; 
but  I  think  haciendas  of  this  size  about  150  pesos. 

Governor  Taft.  The  question  asked  is  this — whether  through  these  three  prov- 
inces, and  Lagudra,  too,  was  first-class  rice  land  a  well  understood  kind  of  land,  so 
that  the  people  knew  what  was  meant  when  they  said  first-class  rice  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  I  intended  to  ask  was — suppose  we  take  province  by  prov- 
ince^— suppose  we  take  the  province  of  Cavite:  Is  there  a  knowledge  among  men  who 
deal  in  this  thing  of  a  value  attached  to  first-class  rice  land  in  the  province  of  Cavite — 
a  generally  understood  value? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  each  hacienda  vary  in  its  value?  I  mean  the  first-class  rice 
land. 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  makes  it  vary? 

Senor  Villegas.  It  is  because,  for  example,  in  the  province  of  Bulacan,  what  is 
understood  there  by  first  class  produces  a  greater  number  of  cavanes  of  rice  per  hec- 
tare than  in  Cavite.  In  Cavite  it  is  from  80  to  90;  in  Bulacan  the  first-class  land  pro- 
duces over  100;  so  that  there  is  no  fixed  price  for  all  the  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  there  a  limit  within  which  it  varies? 

Senor  Villegas.  There  are  limits  between  which  the  purchaser  and  the  seller 
make  their  agreement. 

Governor  Taft.  You  have  said  that  it  is  higher  in  Bulacan  than  in  Cavite.  How 
does  that  compare  with  Rizal? 

Senor  Villegas.  What  I  have  said  was  that  the  superior  or  first-class  lands  of 
Bulacan  were  of  a  higher  grade  and  brought  a  higher  price  than  in  Cavite.  I  myself 
have  valued  first-class  land  in  that  province  at  200  pesos  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  it  worth  in  Rizal? 

Senor  Villegas.  On  account  of  its  proximity  to  Manila  first-class  land  may  be 
worth  more. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  it  produce  more  cavanes? 

Senor  Villegas.  About  the  same  as  any  other  province.  I  am  talking  of  irrigated 
land. 

Governor  Taft.  Isn't  all  first-class  land  irrigated? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  It  has  to  be  irrigated  to  produce  two  crops',  does  it  not? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Is  it  not  true  that  you  have  extended  the  urban  zone  at  Imus, 
Santa  Cruz,  Lolomboy,  and  Orion?  You  have  considered  all  this  land  in  your  esti- 
mate as  urban  land.  Why  is  it  that  you  have  not  included  in  the  same  urban  zone 
the  lots  belonging  to  the  places  at  Calamba,  Binan,  Santa  Rosa,  and  Pandi? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  area  of  all  the  town  lots  has  been  recorded  in  my  report.  I 
believe  that  I  have  put  in  the  town  lots  in  each  case.  The  only  one  that  I  have  not 
included  within  the  urban  zone  is  the  one  of  Santa  Maria  de  Pandi,  of  which  part  of 
the  land  belongs  to  the  municipality. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Why  is  it  then,  if  you  consider  it  as  town  property  or  within 
the  urban  zone,  that  you  value  them  by  the  hectare  instead  of  by  the  square  meter, 
as  if  they  were  agricultural  lands? 

war  1903— vol  5 10 


146  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Senor  Villegas.  It  is  because  at  those  points  we  do  not  value  land  by  square  meters 
but  by  hectares. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  But  all  lands  within  the  urban  zone  should  be  measured  by 
the  square  meter.  Upon  what  do  you  base  your  judgment  when  you  value  the  town 
lots  in  Santa  Cruz  and  Naic  at  $200  a  hectare  and  at  $125  at  Lolomboy  and  Orion, 
when,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  property  at  these  two  latter  places,  or  at  least  at  Lolom- 
boy, on  account  of  its  proximity  to  the  railroad,  should  be  worth  more? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  did  not  make  the  valuation  of  the  lots  at  Lolomboy. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Upon  what  ground  did  you  place  your  present  valuation  of  the 
lands,  which  is  the  same  valuation  or  less  valuation  than  it  was  twenty  years  ago, 
when  that  price  was  paid,  not  for  the  ownership  of  the  land,  but  merely  for  the  use 
of  the  land  per  hectare? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  was  helped  in  forming  my  judgment  in  this  valuation  by  investi- 
gations made  by  me  in  the  pueblos  near  the  haciendas.  I  simply  used  the  information 
that  I  got  from  the  people  of  the  locality  as  a  help  to  me  in  forming  my  judgment. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Explain  why  you  have  made  the  valuation  at  $200  a  hectare 
when  twenty  years  ago  it  was  worth  $200  Mexican,  at  that  time  worth  $100  gold, 
that  is  to  say  the  two  metals  being  at  par,  and  when  rice  was  worth  6  or  7  reals  and 
now  it  is  worth  two  or  three  times  as  much,  while  the  value  of  the  Mexican  money 
has  depreciated  to  less  than  half  that  it  was  at  that  time.  Explain  why  you  have 
done  this.     It  appears  that  this  is  contradictory  of  what  you  said  before. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  have  not  said  that  the  land  was  worth  $200  an  acre  twenty 
years  ago. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Even  if  you  did  not  say  so,  we  can  take  that  fact  into  consid- 
eration that  land  was  worth  200  pesos  a  hectare,  equivalent  to  $200. 

Governor  Taft.  About  Lolomboy.  This  gentleman  (Senor  Gutierrez)  has  said 
something  about  the  value  of  the  land  at  Lolomboy;  that  the  town  lots  ought  to  be 
worth  more  because  the  railroad  runs  through  them.  As  a  matter  of  fact  the  rail- 
road does  not  run  except  through  a  corner  of  Lolomboy,  and  there  is  no  station  that 
I  can  find  on  this  map  showing  that  the  railroad  has  a  station  on  the  estate  of 
Lolomboy. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  There  is  a  station  within  500  meters  of  Lolomboy. 

Governor  Taft.  The  value  of  a  town  lot  depends  upon  the  prosperity,  the  size, 
and  the  business  of  the  town,  and  when  these  solares  are  situated  2  or  3  miles  from 
the  railroad  the  presence  of  the  railroad  does  not  affect  their  value  as  town  lots.  It 
may  affect  the  value  of  the  whole  hacienda,  because  it  brings  the  agricultural  prop- 
erty within  reasonable  distance  of  the  city,  but  it  does  not  affect  the  value  of  the 
town  lots  unless  those  town  lots  are  on  a  railroad  or  in  a  large  town?  The  value  of 
a  town  lot  depends  upon  its  use  and  utility,  ordinarily,  for  a  store  or  something  that 
is  used  in  a  town,  such  as  a  factory  or  store.  Now,  500  meters  away  from  a  station 
that  has  no  buildings  that  can  be  used  as  a  store  or  factory  is  likely  to  make  the 
land  much  more  useful  for  agricultural  purposes  than  as  a  town  lot.  For  instance, 
$200  a  hectare  which  it  may  be  worth  for  agricultural  purposes  may  much  exceed  its 
value  as  a  town  lot. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  The  reason  that  there  are  lots  in  some  pueblos  that  are  used  for 
agricultural  purposes  is  simply  because  there  is  not  sufficient  population  in  that  town 
to  utilize  the  land  as  town  lots. 

Governor  Taft.  That's  it,  exactly;  so  it  is  not  worth  what  you  wish  to  impose  on 
town  lots.     You  do  not  use  it  for  town  lots  because  there  is  no  demand  for  it  as  such. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Still,  some  of  the  land  even  at  Lolomboy  is  needed  for  building 
purposes,  even  if  only  a  few  hectares;  but  those  hectares  are  needed  for  town  lots, 
and  must  be  considered  as  town  lots. 

Governor  Taft.  That  has  got  164  hectares  of  solares  in  Lolomboy. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Explain  to  me  why  you  have  valued  rice  land  above  sugar-cane 
land,  when  it  is  known  that  the  latter  gives  a  more  valuable  product. 

Senor  Villegas.  It  is  because  they  are  higher  lands  than  those  of  palay. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Is  it  not  true  that  the  sugar-cane  land  gives  a  greater  profit 
than  rice  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir;  rice  lands  give  a  more  valuable  crop  than  sugar. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  the  expenses  of  cultivating  sugar  greater  than  the  expenses  of 
cultivating  rice? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  do  they  differ;  how  much? 

Senor  Villegas.  It  is  slight  but  the  difference  consists  in  the  using  of  machinery 
with  sugar  cane. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Explain  what  method  you  have  used  in  making  the  valuation 
of  uncultivated  lands.     It  appears  that  you  have  put  a  valuation  of  $25  Mexican  on 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  147 

the  lands  of  Santa  Maria  de  Pandi.  On  all  other  uncultivated  lands  you  nave  placed 
a  valuation  of  $5  Mexican  a  hectare,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  many  of  these 
lands  have  valuable  timber  on  them.     Explain  why  you  have  done  this. 

Senor  Yillegas.  It  is  because  the  lands  on  the  estate  of  Santa  Maria  de  Pandi  are 
all  level  lands  which  it  is  not  necessary  to  clear.  I  have  made  this  valuation  of  $5 
in  consideration  of  the  fact  that  uncultivated  state  lands  were  valued  at  from  one  to 
five  dollars  a  hectare. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  should  not  have  done  that  when  considering  private 
lands.  These  are  not  state  lands.  The  government  lands  naturally  would  be  much 
cheaper  than  private  lands,  because  the  government  sells  those  lands  cheaper  in 
order  to  promote  agriculture.  I  wish  to  ask  if,  in  making  the  valuation  of  these 
uncultivated  lands,  you  have  taken  into  consideration  that  many  of  them  contain 
valuable  woods  and  quarries;  and  have  you  taken  into  consideration  the  fact  that  the 
character  of  the  soil  and  the  subsoil  must  be  considered,  as  is  the  custom  in  Italy  and 
elsewhere?  Have  you  considered  that  if  they  have  waterfalls  they  may  be  considered 
valuable  for  manufacturing  purposes?  Have  you,  in  short,  considered  the  quality  of 
the  soil,  the  quality  of  the  timber,  the  quarries,  waterfalls,  and  all  other  sources  of 
natural  wealth  which  they  contain? 

Senor  Yillegas.  I  have  taken  into  consideration  the  value  of  these  quarries  at 
Mandaluya.  I  have  seen  that  there  is  mountainous  land  near  Imus,  but  I  do  not 
see  that  there  are  quarries  there.  The  trouble  with  the  quarries  at  Imus  is  that  they 
are  so  far  removed  that  it  is  easier  to  get  the  stone  from  Manila  than  to  get  it  out  of 
the  quarry. 

Governor  Taft.  In  what  condition  are  the  roads  ? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  main  road  to  Binicayan  is  almost  impassable  during  the  rainy 
season.     They  are  in  bad  condition. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  these  rivers  navigable  with  bancas? 

Senor  Yillegas.  They  are  navigable  with  small  boats  up  to  the  bridge  of  Imus. 
Beyond  that  the  river  has  a  very  stony  bottom  and  is  shallow. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  In  your  valuation  of  this  property,  have  you  considered  the 
improvements  ? 

Senor  Yillegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Have  .you  considered  the  value  of  the  dams  ? 

Senor  Yillegas.  I  have  also  considered  the  value  of  the  dams. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  say  that  they  are  in  a  bad  state  and  you  have  valued  them 
accordingly  ? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  difference  between  the  actual  cost  of  this  dam  and  the 
valuation  put  upon  it  by  the  witness  is  enormous.  Irrigation  can  be  done  in  two 
ways.  One  is  the  old-fashioned  way,  with  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  and  the  other  is  the 
modern  system,  and  the  land  that  has  these  modern  improvements  is  worth  a  great 
deal  more,  irrespective  of  being  first-class  land. 

Governor  Taft.  The  land  is  worth  what  it  produces. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  must  take  into  consideration  the  difference  that  there  is 
in  paying  40  men  to  irrigate  a  certain  piece  of  first-class  land  and  paying  2  men  to 
open  up  the  doors  and  letting  the  water  flow  in. 

Governor  Taft.  It  does  not  make  any  difference  whether  the  irrigation  is  natural 
irrigation  or  whether  it  requires  power  to  pump  the  water.  If  you  have  the  water 
there  and  it  can  be  put  on  the  land  just  as  cheap  from  natural  resources  as  from 
engine,  the  engine  is  not  to  be  valued  in  the  value  of  the  land. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  can  not  agree  with  you.  You  must  take  into  consideration 
the  expense  that  there  is  of  the  irrigation  afterwards,  which  is  very  high. 

Governor  Taft.  I  agree  to  that.  The  point  I  am  trying  to  make  is  that  what  we 
are  paying  for  here  is  the  agricultural  land.  Now,  what  I  do'  not  want  to  pay  for  is 
the  agricultural  land  and  those  amounts  invested  in  the  land — a  million  dollars,  it 
may  be,  gold  or  silver,  I  do  not  care  what — which  made  that  land  good  agricultural 
land.  If  I  pay  for  the  land,  then  I  get  all  there  is;  and  to  take,  first,  a  valuation  of  the 
land  and  then  add  what  it  cost  to  make  that  land,  is  to  make  me  pay  double. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  We  do  not  claim  that  we  wish  payment  for  these  lands  as  first- 
class  lands  and  payment  for  the  improvements;  but  what  we  do  claim  is  that  these 
first-class  lands  with  the  improvements  on  them  at  present  are  worth  more  than  if 
they  were  without  the  improvements. 

Governor  Taft.  I  agree  to  that.  You  say  superior  first-class  lands;  that  means 
land  that  can  be  economically  irrigated  so  that  it  produces  two  crops  a  year.  I  agree 
that  we  ought  to  pay  what  that  land  will  sell  for — what  that  land  is  worth  in  the 
market.  But  we  pay  for  the  land;  we  do  not  pay  for  the  improvements  which  made 
it  that  land. 


1-48  REPOBT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  That  is  true,  but  you  must  value  these  first-class  lands  with  the 
improvements. 

Governor  Taft.  The  improvements  are  worth  just  what  they  add  to  the  value  of 
the  land.  Now,  what  we  pay  for  this  land  is  its  value — its  market  value — what 
other  people  who  would  buy  and  had  an  opportunity  to  buy  and  who  expected  to 
use  it  for  agricultural  purposes  would  pay.  In  other  words,  it  is  what  the  land  buys 
and  sells  for  in  the  market.  It  is  the  demand  for  such  land  and  the  willingness  to 
sell  by  those  persons  who  hold.  I  agree  that  the  number  of  cavanes  that  is  produced 
a  year  affects  what  people  will  pay  for  the  land;  but  the  ultimate  fact  is  the  actual 
value  in  the  market,  controlled  by  many  circumstances  in  addition  to  its  productivity 
and  the  economy  of  its  working,  which  is  controlled  by  its  distance  from  the  market, 
by  the  amount  of  sugar,  etc.,  that  is  produced,  by  the  difficulties  of  getting  labor, 
and  by  the  difficulty  of  getting  cattle  to  work  it.  All  these  things  control  what  land 
sells  for  in  the  market.  We  are  trying  to  get  at  the  fair  valuation  of  this  land.  What 
would  you  estimate  the  market  value  of  the  land  to  be?  The  income  from  the  land 
influences  those  who  wish  to  buy.  I  observe  in  reading  over  some  of  the  calcula- 
tions as  to  the  value  of  the  Recoleto,  or  Augustinian  lands,  I  think,  that  they  calcu- 
lated that  they  ought  to  be  capitalized  on  a  net  return  of  6  per  cent,  I  have  asked 
gentlemen  who  are  familiar  with  agricultural  land  what  it  ought  to  pay,  and  they  say 
that  it  ought  to  pay  20  per  cent  in  this  countr}-,  because  of  the  danger  from  locusts 
and  everything  else  that  you  have  to  take  into  calculation  as  you  look  at  it  for  five 
or  ten  years.  If  there  are  no  sales  of  lands,  you  have  got  to  get  at  the  price  in 
some  other  way;  but  the  best  standard  of  what  is  the  market  value  of  land  is  what 
it  sells  for. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  do  not  consider  myself  very  strong  on  economic  questions, 
but  I  have  had  some  experience  in  Europe  in  the  sale  and  purchase  of  lands;  and  it 
is  generally  the  custom  there,  when  trying  to  capitalize  a  piece  of  land,  to  take  what 
it  had  produced  net  for  twenty-five  years  and  then  get  the  average  per  year  for  the 
period,  and  work  on  that  basis. 

Governor  Taft.  In  Europe  if  a  man  gets  4  per  cent  on  his  investment  he  regards 
himself  as  very  fortunate.  In  this  country  loans  on  real  estate  and  agricultural 
property  must  have  from  20  to  25  and  30  per  cent  interest  a  year.  That  illustrates 
the  difference  in  the  calculation  of  the  value  of  this  land  from  that  which  is  made 
on  European  lands.  Therefore,  when  you  come  to  calculate  what  you  ought  to 
make  here,  you  have  got  to  calculate  it  on  a  much  larger  percentage  of  income  than 
you  calculate  in  England,  in  Italy,  or  in  the  United  States.  The  difference  in  the  con- 
ditions must  necessarily  affect  the  price  to  be  paid  for  the  land  here.  There  is 
another  consideration.  These  gentlemen,  the  friars,  have  owned  this  land  from 
fifty  to  two  hundred  years,  more  or  less.  What  did  they  actually  make  out  of  the 
land?    How  much  a  year  did  they  get  out  of  it? 

Continued  from  February  16,  1903. 

Malaca&an  Palace,  February  21,  1903. 

Mr.  McGeegoe.  With  reference  to  the  answers  given  by  Senor  Yillegas  at  the  last 
meeting,  I  have  a  copy  of  the  proceedings.  Sehor  Yillegas  first  of  all  says  that  there 
are  no  quarries  at  Imus,  and  then  says  that  the  trouble  at  Imus  is  that  the  quarries 
are  so  far  removed  that  it  is  easier  to  get  the  stone  from  Manila  than  to  get  them  out 
of  the  quarry.  To  this  I  replied  that  all  the  buildings  there  were  built  with  stone 
from  the  neighborhood,  as  well  as  the  dams  and  aqueducts.  Senor  Villegas  says 
that  the  road  to  Binacayan  is  almost  impassable  during  the  rainy  season;  to  which  I 
replied  that  Binacayan  is  a  most  inconvenient  point  on  the  bay,  and  that  the  road  to 
Imus  is  first  class.  I  might  add  that  Binacayan  is  a  place  that  is  not  used  as  a  means 
of  getting  to  Imus.  Everybody  goes  to  Bacoor.  I  have  only  once  been  to  Binacayan ; 
that  is  because  I  could  not  get  to  Bacoor.  Senor  Yillegas  made  a  statement  that  all 
the  roads  on  the  property  are  in  bad  condition.  I  have  personally  seen  most  of  the 
roads,  and  most  of  the  other  roads  in  Cavite  Province,  and  I  think  that  I  can  honestly 
say  that  most  of  the  roads  in  the  Imus  hacienda  are  as  good  and  better.  During  the 
dry  season  they  are  not  at  all  bad,  and  during  the  wet  season  for  about  four  months 
in  the  year  many  are  very  bad ;  but  during  the  time  of  the  year  when  Ave  want 
to  transport  rice,  which  is  the  dry  season,  they  are  good.  The  road  from  Imus 
to  Bacoor  is  always  good,  because  it  is  a  first-class  road.  The  principal  road  that 
runs  right  from  the  hacienda  up  to  Silang  is  in  pretty  good  condition  up  as  far  as 
Perez  Dasmarinas,  which  is  about  halfway.  It  is  just  500  yards  outside.  It  was 
the  original  idea  to  make  the  road  from  Imus  to  Dasmarinas  a  first-class  road 
throughout,  but  I  believe  people  said  the  money  ran  short,  and  it  is  now  not  really 
a  bad  road.  For  provinces  it  is  a  good  road.  I  might  also  say  that  almost  every 
river  or  stream  is  bridged  by  a  very  substantial  stone  bridge,  that  you  do  not  see 


EEPOBT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  149 

outside  the  friars'  haciendas.  Some  have  been  broken  down,  but  most  of  them  are 
still  in  good  order.  All  the  principal  ones  are  in  good  order.  My  statement  regard- 
ing the  value  of  the  dams  as  a  source  of  power  for  driving  machinery  was  not 
recorded.  I  mentioned  principally  the  dam  at  San  Nicolas,  called  the  Place  de 
Molina.  I  said  that  it  had  a  head  of  water  of  22  or  23  yards,  which  would  give  all  the 
power  that  you  could  possibly  want  for  any  factory,  and  above  which  is  a  considerable- 
sized  lake,  that,  unless  there 'was  a  very  prolonged  drought,  would  furnish  power  for 
a  very  long  time.  Sefior  Yillegas  says  the  Imtis  Eiver  is  navigable  only  by  small 
boats' up  to  the  Imus  Bridge.  My  reply,  to  the  effect  that  large  cascoes  can  go  right 
up  to  the  go-downs,  was  not  recorded.  [Shows  Governor  Taft  a  photograph  in  sup- 
port of  his  statement.]  Seiior  Yillegas  says  that  the  dams  are  in  bad  condition.  My 
reply  to  the  contrary  is  not  recorded.  I  would  like  to  add  that  some  of  them  may 
have  been  neglected.  Some  of  the  canals  have  been  neglected  and  allowed  to  grow 
over,  but  I  have  seen  most  of  the  waterworks,  and  I  have  not  seen  any  signs  of 
willful  destruction.  It  has  been  through  want  of  care  if  anything  is  not  as  it  ought 
to  be. 

Ask  Seiior  Yillegas  on  what  grounds  he  bases  the  value  that  he  has  put  on  the 
whole  of  the  waterworks  on  the  Imus  property.  I  think  it  is  $84,000  Mexican  he 
puts  it  at. 

Seiior  Yillegas.  I  have  placed  that  valuation  in  accordance  with  the  actual  con- 
dition of  those  works. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  would  like  to  say  in  regard  to  the  dam  at  Place  de  Molina — and 
there  are  other  dams  on  the  property — that  it  could  not  be  built  for  that  amount. 
I  had  an  engineer  up  with  me,  Mr.  Dock,  an  Englishman,  who  died  a  short  time 
ago — last  year.  He  valued  the  hacienda  part  of  the  place  that  has  been  occupied  by 
troops;  and  I  also  had  him  up  to  see  this  dam,  and  I  asked  him  what  it  could  be 
built  for,  and  he  said  that  it  could  not  be  built  for  $160,000.  He  is  a  man  that  does 
that  sort  of  work. 

Governor  Taft.  So  that  it  is  worth  now  $160,000  if  you  measure  it  by  what  it  would 
cost  to  reproduce  it.  He  added  $84,000  to  the  valuation  of  the  land.  You  paid — or 
your  predecessors  paid — for  the  property  about  $75,000  gold,  and  you  say  you  have 
added  $1,000,000  in  improvements.  Are  you  going  to  estimate  the  value  by  what  it 
cost  you  to  buy  that  land  and  then  what  it  cost  you  to  put  the  improvements  on?  If 
you  add  the  value  of  the  improvements,  and  you  take  what  the  value  of  the  land  is 
as  made  by  those  improvements,  you  just  double  the  price  for  the  purchaser. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  was  getting  at  this  statement  of  Seiior  Yillegas,  that  the  water- 
works now  are  worth  $84,000.     It  is  put  at  a  very  absurdly  low  price. 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  put  in  there  as  the  basis  for  use  in  furnishing  electric  power 
for  sawmills  or  something  of  that  sort.  If  you  put  a  sawmill  on  the  land  that  adds 
to  the  value  of  the  land,  and  its  addition  may  be  fairly  estimated  by  what  it  costs  to 
put  up  a  sawmill. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  have  seen  Seiior  Yillegas' s  valuation  once — Seiior  Legarda  showed 
it  to  me — and  it  looked  to  me  as  if  his  valuation  of  the  land  was  quite  separate  and 
apart  from  any  improvement  on  it,  because  he  has  valued  the  improvements  sepa- 
rately. 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  fair  to  add  to  the  value  of  the  whole  estate  the  dams,  if  they 
can  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  creating  water  power. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  In  principle  I  quite  agree  with  Governor  Taft  as  to  the  manner 
of  placing  a  valuation  on  this  land  and  improvements,  but  it  appears  to  me  that  there 
is  a  mistake  somewhere.  Seiior  Yillegas,  in  making  the  comparative  study  of  the  valua- 
tion which  he  has  made  of  different  estates,  has  not  considered  the  added  value  of 
the  lands  by  virtue  of  these  improvements,  and  has  assessed  the  land  with  improve- 
ments at  very  much  the  same  ratio  as  he  has  the  land  without  improvements. 

Governor  Taft.  That  will  appear  as  we  go  over  the  different  estates. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  It  appears  to  me  that  Sehor  Yillegas,  while  he  may  be  a  capa- 
ble man  in  his  profession  as  agricultural  engineer,  does  not  seem  to  me  to  be  a  man 
who  is  competent  to  know  everything,  and  not  a  man  competent  to  place  a  value 
upon  engineering  or  hydraulic  works.  I  think  that  there  is  a  limit  beyond  which 
he  must  not  go  in  the  assessment  of  these  estates.  He  has  evidently  had  limits  in 
his  mind  between  which  he  fixed  all  these  assessments.  He  has  not  taken  into  con- 
sideration, in  the  valuation  of  these  lands,  their  proximity  to  Manila  or  their  remote- 
ness from  Manila,  and  other  conditions  that  would  bear  upon  their  value.  He  has 
not  taken  into  account  at  all  those  conditions  which  ought  to  be  taken  into  consider- 
ation; that  is  to  say,  the  quality  of  the  land,  its  nearness  to  a  market,  and  other  con- 
ditions which  bear  upon  value.  It  is  impossible  to  fix  a  ratio  or  standard  for  all  of 
these  estates,  because  the  conditions  which  prevail  in  regard  to  the  quality  of  the 
soil,  etc.,  are  so  very  different. 


150  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Governor  Taft.  The  delegate  has  stated  some  of  his  inferences  from  the  examina- 
tion of  the  assessments  as  to  what  Senor  Villegas  has  done.  I  would  like  to  ask  a 
few  questions  of  Senor  Villegas  as  to  what  instructions  he  had  with  reference  to  the 
examination  of  these  estates. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  have  not  made  inferences  with  regard  to  Senor  Villegas' s 
instructions,  but  my  reply  was  simply  in  answer  to  your  remark  that  the  value  of 
the  land  ought  also  to  include  the  value  of  the  improvements,  and  I  have  doubted 
whether  Senor  Villegas  has  taken  into  account  the  value  of  the  improvements  in  the 
valuation  that  he  has  placed  on  the  land.  It  appears  that  in  his  assessment  he  has 
not  taken  into  consideration  the  improvements. 

Governor  Taft.  Let  me  ask  Senor  Villegas  whether  before  he  made  the  survey 
anybody  suggested  to  him  the  limits  of  the  valuation  within  which  he  was  required 
to  make  this  assessment. 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  did  you  reach  your  valuation  of  each  estate? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  have  placed  the  value  after  an  investigation  of  the  value  of  land 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  hacienda. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  go  over  the  land  yourself? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  I  have  been  over  all  of  the  estates. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  take  into  consideration,  in  your  estimation  of  the  value 
of  the  lands,  the  ease  or  otherwise  with  which  it  could  be  irrigated? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Have  you  also  borne  in  mind  the  proximity  or  the  remoteness 
of  the  hacienda  from  Manila  and  the  ease  with  which  the  products  could  be  marketed? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Let  us  take  the  two  estates  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon  and 
that  of  San  Juan  and  San  Nicolas,  or  what  is  usually  called  the  hacienda  of  Imus. 
You  have  put  $150  a  hectare  as  the  value  of  the  first-class  superior  land,  and  there  it 
is  the  same.     Do  these  estates  lie  together? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  they  are  adjacent. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  they  similarly  situated,  speaking  generally  of  the  whole 
estate,  with  reference  to  the  ease  with  which  their  products  can  be  carried  to  Manila 
or  elsewhere? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  do  not  wish  to  detract  in  any  way  from  the  value  of  the  other 
estates,  but  I  simply  want  to  speak  for  Imus.  I  notice  that  the  valuations,  at  least  I 
am  told,  are  the  same  for  first-class  land.  If  you  take  into  consideration  the  facility 
with  which  the  products  can  be  brought  to  the  market,  there  ought  to  be  a  very  con- 
siderable difference.  Imus  is  situated  by  road  about  14  or  15  miles  from  here,  and 
with  the  exception  of  about  four  months  in  the  year  that  road  is  a  good  road,  and 
you  can  go  in  any  way  you  like  to  it  and  it  takes  but  a  short  time.  It  also  is  the 
cheaper  way  to  put  the  goods  into  a  casco  and  punt  it  along  the  shore.  You  can 
pull  it  right  into  the  middle  of  Manila. 

Governor  Taft.  Can  not  you  do  that  on  the  hacienda  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon? 

Mr.  McGregor.  You  have  got  to  go  around  the  Cavite  point. 

Augustinian  Friar.  The  two  estates  are  adjacent,  and  with  regard  to  those  condi- 
tions they  apply  to  one  and  the  other  equally  well,  because  he  also  can  take  his  prod- 
uce from  the  hacienda  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon  by  casco  to  Manila. 

Mr.  McGregor.  He  has  to  take  it  around  the  peninsula  of  Cavite,  which  takes  it 
around  the  middle  of  the  bay. 

Augustinian  Friar.  Our  estate  has  a  seashore,  which  the  Imus  estate  has  not, 
and  if  you  take  that  into  consideration  the  advantages  are  about  equal.  The  distance 
by  water  is  a  little  farther,  but  with  regard  to  reaching  the  water  front  we  have  the 
advantage  over  Imus. 

Mr.  McGregor.  We  have  got  the  river  and  do  not  need  shore  frontage. 

Augustinian  Friar.  The  estate  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon  also  has  a  river,  and 
we  have  communication  with  the  shore  by  river.  They  have  a  large  number  of 
dams  and  they  also  have  a  tunnel  or  canal  there. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  there  not  extensive  improvements  on  the  hacienda  of  San 
Francisco  de  Malabon?    Have  they  dams  there? 

Senor  Villegas.  They  have  dams  there. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  irrigation  system  on  the  estate  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon 
in  about  as  good  a  condition  as  on  the  estate  of  Imus? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  it  is  equally  as  efficient.  The  water  for  both  irrigation 
systems  is  taken  from  one  source,  one  river. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  not  fair,  therefore,  looking  at  both  haciendas,  to  place  the 
same  price  on  the  different  classes  of  land — on  the  one  as  on  the  other? 


KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  151 

Senor  Villegas.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  soil  is  thinner  in  the  San  Nicolas 
estate,  the  Imus  estate  has  a  richer  and  deeper  soil. 

Mr.  McGregor.  He  is  saying  that  Imus  is  better  than  San  Nicolas.     That  is  so. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  soil  in  Imus  about  the  same  as  the  soil  of  San  Francisco  de 
Malabon? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Which  has  the  greater  advantage? 

Seiior  Yillegas.  San  Francisco  de  Malabon  is  better.  There  is  a  difference  in  my 
valuation  of  the  two  haciendas  with  regard  to  the  second  and  third  class  lands. 
With  regard  to  the  first-class  land  they  are  both  equally  good.  I  have  placed  an 
equal  valuation  on  first-class  land  of  the  two  estates  for  the  reason  that  I  think  that 
they  are  both  equally  good. 

Governor  Taft.  There  is  a  great  deal  more  first-class  land  in  the  San  Francisco 
than  in  Imus,  which  shows  that  the  land  is  better  in  the  San  Francisco  than  in 
Imus  on  the  average.  I  want  to  ask  as  to  the  estate  of  Naic;  that  is  a  Dominican 
estate.     Are  there  improvements  on  the  estate  of  Naic? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.     What  are  they? 

Senor  Villegas.  They  have  large  dams,  small  dams,  and  some  tunnels  or  canals. 

Governor  Taft.  How  does  the  soil  of  the  estate  of  Naic  compare  with  that  of  the 
estate  of  Imus  and  San  Francisco? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  soil  of  Naic  is  richer  than  the  soil  of  either  San  Francisco  de 
Malabon  or  the  estate  of  Imus. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  soil  of  the  estate  of  Naic  the  richest  in  the  province  of 
Cavite? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Hasn't  it  always  had  the  reputation  01  oeing  the  best  hacienda  in 
Cavite? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  The  estate  of  Naic  is  a  considerable  distance  from  Manila,  isn't  it? 

Senor  Villegas.  It  is  a  little  far. 

Governor  Taft.  Hasn'  t  the  estate  of  Naic  a  sea  frontage? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  I  want  to  ask  if  it  is  not  a  fact,  with  reference  to  agricultural 
property  that  is  not  likely  to  become  city  property  at  all,  but  always  likely  to 
remain  agricultural  property,  that  it  makes  very  little  difference,  provided  there  is 
access  to  the  water  and  easy  navigation  to  Manila,  whether  it  be  10  miles  or  15  miles 
or  20  miles  from  the  city,  in  the  valuation  of  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  that  is  true.  Aside  from  this  advantage  which  the 
Naic  estate  has  from  being  on  the  water  front,  the  pueblos  of  Silang  and  Indang, 
because  they  have  sterile  land  around  them,  have  to  purchase  the  products  which 
they  need  at  this  hacienda,  so  that  it  finds  a  market  in  the  pueblos  of  Indang  and 
Silang. 

Governor  Taft.  I  observe  that  you  have  valued  the  first-class  land  of  Naic  at  25 
per  cent  more  than  you  value  the  first-class  land  of  Imus  and  San  Francisco.  Do 
you  base  that  on  the  character  of  the  soil? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  I  have  done  so  because  I  consider  them  superior,  first- 
class  lands. 

Governor  Taft.  I  observe  that  you  make  all  the  land  which  is  cultivated  in  the 
hacienda  of  Naic  first-class  land. 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir;  there  is  also  third-class  land  there. 

Governor  Taft.  I  think  not;  there  is  no  third-class  land  here.  There  is  only  first- 
class  and  uncultivated  land. 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes;  I  have  some  uncultivated  lands  the're  at  $5  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  Look  at  that  map  and  see  if  you  find  any  third-class  land  there. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  have  considered  all  of  this  land  as  first-class  land  on  account 
of  its  proximity  to  the  town. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  claimed  by  Senor  Gutierrez  that  there  is  any  more  first-class 
land  than  appears  on  this  map  ? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  would  like  to  state  in  connection  with  this  matter  that  it  has 
not  been  possible  for  me  to  go  all  over  these  estates,  and  therefore  I  can  not  say 
whether  these  figures  given  in  this  estimate  are  correct  or  not. 

Governor  Taft.  As  I  calculate  it,  roughly,  he  has  estimated  that  of  the  7,000  hec- 
tares in  the  hacienda  of  Naic,  a  little  less  than  half  are  cultivated  or  first-class  land. 

Seiior  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir;  so  I  see  by  his  estimate. 

Governor  Taft.  I  am  trying  to  get  at  the  classification  of  the  land,  of  the  culti- 
vated and  uncultivated,  whether  his  estimate  differs  in  that  respect  from  yours. 


152  KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  It  is  impossible  for  me  to  say,  or  to  estimate  even  whether  the 
data  given  by  Sefior  Villegas  are  correct  or  not,  because  I  have  not  any  data  at  hand 
to  show.  I  would  have  to  go  to  my  office  to  examine  the  data  and  find  out  how 
much  of  the  land  is  cultivated  or  not. 

Governor  Taft.  In  estimating  the  value  of  an  estate  the  question  as  to  how  much 
land  is  cultivated  and  uncultivated  is  the  first  and  most  important  matter  to  be 
determined,  and  I  would  be  glad,  in  order  that  we  may  not  disagree,  if  Sefior 
Gutierrez  will  examine  his  books  and  determine  in  round  figures  how  much  of  the 
estate  of  Naic  is  cultivated,  because  Senor  Gutierrez  will  understand  that  we  are 
much  more  likely  to  reach  an  agreement  if  we  can  first  find  out  those  things  upon 
which  we  agree. 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  My  objection  was  simply  now  to  be  confined  to  the  assessment 
of  the  valuation  which  has  been  placed  by  Sehor  Villegas  upon  eight  of  our  estates. 

Governor  Taft.  Where  does  the  estate  of  Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon  lie  with  refer- 
ence to  San  Francisco  de  Malabon  and  the  hacienda  of  Imus? 

Sefior  Villegas.  To  the  west  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon. 

Governor  Taft.  That  is  farther  from  Manila? 

Sefior  Villegas.  About  the  same  distance  from  Manila. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  there  improvements  on  the  estate  of  Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon, 
and  what  do  they  consist  of? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  has  improvements.  It  has  the  dam  of  the  Tres  Cruces  and  other 
dams  as  well. 

Governor  Taft.  The  dam  of  the  Tres  Cruces  is  a  dam  across  the  mouth  of  the  lake, 
isn't  it?    Or  it  makes  a  lake? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir;  it  is  in  the  bed  of  a  stream. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  condition  with  reference  to  improvements,  with  refer- 
ence to  roads,  with  reference  to  the  irrigation  of  land,  of  the  four  estates  of  San  Fran- 
cisco, Santa  Cruz,  Naic,  and  Imus,  respectively,  and  comparatively? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Those  conditions  are  almost  similar  in  the  four  estates. 

Governor  Taft.  With  reference  to  reaching  Manila  by  the  Bay  of  Cavite,  are  their 
conditions  practically  the  same? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir;  by  water  the  communication  is  almost  similar,  but  by 
land  the  conditions  favor  Imus  first,  then  San  Francisco  de  Malabon,  then  Naic,  and 
then  Santa  Cruz. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  water  navigation  to  be  preferred  to  land  navigation  now? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  is  less  costly  and  easier  by  water. 

Governor  Taft.  How  does  the  soil  of  the  hacienda  of  Santa  Cruz  compare  with 
that  of  San  Francisco  and  that  of  Imus  ? 

Sefior  Villegas.  With  regard  to  the  comparison  between  Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon 
and  San  Francisco  de  Malabon,  the  soil  is  very  similar,  but  not  so  in  comparison  with 
that  of  Imus,  because  I  do  not  think  that  the  subsoil  in  the  estate  of  Imus  contains 
as  many  advantageous  elements  for  cultivation  as  the  subsoil  of  the  other  estates. 

Governor  Taft.  I  observe  that  nearly  one-half,  or  a  little  more  than  four-ninths, 
of  all  the  estate  of  Santa  Cruz  you  have  made  first-class  superior  land,  but  that  you 
have  no  second  and  third  class  there. 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  have  not  included  any  second  or  third  class  land  in  here,  be- 
cause the  amount  of  second  and  third  class  land  in  this  estate  is  very  insignificant. 

Governor  Taft.  As  I  understand  your  assessment,  then,  you  have  put  the  value  of 
the  Naic  first-class  land  at  25  per  cent  more  than  the  value  of  first-class  land  in  the 
other  three  haciendas  because  it  is  richer? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

_  Governor  Taft.  And  you  have  really  made  the  average  value  per  acre  of  San  Fran- 
cisco and  Santa  Cruz  higher  than  that  of  Imus,  not  by  valuing  the  first-class  land  as 
any  higher,  but  by  classifying  some  of  the  cultivated  land  in  Imus  as  second  and 
third  class  and  making  all  the  cultivated  land  in  San  Francisco  and  Santa  Cruz  as 
first  class. 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  have  done  that  because  of  the  difference  in  the  soil. 

Governor  Taft.  This  covers  all  the  estates  in  Cavite. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  It  appears  to  me  that  the  estates  in  the  province  of  Bulacan 
have  been  assessed  at  about  the  same  price. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  be  glad  to  call  his  excellency's  attention  to  the  fact  that 
there  are  different  ways  of  estimating  the  value  of  an  hacienda,  or  rather  that  the 
value  of  an  hacienda  is  affected  not  only  by  the  price  put  upon  first-class  land,  but  by 
the  classification  of  haciendas  in  the  first-class,  second-class,  and  third-class  land, 
and  that  our  friend  McGregor,  whose  estate  is  at  Imus,  suffers  in  this  assessment  by 
the  fact  that  a  good  deal  of  his  cultivated  land  is  classified  as  second  and  third  class 
land. 


REPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  153 

Archbishop  Guidi.  But  who  makes  these  assessments? 

Governor  Taft.  We  are  discussing  Senor  Villegas'  s  evidence.  His  excellency  criti- 
cises his  estimate  by  saying  that  there  is  no  variation  between  the  estates,  and  I  am 
showing  by  my  examination  that  there  is  a  difference;  and  I  also  want  to  show  the 
purpose  of  this  examination.  His  excellency  has  criticised  very  severely  the  esti- 
mate of  Senor  Villegas,  on  the  ground  that  he  makes  no  difference  with  reference  to 
the  proximity  to  Manila.  We  have  four  estates  in  Cavite  and  we  have  shown — and 
I  do  not  think  my  friends  on  the  other  side  of  the  table  differ,  except  Brother 
McGregor — that  practically  the  distances  of  the  four  estates  in  Cavite  are  the  same. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  do  not  agree  with  that. 

Governor  Taft.  We  have  got  through  Cavite  then,  so  far  as  that  criticism  is 
concerned. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  My  remark  was  a  general  remark,  applying  to  all  of  the  estates; 
but  with  respect  to  these  four  estates  I  quite  agree  with  you;  but  I  wish  it  understood 
that  I  do  not  accept  the  classification  that  Senor  Villegas  has  made,  because  I  have  no 
confidence  in  his  j  udgment. 

Governor  Taft.  I  am  not  speaking  of  his  judgment  now,  either  as  to  classification 
or  as  to  values.  What  I  am  trying  to  meet  is  specifically  the  criticisms  of  his  excel- 
lency on  Senor  Villegas' s  report,  as  he  has  examined  it.  What  I  am  trying  to  show 
now  by  the  examination  of  Senor  Villegas  is,  that  his  classifications  are  consistent 
with  themselves  intrinsically.  I  understood  his  excellency  to  attack  them  as  not 
consistent  with  themselves;  that  is  what  I  am  trying  now  to  examine.  I  understood 
his  excellency  to  begin  with  the  statement  that  on  the  face  of  them  they  were  wrong 
because  they  were  not  consistent  with  themselves.  With  reference  to  these  four  in 
Cavite  this  inconsistency  does  not  appear.  We  are  now  considering  his  judgment  of 
these  lands.  The  question  as  to  classification,  as  to  whether  it  is  first,  second,  or 
third  class  land,  or  whether  it  is  uncultivated.  I  have  not  heard  any  dispute — it  may 
be  that  there  is  a  dispute,  but  I  have  not  heard  of  it — of  the  correctness  of  Senor  Vil- 
legas's  measurement  as  to  cultivated  and  uncultivated  land.  I  have  seen  a  calculation 
made,  I  think  by  the  representatives  of  the  Augustinian  friars,  furnished  me  by  his 
excellency,  and  possibly  also  by  the  Dominicans,  whom  Senor  Gutierrez  represents, 
in  which,  if  I  understood  the  calculations,  the  figures  of  the  survey  of  Senor  Villegas 
were  accepted  as  the  proper  ones.     If  I  am  mistaken  I  would  like  to  be  corrected. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  In  his  measurement  of  the  land  there  is  practically  no  differ- 
ence at  all,  but  it  is  simply  in  the  valuation  that  has  been  placed  upon  it. 

Governor  Taft.  The  question  of  cultivated  and  uncultivated  land  is  a  matter  of 
measurement,  because  there  can  be  no  dispute  as  to  whether  the  land  is  cultivated. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  understand  that  the  matter  of  cultivated  and  uncultivated 
land  is  a  very  easy  one,  because  it  is  a  matter  of  measuring;  but  the  question  lies  in 
Senor  Villegas' s  classification  of  land  as  first  and  second  class.  If  it  has  appeared 
from  my  silence  that  I  have  accepted  any  of  the  classifications  made  by  Senor  Ville- 
gas, I  wrish  to  correct  that  error  and  to  reserve  my  criticisms  until  later. 

Governor  Taft.  I  want  to  reach  out  and  find  howr  far  we  agree,  and  when  we 
have  found  how  far  we  agree,  then  we  can  discuss  those  things  we  disagree  about. 
Let  us  see  about  Cavite.  In  Cavite,  except  in  the  haciendas  of  San  Juan  and  San 
Nicolas,  of  our  friend  McGregor,  there  isn't  any  land  classified  as  second  and  third 
class  land.  All  the  land  in  Santa  Cruz,  in  San  Francisco,  and  in  Naic  is  either  uncul- 
tivated land  or  is  first-class  land  as  classified  by  him.  Therefore  our  dispute  with 
the  Senor  Padre  and  Senor  Gutierrez  is  reduced  solely,  if  I  understand  it,  to  a  dispute 
over  what  is  the  real  valuation  of  first-class  land  and  of  uncultivated  land  in  those 
three  estates,  and  therefore,  that  our  only  dispute  as  to  classification  of  land  is  with 
Mr.  McGregor  as  to  what  is  second  and  third  class  land  and  what  valuation  ought  to 
be  put  on  first-class  land  in  the  haciendas  of  San  Juan  and  San  Nicolas. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Might  I  ask  if  there  is  no  cultivated  land  in  the  province  of  Cavite 
except  on  the  Imus  estate — that  is,  cultivated  land,  simply  relying  on  the  rain  and 
not  on  any  artificial  water — no  land  cultivated  that  is  not  irrigated? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  there  is  other  land  in  the  province  of  Cavite  that  is  cul- 
tivated without  irrigation — what  is  called  here  aventureres. 

Mr.  McGregor.  On  these  estates  that  have  been  mentioned,  with  the  exception 
of  Imus  estates? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  there  any  such  land  on  Imus? 

Mr.  McGregor.  Yes. 

Senor  Villegas.  Owing  to  the  damages  which  have  been  caused  to  several  of  the 
dams  there,  the  water  did  not  reach  some  parts  of  the  land  on  the  Imus  estate.  These 
lands  in  spite  of  their  not  being  irrigated  were  cultivated,  and  they  have  depended 
on  rainfall  for  cultivation. 


154  KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  simply  asked  if  there  was  any  land  cultivated  that  was  not  irri- 
gated and  he  said  no. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  said  that  there  was,  and  that  these  lands  that  were  cultivated 
without  irrigation  were  called  aventureres.  They  cultivate  these  lands  on  private 
property,  but  not  on  the  haciendas.     However,  they  could  be  on  the  haciendas. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Do  you  mean  to  say  that  the  Imus  hacienda  is  the  only  hacienda 
where  the  dams  are  damaged? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  I  do  not  mean  to  say  that.  On  the  hacienda  San  Francisco 
de  Malabon,  Santa  Cruz,  and  others,  some  of  these  dams  have  been  damaged,  and  I 
have  not  included  the  land  which  is  not  irrigated  owing  to  the  damages  to  the  dams 
as  cultivated  land. 

Mr.  McGregor.  But  are  they  cultivating  that  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Are  they  cultivating  that  land  on  the  Imus? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir;  that  land  is  not  cultivated  at  the  present  time;  and  I 
think  another  reason  why  it  is  not  cultivated,  aside  from  the  fact  that  it  is  not  irri- 
gated, is  on  account  of  the  lack  of  labor. 

Governor  Taft.  I  think  you  said  that  at  Imus  they  still  cultivate  with  the  rains. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  meant  to  say  that  such  land  was  susceptible  of  cultivation  by 
rain,  but  I  did  not  mean  to  say  that  they  were  doing  so  at  the  present  time. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Why  have  you  made  that  difference  in  classification  of  the  Imus 
and  called  it  second  and  third  class  lands,  and  on  the  other  estates  uncultivated 
lands? 

Senor  Villegas.  On  the  other  estates  I  have  not  classified  land  in  the  same  con- 
dition as  first-class  land. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  asked  why  you  have  classified  the  same  land  on  the  other 
estates  as  uncultivated  lands  and  on  the  Imus  estate  as  third-class  land. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  classified  it  as  third-class  land  because  it  is  third-class  land; 
but  at  the  present  time  it  is  being  cultivated. 

Mr.  McGregor.  But  you  said  it  was  not. 

Governor  Taft.  His  evidence  is  certainly  very  inconsistent. 

Mr.  McGregor.  First  of  all,  he  said  that  they  cultivated  that  land  on  Imus,  then 
he  said  they  did  not,  then  he  said  that  similar  land  on  the  other  estates  was  not 
cultivated,  and  then  he  contradicted  himself.  There  is  one  question  regarding 
Cavite  Province  that  has  not  been  brought  up,  and  that  is  that  Imus  is  celebrated 
for  its  mangoes.     That  has  not  been  taken  into  consideration  at  all. 

Governor  Taft.  What  will  a  mango  tree  produce  annually  ? 

Senor  Villegas.  One  mango  tree  produces  as  high  as  $20  to  $25,  and  sometimes  as 
high  as  $50  and  $100.  I  have  taken  it  into  account  in  making  the  assessment  of  the 
lots  or  solares. 

Mr.  McGregor.  But  solares  are  building  lots. 

Senor  Villegas.  The  word  solares  is  used  in  this  country  with  reference  to  ground 
that  is  used  for  horticultural  purposes. 

Mr.  McGregor.  We  estimate  that  there  are  8,000  mango  trees  in  full  bearing  on  the 
Imus  property,  and  the  Imus  mangoes  are  the  most  expensive  in  the  Manila  market. 

Senor  Villegas.  Your  remark  with  regard  to  the  fame  of  the  Imus  mangoes 
applies  to  the  whole  province  of  Cavite  as  well.  I  have  fixed  the  valuation  on  the 
ground  itself  and  then  taken  into  consideration  the  mango  trees  that  were  on  it.  I 
have  not  fixed  it  on  the  products  also;  that  is  to  say,  I  have  not  valued  the  products 
also. 

Mr.  McGregor.  That  does  not  appear  to  me  as  being  the  correct  way  of  doing  it.  I 
think  mango  trees  should  certainly  be  valued.  Being  a  special  crop,  it  is  a  very 
valuable  crop. 

Governor  Taft.  I  am  told  by  Senor  Luzuriaga  that  the  mango  crop  is  a  very  uncer- 
tain crop.  I  met  Mr.  Jones,  of  Smith,  Bell  &  Co.,  the  other  day,  and  said  to  him: 
"I  see  you  have  built  a  steamer  for  the  Rio  Grande  de  la  Pampanga."  "  Yes,"  he 
said,  ' '  I  have,  but  I  built  it  with  a  view  of  going  up  and  down  that  river  to  Caba- 
natuan  and  San  Isidro;  but  right  in  the  wet  season  it  got  so  dry  that  it  could  not  go 
to  San  Isidro."  ' ;  That  shows, "  said  Mr.  Jones,  "what  happens  in  this  country. " 
So,  in  estimating  your  mango  trees,  you  have  got  to  estimate  the  fact  that  the  crop 
is  uncertain  and  requires  a  good  deal  of  labor  to  keep  off  the  insects. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Still,  don't  you  think  mango  trees  ought  to  be  taken  into  considera- 
tion? 

Governor  Taft.  I  have  no  doubt  it  is.  I  think  it  is  an  element  that  ought  to  be 
considered  in  judging  the  correctness  of  bis  valuation. 

Senor  Villegas.  Land  which  is  cultivated  to  mangoes  is  not  susceptible  to  culti- 
vation of  any  other  thing,  because  once  it  is  cultivated  to  mangoes  it  is  not  fit  to  be 
cultivated  to  anything  else. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  155 

Mr.  McGregor.  Naturally;  mango  trees  grow  to  an  enormous  age,  and  you  do  not 
want  to  cultivate  anything  else. 

Governor  Taft.  How  are  mangoes  cultivated? 

Senor  Yillegas.  They  are  cultivated  in  orchards,  generally;  also  on  the  banks  of 
rivers. 

Governor  Taft.  I  thought  they  grew  where  they  did  not  interfere  with  the 
general  crops. 

Senor  Villegas.  That  is  why  I  say  that  land  which  is  devoted  to  the  cultivation 
of  the  mango  tree  can  not  be  used  to  the  cultivation  of  any  other  crops. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  wish  to  state  that  the  assertion  that  land  which  is  devoted  to 
the  cultivation  of  the  mango  tree  is  useless  for  the  cultivation  of  anything  else  is  not 
true,  because  I  have  an  hacienda  where  I  cultivate  mango  trees  in  the  sugar-cane 
fields.  I  wish  to  ask  Senor  Villegas  on  what  grounds  he  has  fixed  the  valuation  of 
$200  for  each  hectare  of  first-class  land  of  the  Naic  estate,  when  he  admits  that  land 
of  the  Naic  estate  is  the  best  in  Cavite  Province. 

Senor  Villegas.  Because  that  is  the  price  which  rules  around  the  neighboring 
pueblos  to  that  estate.  I  have  investigated  the  matter  and  have  asked  several  people 
there,  who  have  told  me  that  first-class  land  is  worth  200  pesos  a  hectare. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Did  you  ask  these  questions  at  Naic  itself  ? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  asked  these  questions  as  to  the  value  of  the  land  of  people  in 
the  adjacent  pueblos  of  Ternate  and  Maragondon.  I  refrained  from  asking  the  peo- 
ple of  Naic  because  I  was  afraid  that  I  could  not  get  a  just  valuation  there;  so  that 
the  valuation  which  I  have  placed  on  the  Naic  estate  has  been  based  upon  my  inves- 
tigations of  the  value  of  land  on  testimony  of  people  living  in  Maragondon  and 
Ternate,  and  the  capitalists  living  there  told  me  that  first-class  land  was  worth  200 
pesos  a  hectare. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  should  have  made  inquiries  at  Naic  itself.  Are  you  sure 
that  those  capitalists  at  Ternate  and  Maragondon  have  given  you  a  just  valuation  of 
the  land  at  Naic? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Why  are  you  sure  ? 

Senor  Villegas.  Because  I  have  absolute  confidence  in  the  people  of  whom  I 
asked  this  question,  and,  furthermore,  my  conscience  tells  me  that  this  price  is  fair 
and  just. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  That  is  not  a  matter  of  conscience,  but  of  science. 

Governor  Taft.  Ought  these  not  to  be  united? 

Archbishop  Guidi.  That  can  not  always  be,  because  an  ignorant  man  may  have  a 
conscience.  Couscience  and  science  ought  to  be  united,  but  in  the  majority  of  men 
it  is  not  sos 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Senor  Villegas,  therefore,  has  really  not  valued  the  lands  at  Naic, 
but  at  Ternate  and  Maragondon. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  based  my  judgment  after  investigations  and  upon  the  evidence 
given  to  me  by  people  living  at  Ternate  and  Maragondon.  I  did  not  ask  the  opinions 
of  people  living  at  Naic,  because  the  people  living  at  Naic  were  hostile  to  the  corpo- 
rations which  owned  the  land,  and  they  would  probably  put  it  at  a  lower  price  than 
its  true  value. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Are  not  the  people  of  Ternate  and  Maragondon  also  hostile  to 
the  corporations? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  asked  only  those  people  in  whom  I  had  confidence  and  upon 
whose  word  I  could  rely. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  ask  those  people  what  the  value  of  the  land  in  the  haci- 
enda of  Naic  was,  or  did  you  ask  what  the  value  of  the  land  which  they  owned  in 
Maragondon  and  Ternate  was?  » 

Senor  Villegas.  I  asked  for  the  value  of  the  land  at  the  hacienda  at  Naic. 

Governor  Taft.  How  near  to  the  hacienda  of  Naic  did  they  live? 

Sen  or  Villegas.  A  very  short  distance;  Naic  and  Ternate  are  adjacent.  Maragon- 
don is  also  very  near. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  first  understood  Senor  Villegas  to  say  that  he  had  asked  the 
capitalists  living  at  Ternate  and  Maragondon  the  price  of  the  land  which  they  owned, 
but  now  he  states  that  he  had  asked  them  the  value  of  the  land  at  Naic.  How  is  it 
possible  for  them  to  know  the  value  of  those  lands  if  there  have  been  no  sales  of  those 
lands  at  Naic? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  reason  1  did  not  take  the  judgment  of  the  people  at  Naic  in 
regard  to  the  value  of  those  lands  was  because,  after  having  asked  them  the  value  of 
theland,  they  had  placed  a  value  of  §100  upon  first-class  land  per  hectare,  owing  to 
their  hostility  toward  the  owners  of  the  estate.  Therefore,  knowing  in  my  con- 
science that  the  price  was  too  low,  I  consulted  the  capitalists  of  Ternate  and  Mara- 
gondon with  respect  to  the  value  of  those  lands,  and  they  fixed  the  value  at  200  pesos. 


156  EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  What  is  the  value  of  a  peso  now? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  value  of  the  peso  to-day  is  the  same  as  the  peso  that  has  been 
known  from  time  immemorial. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  What  was  the  value  of  the  peso  in  time  immemorial? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  same  as  the  Spanish  duro  in  the  time  of  the  Spanish  gov- 
ernment, and  that  is  the  value  of  the  peso  in  which  I  estimated  the  value  of  the  land. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Is  it  not  a  fact  that  when  people  in  that  part  of  the  country 
speak  of  the  peso  it  is  the  same  peso  they  have  known  from  time  immemorial? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  that  is  the  peso  they  mean. 

Governor  Taft.  And  they  do  not  know  anything  about  any  other  peso  down  there? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  And  they  have  always  measured  the  land  in  pesos,  haven't  they? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  When  they  sell  land  down  there  they  sell  it  by  the  Mexican  peso, 
do  they  not? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  When  they  sell  it  now  they  sell  it  by  Mexican  peso,  don't  they? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  can  not  say  as  to  just  now. 

Governor  Taft.  What  I  mean  is,  since  the  Americans  came  here.  Whenever  land 
has  been  sold  down  there  it  has  been  sold  by  the  Mexican  peso,  hasn't  it? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  I  also  have  just  sold  a  lot  for  Mexican  in  Tondo. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  question  from  which  I  can  not  get  beyond  is,  what  does 
the  witness  understand  by  a  peso?  What  does  he  mean  by  a  peso?  What  value 
does  he  place  upon  it  when  he  values  the  land  in  pesos?  I  have  understood  that  he 
regarded  the  peso  as  of  the  same  value  as  of  time  immemorial,  or  the  time  during 
the  Spanish  government. 

Governor  Taft.  Let  me  make  an  explanation  which  seems  to  me  entirely  clear. 
These  people,  in  selling  land  or  in  doing  anything  else,  in  the  province  of  Cavite, 
deal  with  one  standard  of  value,  and  that  is  the  Mexican  peso. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Now,  when  they  say  it  is  worth  Mexican  pesos,  they  mean  Mexi- 
can pesos — those  dollars  that  are  stamped  by  the  Mexican  Government.  If  we  are' 
dealing  with  values  and  a  standard  of  value,  we  have  got  to  take  the  Mexican  stand- 
ard of  value,  because  that  is  the  only  standard  of  value  they  know.  Now,  if  it  is  said 
that  in  the  Spanish  times  the  Mexican  dollar  was  worth  an  American  dollar,  it  is 
not  true  unless  you  go  back  a  long  distance — say  twenty  years — and  it  is  a  little 
difficult  to  estimate  values  by  referring  to  twenty  years  back.  If  it  be  true  that  the 
Mexican  dollar  has  always  been  the  standard,  and  we  are  to  learn  what  the  value  of 
that  land  is,  we  must  consult  those  who  live  in  its  neighborhood.  Then -we  take  the 
Mexican  dollar  as  our  basis  of  valuation,  and  when  I  come  to  pay  you  I  will  pay  you 
in  gold  what  the  Mexican  dollar  is  then  worth.  That  is  the  logical  method  of  rea- 
soning.    But  the  witness  does  not  know  anything  about  American  dollars. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  agree  with  you,  but  the  difference  lies  in  this  assessment  in 
exactly  the  same  ratio  as  there  is  a  difference  in  the  value  of  the  Mexican  dollar 
to-day  and  twenty  years  ago. 

Governor  Taft.  That  means  that  the  land  since  1896,  if  it  is  worth  the  same  in 
Mexican,  has  simply  in  gold  decreased  in  value.  It  is  not  reasonable  to  suppose  that, 
in  view  of  the  six  years  of  war  that  we  have  had,  and  the  conditions  of  the  country, 
with  the  carabaos  gone  and  the  scarcity  of  labor,  that  agricultural  lands  should  be 
worth  one-half  in  gold — estimated  by  commercial  men — as  much  as  it  was  when  the 
conditions  were  favorable  to  the  sale  of  land  and  to  its  cultivation.  Therefore  you 
do  not  prove  anything  when  you  say  that  people  down  there  estimated  the  value 
in  Mexican  twenty  years  ago,  and  that  they  now  estimate  it  in  the  same  Mexican. 
In  gold  it  means  that  the  land  has  decreased  in  value. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Supposing  the  value  has  decreased  one-half;  the  value  of  the  prod- 
ucts has  increased  three  or  four  times. 

Governor  Taft.  The  cost  of  transportation,  of  labor,  etc.,  has  increased  four  times, 
so  that  the  question  of  profit  from  the  land,  which  makes  the  value  of  land,  if  you  do 
not  estimate  it  by  its  selling  value,  is  the  same. 

Mr.  McGregor.  These  people  have  all  the  labor  they  want  to  cultivate  their  own 
fields.  It  is  very  difficult  for  an  outsider,  but  these  people  can  work  their  own  lands 
all  right. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Your  assertion,  Governor,  that  the  land,  with  regard  to  its 
gold  value,  has  depreciated,  is  in  contradiction  of  Senor  Villegas' s  statement  that  the 
land  was  worth  more. 

Governor  Taft.  He  estimates  it  in  Mexican.  But  in  real  value,  if  you  take  the 
gold  standard,  it  is  reduced  in  value. 


KEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  157 

Archbishop  Guidi.  We  must  take  what  he  says — that  he  has  estimated  the  value 
of  the  land  in  the  Spanish  dollar. 

Governor  Taft.  No;  he  has  estimated  it  in  the  Mexican  peso  that  was  here  at  the 
time,  and  what  they  have  in  their  pockets  to-day;  and  when  a  man  down  there  says 
a  hectare  is  worth  200  pesos  he  has  in  his  mind  200  large  coins  stamped  with  the 
Mexican  stamp. 

(Adjourned  until  March  2,  1903.) 

Continued  from  February  27,  1903. 

Malacanan  Palace,  Manila,  March  %,  1903. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  would  like  to  know  whether  Sehor  Villegas  considers  the 
lands  of  Maragondon  and  Ternate  in  equal  conditions  with  those  of  Naic. 

Seilor  Yillegas.  Yes,  sir;  those  that  are  contiguous  to  Naic. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  object  to  this  answer  because  of  the  fact  that  the  lands  of 
Naic  are  irrigated  and  are  perfectly  well  cultivated,  whereas  those  of  Maragondon 
are  not  irrigated. 

Senor  Yillegas.  The  lands  are  in  equal  conditions,  because  those  that  are  con- 
tiguous have  irrigation. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  The  lands  have  not  any  irrigation  from  the  pueblo  itself,  but  only 
from  the  friars'  lands;  that  is,  from  the  hydraulic  works  which  the  friars  have  built, 
and  when  they  steal  the  water  from  them,  then  they  may  be  irrigated,  but  not  from 
their  own  enterprises. 

Senor  Yillegas.  I  did  not  value  the  lands  of  Maragondon  or  Ternate,  but  I 
appraised  those  of  Naic. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  am  not  in  accord  with  this  valuation  of  the  lands  of  Naic, 
because  they  have  never  been  sold;  they  have  been  owned  by  one  party  alone  and 
have  never  been  sold. 

Senor  Yillegas.  I  made  the  valuation  of  this  land  according  to  my  best  knowledge 
and  belief. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  The  witness  claims  that  a  great  part  of  the  land  of  Naic  is  uncul- 
tivated; that  is  not  true  of  the  present  time,  and  has  not  been  so  since  the  war.  The 
whole  land  itself  has  been  under  cultivation  at  one  time  or  another. 

Senor  Yillegas.  The  statement  which  I  make  is  exactly  correct  according  to  the 
plans  and  maps.  What  I  put  down  as  uncultivated  is  in  an  actual  uncultivated  state 
and  has  never  been  cultivated. 

Governor  Taft.  Where  did  you  get  the  plans? 

Senor  Yillegas.  I  measured  it  myself. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  So  far  as  the  present  condition  of  the  land  is  concerned,  I  can 
state  that  it  has  all  been  under  cultivation.  As  is  known  in  the  Philippines,  within 
six  months  cultivated  land,  if  it  is  not  cultivated,  becomes  wild  again  on  account  of 
the  exuberance  of  the  vegetation;  but  this  land  has  been  at  one  time  cultivated  and 
that  cultivation  was  suspended  on  account  of  the  war.  The  witness  makes  no  mention 
of  111  kilometers  of  canals  which  are  used  for  the  distribution  of  water,  whereas 
those  canals  exist  on  the  property. 

Senor  Yillegas.  Their  present  condition  is  given  in  my  report. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  actually  measure  the  canals? 

Senor  Yillegas.  They  are  little  narrow  ditches  and  earthworks;  those  that  exist 
at  the  present  time  do  not  amount  to  anything. 

Seilor  Gutierrez.  Since  they  are  the  means  of  carrying  water  to  the  people  they 
should  not  in  reality  be  considered  so  insignificant,  because  they  have  been  built  by 
the  owners  of  the  estate  and  furnish  water  to  the  people  at  the  present  time.  He 
also  omits,  in  the  hacienda  of  San  Francisco  de  Santa  Cruz,  to  mention  15  kilometers 
and  10  bridges  which  are  used  for  the  distribution  of  water,  and  a  large  dam  which 
cost  over  8100,000  gold;  he  makes  no  mention  of  this. 

Seilor  Villegas.  I  have  it  set  forth  in  the  valuation. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  He  does  mention  it,  but  includes  in  all  these  waterworks  a 
price  of  §50,000,  whereas  the  dam  itself,  which  is  called  the  Three  Crosses  dam, 
cost  §100,000  gold,  and  could  not  be  replaced  at  the  present  time  for  $300,000. 

Seilor  Yillegas.  While  the  dam  may  have  originally  cost  what  it  is  claimed  that 
it  cost,  in  its  present  condition  it  could  not  be  valued  at  more  than  the  price  which 
I  have  placed  on  it.     It  is  quite  old;  in  fact,  older  than  I  am. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  After  these  earthworks  have  settled  they  are  much  more  solid 
and  massive  and  durable  than  they  are  when  they  are  first  built.  The  danger  is 
when  they  are  first  built;  afterwards  they  become  solidified. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  like  to  ask  Senor  Gutierrez  whether  he  claims  that  we 
ought  to  pay  him  for  the  dam  at  its  cost  or  what  it  would  cost  now  to  build  it,  and 
also  pay  him  the  value  of  the  land  as  increased  by  the  irrigation  that  the  dam  fur- 
nishes? 


158  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  No,  sir;  Ave  desire  to  be  paid  for  the  land  merely  what  it  is 
worth  now  at  its  present  value;  that  whether  it  has  increased  threefold,  twofold,  or 
onefold  from  the  irrigation  which  it  has  undergone,  I  do  not  desire  to  consider.  I 
simply  desired  to  state  that  this  dam  cost  some  three  or  four  times  as  much  as  Senor 
Villegas  said  it  is  worth. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  dam  high  enough,  Senor  Gutierrez,  to  furnish  power  for 
electrical  works  or  things  of  that  sort. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  have  not  measured  it  and  can  not  state  at  this  time. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  do  not  think  it  is  over  25  meters  from  the  bottom  to  the  top. 
The  waterfall  is  from  15  to  16  meters. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  can  not  contradict  that  statement,  because  I  have  not  the 
figures,  but  I  really  believe  it  is  more. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  believe  that  those  lands  which  have  improvements  thereon 
are  worth  more;  those  that  have  not  these  improvements  are  consequently  worth 
less.  First-class  lands  of  those  estates  whereon  these  improvements  exist  are  cer- 
tainly worth  more  than  first-class  lands  of  those  estates  whereon  there  are  no 
improvements.  The  witness  does  not  seem  to  have  made  any  distinction  in  his 
valuation;  he  seems  to  have  set  a  standard  of  price  and  does  not  desire  to  go  above  it. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  improvements  may  add  to  the  value  of  land  depends 
upon  what  they  do  for  land. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  production  of  the  land  is  what  determines  it,  and  if  the 
improvements  are  the  cause  of  larger  production,  of  course  then  the  land  is  improved 
by  it. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  like  to  ask  his  excellency  a  question  to  test  our  differ- 
ences, if  there  are  any.  Suppose  you  take  a  hacienda  in  which  there  is  a  large 
stream  from  which  by  a  dam  and  by  easy  methods  of  irrigation  land  can  be  irrigated. 
We  will  say  that  the  cost  of  irrigation  is  the  erection  of  a  dam  which  may  cost 
$20,000.  Now,  suppose  you  take  another  hacienda  with  the  same  kind  of  soil  but 
with  no  stream  on  it  at  all,  and  suppose  that  in  order  to  make  that  land  good  they 
sink  an  artesian  well  and  put  in  expensive  pumps  and  then  irrigate  the  lands,  so 
that  the  pumping  plant,  the  well,  and  the  irrigation  cost  $150,000,  so  that  by  the 
water  which  is  pumped  just  as  good  crops  are  obtained  from  the  second  hacienda  as 
from  the  first.  Would  you  give  any  more  for  the  second  hacienda  than  you  would 
for  the  first? 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  would,  because  the  cost  of  the  labor  was  more. 

Governor  Taft.  But  you  do  not  get  any  more  returns  from  it. 

Friar  Martin.  In  my  opinion  the  two  haciendas  would  be  of  equal  value.  I  found 
my  valuation  of  these  lands  upon  the  production.. 

Governor  Taft.  My  hypothesis  is  that  here  I  have  one  hacienda,  and  here 
another.  There  would  be  this  difficulty,  that  probably  on  the  pumping  hacienda  it 
would  cost  more  to  irrigate  than  it  does  where  you  only  use  a  dam;  but  I  was  assum- 
ing that  the  cost  was  the  same.     I  mean  the  cost  of  operation. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  If  the  product  is  the  same  their  value  is  the  same. 

Governor  Taft.  I  quite  agree,  and  I  do  not  want  to  be  understood  to  differ  from  the 
proposition  that  works  that  make  land  more  economically  irrigated  and  make  them 
very  frequently  irrigated  improve  the  value  of  the  lands.  It  must  be  so  where  it 
increases  the  amount  of  irrigation  or  reduces  its  cost.  But  what  I  wish  to  eliminate, 
if  I  can,  is  the  importance  which  Brother  McGregor  and  Senor  Gutierrez  seem  to 
place  on  the  original  cost  or  the  present  cost  of  reproducing  dams  and  other  things. 

Friar  Martin.  I  agree  with  you  in  that  case. 

Governor  Taft.  The  present  condition  of  these  works  is  important  only  as  it  points 
to  whether,  in  order  to  make  the  works  workable,  it  is  necessary  to  spend  something 
to  put  them  in  repair. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  That  is  quite  clear.  I  do  not  attach  as  great  importance  as  you 
seem  to  think  I  do  to  the  original  cost  of  these  works,  but  I  desire  to  impress  upon 
you  the  fact  that  these  improvements  do  increase  greatly  the  value  of  the  land,  because 
they  increase  the  productiveness  of  the  land.  My  great  objection  to  Senor  Villegas's 
testimony  throughout  is  that  he  does  not  attach  sufficient  importance  to  the  fact  that 
these  lands  have  these  improvements  existing  upon  them,  but  he  sets  an  equal  stand- 
ard for  all  of  them  and  says  that  first-class  land  in  this  hacienda  is  the  same  as  first- 
class  land  in  that  hacienda,  irrespective  of  whether  the  improvements  on  the  one  are 
great  or  those  on  the  other  are  less. 

Governor  Taft.  We  have  been  through  Cavite  and  there  all  the  land  is  irrigated 
by  practically  the  same  system  for  practically  the  same  cost. 

Friar  Martin.  As  far  as  the  dams  are  concerned,  the  price  which  thej^  cost  in  the 
first  place  or  what  they  would  cost  now  is  the  price  we  should  obtain,  because  they 
never  lose  their  value  and  as  time  passes  they  become  stronger;  but  of  course  that  does 
not  apply  to  canals  and  those  things  which  wear  out. 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  159 

Archbishop  Guidi.  What  I  want  to  set  forth  is  that  the  price  is  the  same  all  the  way- 
through . 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  fair  to  give  the  witness  an  opportunity  to  explain  the  reason 
of  his  assessments. 

Mr.  McGeegoe.  I  would  like  to  ask  in  what  pueblo  he  ascertained  the  value  of  the 
lands  around  Imus. 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  first-class  in  San  Francisco  de  Malabon;  only  the  first-class. 

Mr.  McGeegoe.  Why  did  you  not  ascertain  the  value  of  that  in  the  towm  of  Imus? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  presidente  and  the  officials  and  leading  men  whom  I  asked 
there  gave  me  a  very  low  price,  which  I  did  not  believe  was  the  just  one. 

Governor  Taft.  Herewith  we  have  the  hacienda  of  Malinta,  Tala,  and  Piedra  in 
the  province  of  Bulacan  in  the  pueblo  of  Polo.     Did  you  survey  this  hacienda? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  irrigated? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Only  that  part  that  is  first-class. 

Governor  Taft.  How  is  it  irrigated? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  is  irrigated  very  little  by  dams  or  dikes. 

Governor  Taft.  Can  they  raise  two  crops  on  the  first-class  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  They  do  not;  but  it  produces  more  than  100  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  How  does  that  compare  with  the  production  in  Cavite? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  first-class  is  almost  equal  to  that  of  Cavite.  With  one  crop  a 
year  they  raise  as  much  as  with  two  crops  in  Cavite  in  Malinta  on  the  first-class  land. 

Governor  Taft.  The  hacienda  of  Malinta  is  given  here  as  about  3,500  hectares  and 
of  this  3,500  hectares  you  place  650  hectares  as  first-class  superior. 

Sefior  Villegas.  First-class  only. 

Governor  Taft.  At  200  pesos  a  hectare. 

Sefior  Villegas.  Whatever  it  is  stated  there. 

Governor  Taft.  The  second-class  you  state  at  1,620  hectares,  which  you  place  at 
150  pesos.     How  does  the  second-class  differ  from  the  first-class? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  raises  from  60  to  80  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  The  third  class  you  estimate  at  180  hectares,  at  100  pesos  a  hectare, 
and  the  remainder  of  980  hectares  you  treat  as  uncultivated  mountain  land  at  $5  a 
hectare. 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  are  the  improvements  on  the  Malinta  estate? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Little  dikes. 

Governor  Taft.  Here  is  the  hacienda  of  Santa  Maria  del  Pandi.  Did  you  survey 
the  plans? 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  had  it  surveyed  by  my  assistant;  I  was  there  investigating. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  supervise  the  inspection? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  an  improved  estate? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  has  small  parts  there  that  can  be  considered  first  class. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  well  irrigated? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  has  some  irrigation  of  very  little  importance. 

Governor  Taft.  That  contains,  according  to  your  measurement,  12,069  hectares. 
Of  that  you  place  about  1,000  hectares  as  first  class,  at  200  pesos  a  hectare,  and  1,500 
second  class.     What  will  the  first  class  produce? 

Sefior  Villegas.  More  than  100  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  it  produce  more  than  one  crop? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  land  that  is  subject  to  irrigation  there  can  raise  two  crops. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  will,  on  the  average,  the  first-class  land  produce?  Do 
you  mean  by  first-class  superior  the  class  upon  which  two  crops  can  be  produced? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  about  100  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  As  I  understand  the  classification  (I  maybe  mistaken  in  this), 
you  call  first-class  land  that  which  produces  above  80  cavanes,  but  if  it  produces  two 
crops  a  year  you  call  it  first-class  superior? 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  do  not  make  any  difference  whether  it  produces  more  than  one 
crop  or  not,  but  it  is  the  annual  production. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  superior  first  class? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Land  of  100  cavanes,  more  or  less. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  that  which  you  call  first-class  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  From  75  to  80  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  second  class  and  third  class? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Second  class  produces  50  to  60  cavanes,  and  third  class  30  to  50. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  fourth  and  fifth  class  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Fourth  class  is  20  to  25  cavanes,  and  fifth  class  less  than  20  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  You  make  about  half  of  this  estate,  about  2,025  hectares,  worth 


160  REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

$25  a  hectare.  Why  do  you  put  it  at  $25  a  hectare  when  you  put  uncultivated  land 
in  the  mountains  in  other  haciendas  at  only  $5  a  hectare? 

Senor  Villegas.  Because  they  are  very  clean  and  they  could  be  easily  cultivated. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  desire  to  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  in  this  estate,  where 
there  are  very  few  improvements,  the  witness  has  put  the  first-class  land  at  even 
more  than  he  has  in  the  other  estates. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  like  to  suggest  an  answer  to  it.  I  did  not  understand  at 
first,  and  it  shows  the  advantage  of  a  constant  discussion.  I  did  not  understand  the 
theory  on  which  Sefior  Villegas  had  gone  in  his  estimate.  But  I  think  in  answer 
to  the  suggestion  now,  I  can  offer  an  explanation  which  I  derive  from  his  statements. 
The  theory  of  the  witness,  as  I  understand  it,  is  that  superior  land — that  is,  that 
which  produces  100  cavanes  to  the  hectare,  within  reasonable  reach  of  the  market — 
is  worth  about  200  pesos  a  hectare.  Now,  it  is  said  that  because  he  estimates  superior 
land  on  one  estate  at  200  pesos  which  is  not  improved,  and  superior  land  on  another 
estate  at  200  pesos  which  is  improved,  that  thereby  he  shows  that  he  gives  no  weight 
to  improvements.  The  explanation  is  this,  as  I  understand  it,  justifying  the  action 
of  the  witness:  The  Cavite  estates,  it  is  true,  are  all  improved;  the  estate  of  Pandi  has 
very  little  improvement.  Now,  he  does  not  apply  the  same  standard  to  the  estates  as 
estates.  He  varies  the  standard,  not  by  varying  the  price  of  the  superior  land,  but  he 
varies  it  by  making  a  very  small  classification  in  the  Pandi  estate  of  superior  land. 
The  advantage  to  the  Cavite  estates  by  reason  of  their  improvements  is  in  the  very 
large  amount;  in  Naic  all  that  is  improved  at  all  is  classified  as  superior  first-class 
land.  Therefore  the  variation  in  his  estimates  is  shown  in  the  total  price  of  the 
hacienda  divided  by  the  number  of  hectares.  In  other  words,  he  makes  his  varia- 
tion by  the  classification  to  allow  for  the  improvements,  and  not  by  changing  the 
price  of  the  superior  land,  the  production  of  which  is  the  same,  whether  it  be  by 
reason  of  improvements  or  by  its  fortunate  location  by  natural  waters.  For  instance, 
in  this  hacienda  of  Pandi,  which  consists  of  12,000  hectares,  only  one-twelfth  is 
superior  land;  in  Naic  three-sevenths.  The  entire  cultivated  land  by  reason  of  those 
improvements  is  classified  as  superior  first-class  lands.  He  has  followed  Sefior 
Padre's  view,  that  the  product  of  the  land  determines  its  price  and  the  product  is 
increased  by  the  improvements.  The  more  improvements  you  have  the  greater  pro- 
portion of  your  hacienda  is  made  first-class  land;  and  that  is  the  way  he  allows,* if  I 
have  understood  his  evidence,  for  the  effect  of  the  improvements. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  From  all  this  we  deduce  the  fact  that  the  value  of  the  land 
should  be  calculated  upon  the  production  as  the  basis  of  the  valuation  of  it. 

Governor  Taft.  I  have  been  explaining  what  I  understand  to  be  the  theory  of 
the  witness  in  allowing  for  improvements.  When  it  comes  to  stating  the  principle, 
it  seems  to  me,  with  deference  to  his  excellency,  the  principle  should  be  stated  this 
way:  That  land  is  worth,  just  as  anything  is  worth,  what  it  will  bring,  and  that  is 
the  rule  of  law,  the  rule  of  evidence.  But  suppose  you  do  not  have  a  market,  sup- 
pose land  is  not  being  sold,  then  you  have  got  to  take  other  means  of  finding  what 
the  value  is.  Land  is  planted  and  used  agriculturally  for  the  profit  that  is  made  out 
of  it.  Therefore  when  you  go  into  the  question  of  products  you  are  furnishing  a 
reason  why  a  man  ought  to  be  willing  to  pay  for  that  land  in  order  that  he  may 
make  the  profit  that  the  natural  product  will  give  him. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  It  is  the  seller  that  makes  the  opportunity  for  selling  and  that 
makes  rules  whereby  the  sales  should  be  made,  and  not  the  buyer. 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  both  the  buyer  and  the  seller. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  But  the  seller" might  say,  "I  will  not  sell." 

Governor  Taft.  If  you  depend  on  the  wish  of  the  seller  alone  you  would  never  get 
any  market  reports  at  all.  It  is  what  the  vendor  and  the  buyer  agree  on.  Both  the 
seller  and  the  buyer  are  affected  by  the  profit  to  be  gathered*  from  the  land.  Actual 
sales  are  the  best  evidence  because  they  evidence  an  agreement  between  the  vendor 
and  the  buyer  as  to  what  the  land  is  worth.  If  you  get  two  opposite  interests 
agreeing,  then  you  have  got  the  best  standard. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Certainly. 

Governor  Taft.  But  in  the  absence  of  those  agreements  we  have  got  to  do  the  best 
we  can. 

Mr.  McGeegoe.  We  have  records  of  sales. 

Governor  Taft.  Then  bring  them  out.  Here  is  the  Toro  estate  of  58  hectares, 
estimated  at  150  pesos  a  hectare.     Is  that  an  improved  estate? 

Senor  Villegas.  No,  sir;  but  it  is  good  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  in  rice? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes;  in  a  very  good  condition.  I  make  it  first-class  land  because 
it  is  very  low  and  convenient  and  easily  cultivated. 

Governor  Taft.  Here  is  Anget  hacienda,  294  hectares,  260  hectares,  at  125  pesos. 
Do  you  make  any  difference  in  the  value  between  rice  and  sugar? 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  161 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  this  improved? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  has  no  improvements,  but  it  is  land  which  produces  a  great 
deal  by  being  low. 

Archbishop  Guldi.  How  much  does  it  produce? 

Sefior  Villegas.  From  50  to  70  cavanes. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  In  one  year,  then,  the  produce  will  be  more  than  the  value  of 
the  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  it  produce  more  than  one  crop? 

Sefior  Villegas.  One  crop  onty. 

Governor  Taft.  There  is  no  facility  for  irrigating  so  as  to  make  it? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  is  it  situated  with  reference  to  the  market — to  getting  into 
Manila,  for  instance? 

Sefior  Villegas.  You  can  go  by  the  river  San  Eafael,  but  it  is  a  long  way. 

Governor  Taft.     How  far  is  it  from  Manila? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Leaving  there  in  a  loaded  boat,  it  would  take  at  least  two  days  to 
get  to  Manila. 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  passable,  however,  all  the  year  around,  isn't  it? 

Sefior  Villegas.  In  the  dry  season  you  can  not  pass  through. 

Governor  Taft.  Here  is  Dampol  and  Quingua,  962  hectares,  one  hacienda.  What 
kind  of  a  hacienda  is  that? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  has  rice  and  sugar;  mostly  sugar  and  very  little  rice. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  improved? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  kind  of  land  is  it?    How  many  cavanes  does  it  produce? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Seventy  to  80  cavanes;  it  is  very  low  and  flat. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  an  advantage? 

Sefior  Villegas.  They  are  conditions  which  cause  land  to  be  richer. 

Governor  Taft.  You  estimate  it  at  150  pesos  a  hectare,  and  solares  60  hectares. 
What  are  solares? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Building  grounds. 

Governor  Taft.  You  estimate  them  at  125  pesos  a  hectare.     Is  not  that  pretty  small? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  near  the  the  town  of  Quingua? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  is  the  pueblo  of  Quingua? 

Governor  Taft.  Here  are  eight  parcels  of  land  situated  in  the  towns  of  Quingua, 
Calumpit,  Barasuain,  Santa  Ysabel,  and  Guiguinto,  province  of  Bulacan.  This  is  rice 
and  sugar  land,  10  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare.  At  Calumpit,  74  hectares,  at  $150  a 
hectare.  At  Barasuain,  54  hectares,  at  $154.  Whv  did  you  make  that  $154  instead 
of  8150. 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  is  probably  a  mistake;  it  should  be  $150. 

Governor  Taft.  If  you  do  not  object,  gentlemen,  we  will  change  it  to  $150.  [Makes 
the  correction  on  the  map  accordingly.]  Now,  Dakela  and  Santa  Ysabel,  are  they 
the  same  kind  of  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  And  Alangelang?    That  you  estimate  is  superior.     Why? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Because  it  raises  100  cavanes,  more  or  less. 

Archbishop  Grim.  How  much  is  a  cavan  worth  on  the  market  to-day? 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  did  not  calculate  on  to-day's  prices,  but  when  I  made  the  valua- 
tion. 

Governor  Taft.  What  was  it  worth  when  you  made  the  valuation? 

Sefior  Villegas.  One  and  one-half  pesos;  that  was  the  price  on  the  ground.  I  do 
not  know  what  it  was  when  brought  to  Manila.  If  a  man  needed  money  he  would 
even  take  50  cents. 

Governor  Taft.  Let  us  pass  to  Malapat,  at  150  pesos  a  hectare.  Is  that  the  same 
kind  of  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  same  as  the  others. 

Governor  Taft.  Here  is  the  Recoleto  hacienda,  456  hectares.  What  kind  of  land 
is  that? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  class  that  is  mentioned  there;  150  pesos. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  survey  the  Lolomboy  hacienda? 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  measured  the  part  which  is  in  the  pueblo  of  Polo — two  parcels. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  it,  rich  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  that  in  Polo  is. 

Governor  Taft.  Take  this  part  that  is  in  Malanday.  You  have  marked  it  all  rice 
land.     What  kind  of  rice  land  is  it? 

WAR  1903 — VOL  5 11 


162  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Seilor  Villegas.  It  produces  75  to  80  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  These  65  hectares  in  Pasolo,  within  the  town  of  Polo.  What  kind 
of  rice  land  is  that? 

Senor  Villegas.  The  same  as  the  other. 

Governor  Taft.  What  does  it  produce? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Palay;  70  to  80  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  And  you  put  the  price  at  $150.  Is  there  any  other  land  in  Bula- 
can  than  that  which  we  have  gone  over  which  produces  100  cavanes  a  year,  not 
church  property? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  there  are  other  lands. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  know  whether  there  are  any  sales  of  that  land? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  can  not  state. 

Friar  Martin.  I  would  like  to  know  if  the  Governor  is  in  accord  with  the  testi- 
mony of  Senor  Villegas,  and  wherein  you  agree  with  his  testimony. 

Governor  Taft.  I  do  not  know;  I  have  no  means,  except  through  Senor  Villegas 
and  other  witnesses  whom  I  call,  of  knowing  what  the  value  of  the  land  is.  I  would 
like  to  say,  generally,  this:  That  land  like  this,  much  of  which  has  lain  fallow  for 
four  or  five  years  during  the  disturbed  condition  of  the  country,  land  that  can  not 
now  be  worked  to  advantage  because  of  the  absence  of  draft  animals,  land  that  lies 
in  a  country  where  agriculture  is  so  depressed,  it  seems  to  must  necessarily  be  lower 
in  value  than  it  was  in  1896,  or  before  that  time.  Another  thing,  were  this  land 
offered  to  the  public,  to  capitalists,  I  venture  to  say  that  there  are  few  capitalists 
that  would  go  into  it.  On  the  other  hand,  I  do  not  consider  that  it  is  the  duty 
of  myself,  representing  the  Government,  or  of  the  Commission,  representing  the 
Government,  to  squeeze  down  the  price  on  the  theory  that  the  land  can  not  be 
used  by  you  at  all,  practically.  What  we  desire  to  do  is  to  get  a  just  price.  We  think 
if  we  give  you  a  resonable  price — reasonable  not  in  the  sense  of  what,  if  you  were 
obliged  to  sell,  you  could  get  from  capitalists  in  the  market,  but  a  reasonable  price, 
excluding  certain  considerations  that  we  are  willing  to  exclude — that  we  are  buying 
ourselves  a  lawsuit  that  will  occupy  us  for  a  good  many  years,  and  that  we  are  reliev- 
ing you  from  a  great  number  of  lawsuits  that  would  occupy  you  for  a  great  many 
years,  it  is  as  much  as  you  can  expect  of  us.  We  know  we  are  going  to  have  a  great 
deal  of  trouble  after  we  get  the  land,  and  yet  we  think  that  the  trouble  will  be  less 
if  we  buy  it  from  you,  and  we  are  entirely  willing  to  pay  what  is  a  fair  price.  But,  on 
the  other  hand,  I  beg  of  you  to  consider  that  my  constituents  are  not  the  people  of 
the  United  States,  they  are  the  people  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  in  doing  justice 
to  them  I  must  avoid  loading  them  with  a  burden,  so  far  as  I  can,  which  would  be 
too  heavy  for  them  to  bear;  and  if  we  can  not  agree  on  a  price  that  seems  to  me 
reasonable,  my  hands  are  tied,  I  must  then  let  the  thing  work  itself  out  the  best  way 
it  can.  But  I  think  if  we  both  yield  some  we  can  come  to  an  agreement.  When  we 
make  the  agreement,  if  we  reach  it,  it  may  take  two  or  three  months  to  get  the 
money,  but  we  will  pay  in  gold.  What  I  would  like  to  propose,  unless  I  am  told 
that  it  will  do  no  good,  after  we  get  all  through  the  evidence  that  there  is  here  and 
after  I  have  added  up  to  see  what  it  all  comes  to,  is  to  make  a  lump  proposition  in 
gold  and  then  let  you  gentlemen,  if  you  can,  arrange  the  divisions  among  yourselves. 

Friar  Martin.  That  is  impossible. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  It  is  impossible  because  the}'-  are  opposing  interests. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  can  set  a  price  for  each  corporation. 

Governor  Taft.  It  would  be  easier  to  make  it  a  lump  sum,  but  I  can  possibly 
arrange  it  in  some  other  way.  I  do  not  know  whether  the  Senor  Padre  wished  to 
invite  that  statement,  but  that  is  what  I  thought  he  wished  me  to  discuss. 

Friar  Martin.  Those  observations  were  probably  well  taken,  but  I  have  some 
objection  to  make  to  those  statements  of  yours. 

Governor  Taft.  With  reference  to  the  estimates  of  Senor  Villegas,  I  do  not  care 
to  be  bound  by  them.  What  I  mean  is,  I  might  differ  from  Sefior  Villegas.  For 
instance,  I  might  think  that  his  estimate  on  certain  land  is  too  low.  I  might  think, 
again,  that  the  including  in  the  estimate  at  all  of  the  value  of  dams  and  that  kind 
of  thing  was  an  error;  but  what  I  am  groping  for — and  I  think  it  is  the  case  with 
his  excellency,  too — is  light.  I  simply  employed  Senor  Villegas  because  I  under- 
stood that  he  had  experience.  I  did  not  tell  him  anything  to  do  except  to  go  and 
make  a  survey  and  make  an  estimate  on  the  land,  and  these  are  the  results. 

Friar  Martin.  In  the  first  place,  without  considering  the  price,  I  desire  to  know 
if  you  are  satisfied  with  the  measurement  and  the  classification  of  Sefior  Villegas. 

Governor  Taft.  I  have  no  other  information  on  the  subject. 

Friar  Martin.  If  you  are  not  in  accord  with  this,  then  it  will  be  necessary  to 
measure  them  over  again. 

Governor  Taft.  I  do  not  intend  to  bring  any  other  evidence  here  at  all  on  that 
subject,  and  if  you  agree  with  this  measurement  then  I  agree. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  163 

Friar  Martin.  I  agree. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  desire  to  remark  that  from  the  hacienda  of  Lolomboy  they 
have  taken  away  a  thousand  and  some  odd  hectares.     Surely  it  must  be  an  error. 

Governor  Tapt.  Isn't  it  in  this  way:  Isn't  it  the  fact  that  the  hacienda  of  Lolom- 
boy is  surveyed  in  two  different  books? 

Mr.  McGregor.  Yes;  in  the  total,  but  not  in  the  division  of  the  land.  He  has 
given  us  third-class  land  and  no  one  else  third-class  land,  and  it  strikes  me  that  there 
is  third-class  land  on  the  other  haciendas,  I  have  no  doubt- 
Governor  Taft.  Senor  Gutierrez,  here  is  a  parcel  of  Lolomboy,  106  hectares  and 
65  hectares;  that  is  171  hectares.     Then  there  is  4,158  hectares. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  have  5,444,  and  according  to  this  there  is  4,329. 

Governor  Taft.  All  I  can  say  about  that  is  that  the  surveyor  is  not  here,  but  I 
will  have  him  here. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  wished  simply  to  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  there  is  a  dif- 
ference, and  that  difference  can  be  settled,  the  land  being  all  there. 

Friar  Martin.  When  you  examined  the  lands  belonging  to  the  corporation  which 
I  represent,  the  lands  which  you  have  put  as  cultivated,  did  you  see  yourself  that 
they  were? 

Senor  Villegas.  All  that  I  have  put  as  to  the  classification  and  the  surface  area  is 
just  as  I  have  found  it. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  I  understand  the  Senor  Padre  to  agree  to  his  survey  and 
classification? 

Friar  Martin.  It  is  a  very  small  difference,  more  or  less.  I  desire  to  state  that  all 
the  lands  that  are  called  cultivated — I  know  they  were  cultivated  last  year  when  I 
examined  them. 

Governor  Taft.  That  is  what  I  understand  to  be  the  fact. 

Friar  Martin.  So  that  the  production  is  calculated  on  the  part  that  is  cultivated. 
Do  you  accept  the  production  which  Senor  Villegas  gives  as  that  of  these  lands? 

Governor  Taft.  I  do.     I  have  no  other  data. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  would  like  to  ask  Senor  Villegas  why  he  has  omitted,  in  valuing 
the  Imus  property,  to  mention  anything  about  the  coffee  lands. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  have  seen  no  coffee  growing  there. 

Mr.  McGregor.  There  is  a  considerable  area  of  coffee  in  sight  of  the  hills,  where  I 
have  not  been  able  to  get  to. 

Senor  Villegas.  Perhaps  the  coffee  trees  have  died. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  have  not  seen  them  myself,  but  I  know  they  are  there. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  have  considered  all  that  part  that  I  could  not  see  cultivated  as 
uncultivated,  and  so  classified  it. 

Mr.  McGregor.  You  can  hardly  take  coffee  land  as  uncultivated  land,  although  it 
may  have  been  allowed  to  grow  to  jungle. 

Adjourned  until  March  6,  1903. 

Continued  from  March  2,  1903. 

Malacanan  Palace,  Manila,  March  9,  1903. 

Friar  Martin.  By  the  reading  of  the  copies  of  the  three  conferences  I  received 
last  week,  I  have  seen  that  the  object  of  these  conferences  is  the  valuation  of  the 
friars'  lands.  If  that  be  true,  I  can  not  intervene  in  such  a  business,  because  I  have 
not  a  power  of  attorney  from  any  of  the  religious  orders  to  represent  them  here. 

Governor  Taft.  You  do  not  bind  anybody  by  being  here. 

Friar  Martin.  On  the  other  hand,  I  must  say  that  from  what  I  know  and  from  what 
I  have  heard  from  my  friends,  Mr.  McGregor  and  Senor  Gutierrez,  all  the  estates, 
object  of  the  past  conferences,  do  not  belong  to  the  friars.  It  is  true  that  they  pos- 
sessed them  formerly,  but  it  is  also  true  that  at  present  these  estates  belong  to  one 
of  these  three  companies:  Philippine  Sugar,  British  Manila,  and  Compania  Agricola 
de  Ultramar.  This  last  I  represent,  and  I  am  the  chief  agent  of  it  in  these  islands. 
My  representation  in  these  conferences  is  the  representation  of  the  Compania  Agri- 
cola  de  Ultramar,  from  which  I  have  received  a  power  of  attorney  in  order  to  admin- 
istrate or  sell  lands  belonging  to  it.  I  have  no  other  representation  here.  I  would 
like  to  call  the  attention  of  the  governor  to  some  other  points,  but  I  prefer  leaving  it 
for  the  time  when  we  have  discussed  everything  relating  to  the  haciendas,  in  order 
to  get  more  exact  information  of  what  was  expressed  in  the  three  conferences 
referred  to. 

Governor  Taft.  It  makes  no  difference  in  what  capacity  you  come,  lam  delighted 
to  see  you  here,  and  your  knowledge  of  the  conditions  will  doubtless  assist  us  in 
getting  to  some  basis  with  reference  to  the  valuation  of  lands;  but  whatever  you  say 
or  do  in  this  matter  won't  bind  anybody,  whomever  you  represent  or  do  not  repre- 
sent. The  same  is  true  of  Senor  Gutierrez,  who  represents  the  Philippine  Sugar, 
and  Mr.  McGregor,  who  represents  the  British  Manila  estates.     When  we  closed 


164  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

we  were  on  the  Bulacan  haciendas.  Had  you  completed  your  questions  about  those, 
Seilor  Gutierrez? 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  No,  sir.  At  that  time  I  had  expressed  my  desire  to  continue 
questioning  and  also  making  some  remarks  with  respect  to  the  eight  haciendas  in 
which  I  am  interested,  but  if  the  Governor  desires  it  I  can  delay  the  matter  until 
some  other  time  and  then  take  up  the  matter  of  the  eight  haciendas. 

Governor  Tapt.  I  have  been  going  over  by  provinces  because  I  thought  that  more 
convenient,  but  Sefior  Gutierrez  can  take  any  course  that  he  prefers. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  I  believe  it  would  be  more  advisable  for  me  to  take  up  the  eight 
haciendas. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  It  is  better  to  take  up  the  estates  by  orders,  the  Augustinians 
first,  then  the  Dominicans  and  Kecoletos. 

Governor  Taft.  I  think  it  was  quite  useful  to  take  up  the  Cavite  estates  together; 
it  is  easier  to  note  their  variation  when  we  have  them  together  than  when  we  take 
them  up  separately.  Here  are  the  Calamba  estates  of  the  Dominicans.  What  is  the 
name  of  it? 

Seiior  Gutierrez.  San  Juan  Bautista,  generally  known  as  the  Calamba.  We  will 
begin  with  Santa  Rosa.  Ask  Sefior  Villegas  if  he  surveyed  and  examined  the 
hacienda  of  Santa  Rosa. 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  was  surveyed  by  an  Assistant  of  mine,  but  under  my  super- 
vision. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  character  of  the  estate?    Is  it  improved  or  otherwise? 

Sefior  Villegas.  There  are  a  few  small  dams. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  character  of  the  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  is  broken  ground. 

Governor  Taft.  There  is  some  sugar  land  and  also  some  rice  land  on  the  property. 
Is  there  any  first-class  superior  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  There  are  some  superior  lands  and  some  first-class  lands,  as  shown 
in  the  statement  here.  The  character  of  the  lands  I  would  place  a  little  above  the 
first-class  lands  and  a  little  below  the  superior  lands. 

Governor  Taft.  What  do  they  produce? 

Sefior  Villegas.     The  first-class  land  produces  from  80  to  90  cavanes  per  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  it  lie  right  on  the  lake  shore? 

Sefior  Villegas.  It  is  situated  right  on  the  Laguna  de  Bay. 

Governor  Taft.  So  that  gives  them  transportation  to  Manila,  does  it? 

Sefior  Villegas.  By  casco  or  banca  navigation;  yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  miles  is  it? 

Sefior  Villegas.  A  little  over  three  hours  by  steamer. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  there  any  method  over  the  estate  itself?  Can  bancas  go  in  the 
streams  on  the  estate? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir.     It  has  to  be  hauled. 

Governor  Taft.  How  are  the  roads? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  roads  are  only  in  a  fair  state. 

Governor  Taft.  You  place  1,000  hectares  as  worth  175  pesos  a  hectare,  1,300 
hectares  at  150  pesos,  and  130  hectares  at  100  pesos.     Is  that  all  rice  land? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Then  you  give  1,010  hectares  of  sugar  land  at  $150  and  1,300 
hectares  of  second-class  land  at  100;  also  sugar  land.  And  you  value  the  casa  of 
the  hacienda  at  $25,000.     Is  it  a  good  house? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  house  is  a  pretty  good  house,  but  it  suffered  somewhat 
during  the  war  between  Spain  and  the  Philippines,  so  that  it  is  not  in  a  very  good 
state  of  repair.  However,  on  the  whole,  it  might  be  said  to  be  in  a  fairly  good 
condition. 

Governor  Taft.  You  estimate  the  total  value  of  the  hacienda  at  $700,000  Mexican? 

Sefior  Villegas.     Yes,  sir. 

Sefior  Gutierrez,  I  would  like  to  ask  Sefior  Villegas  what  basis  he  used  for  his 
judgment  in  the  valuation  of  these  lands?  Have  you  valued  them  in  accordance  with 
sales  of  land  of  similar  character  made  in  the  neighborhood  of  Santa  Rosa? 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  have  valued  them  according  to  the  nature  and  the  value  of  the 
crop  wrhich  they  produce,  and,  furthermore,  in  accordance  with  the  sales  of  lands 
which  have  been  made  in  the  pueblos  of  the  province  of  La  Laguna. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  From  what  you  state  it  appears  that  you  have  made  these  valua- 
tions in  accordance  with  the  sales  of  lands  that  have  taken  place  in  the  neighborhood 
of  other  pueblos  in  La  Laguna,  and  further,  that  the  first-class  lands  yield  from  80 
to  90  cavanes  per  hectare.  From  this  it  appears  that  the  value  of  the  crop  of  the 
lands  is  greater  than  the  value  placed  on  the  lands  themselves,  and  I  consider  this 
preposterous. 

Sefior  Villegas.  In  stating  the  profit  to  be  from  80  to  90  cavanes  I  did  not  mean 


MPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  165 

as  a  regular  annual  yield.  That  is  what  the  lands  are  capable  of  producing  under 
the  most  favorable  circumstances,  but  this  can  not  be  taken  as  a  basis  by  itself  for 
the  valuation  of  the  land,  because  it  is  not  the  basis  for  a  steady  income.  It  is  more 
or  less  subject  to  conditions  and  circumstances  and  it  is  only  lately  that  the  price  of 
palay  has  risen.  It  is  subject  to  fluctuations,  and,  indeed,  the  price  will  be  lower  in 
the  future. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  there  any  lands  rented  in  that  neighborhood  from  others  than 
these  companies? 

Senor  Villegas.  ■  The  people  of  Santa  Rosa  have  told  me  that  those  lands  belong 
to  the  pueblo. 

Governor  Taft.  What  I  want  to  ask  is,  what  is  the  ordinary  division  of  crops 
between  the  landlord  and  the  tenant  in  Laguna,  for  rental  ? 

Senor  Villegas.  One-half. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  that  include  lending  or  furnishing  of  carabaos  by  the  land- 
lord? 

Senor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Suppose  they  do  not  furnish  any  carabaos  and  do  not  furnish  any 
seed,  what  is  the  division  then? 

Senor  Villegas.  It  is  according  to  agreement  in  that  case,  but  it  sometimes 
happens  that  capitalists  will  furnish  only  carabaos  while  the  tenant  is  obliged  to 
furnish  the  seed. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  wish  to  state  that  the  witness  is  in  error  with  regard  to  this 
matter.  I  myself  have  been  an  agriculturist  and  know  what  I  am  talking  about. 
The  custom  in  the  Visayan  Islands  is  to  split  the  crop  in  halfs,  one  half  going  to 
the  landlord  and  the  other  half  to  the  tenant,  the  landlord  furnishing  nothing  but 
the  land.  But  in  the  case  of  sugar  the  landlord  further  takes  the  tenant's  cane  and 
grinds  it  for  him  and  then  they  divide  the  sugar  between  them.  In  Luzon  it  was 
the  custom  to  give  two-thirds  to  the  landlord  and  one-third  to  the  tenant. 

Governor  Taft.  That  is  not  my  information. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  have  been  thirty-six  years  in  the  Philippines  and  a  great 
portion  of  that  time  a  farmer,  and  I  can  show  examples. 

Governor  Taft.  I  will  call  a  wdtness  on  that  subject  who,  long  as  the  experience 
of  Senor  Gutierrez  is,  has  had  more  experience,  in  that  he  has  owned  a  larger  estate. 
My  impression  is  (of  course  I  have  no  knowledge  except  what  I  gain)  that  in  certain 
parts  of  Luzon  (of  course  they  may  vary  in  other  parts)  the  division  is  just  half, 
whether  carabaos  are  furnished  or  not.  Senor  Gonzales  owns  as  large  an  estate  as 
any  of  these,  and  he  charged  10  per  cent  of  the  crop. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  But  that  is  an  insolated  case.  I  can  cite  a  case  of  the  Frailes 
where  they  only  charged  5  per  cent. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  That  simply  goes  to  demonstrate  that  there  is  no  fixed  rule. 
It  simply  depends  on  the  agreement  between  the  land  owner  and  tenant. 

Governor  Taft.  But  if  you  get  all  the  agreements  together  then  you  are  able  to 
determine  something  of  what  ought  to  be  the  rent.  The  friars  were  the  largest 
landlords  in  the  islands  and  they  only  charged  10  per  cent,  and  sometimes,  as  they 
say,  5;  and  then  you  get  Gonzales,  who  is  I  suppose  the  next  largest  proprietor  in  the 
islands,  or  one  of  the  largest,  and  he  only  charges  5  per  cent. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  That  is  true,  but  the  case  of  Senor  Gonzales  is  easily  accounted 
for  when  you  know  that  his  lands  are  uncultivated  lands  and  his  lands  only  date 
from  about  the  year  1860.  He  is  a  man,  you  might  say,  of  yesterday  only,  and  he 
wTould  naturally  wTish  to  have  his  land  cleared  and  put  into  a  state  so  that  it  could 
be  cultivated.  Tuason  charges  here  at  Santa  Mesa  a  tax  of  6  cents,  Mexican,  for 
each  square  meter  a  year. 

Governor  Taft.  I  will  call  Tuason  and  see  what  he  charges.  Santa  Mesa  is  in  the 
city,  isn't  it? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  does  he  charge  in  the  Mariquina  Valley? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  have  not  investigated;  I  can  not  say. 

Governor  Taft.  Mariquina  would  be  a  much  fairer  standard  to  judge  by  than 
Santa  Mesa,  which  is  right  here  within  the  street-railway  limits.  For  instance,  they 
want  $400,000  gold  for  this  land  of  Warner-Barnes  &  Co.,  but  that  gets  its  value  not 
because  of  the  rice  it  raises  (if,  indeed,  it  raises  any  rice),  but  it  gets  its  value  because 
just  as  soon  as  there  is  an  electric  street  railway  it  is  bound  to  be  the  best  land  in 
Manila  for  suburban  residences;  and  so  it  is  with  Santa  Mesa. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  would  ask,  then,  that  the  same  judgment  be  taken  into 
account  with  regard  to  the  lands  wmich  we  are  dealing  with  that  are  within  a  munici- 
pality. 

Governor  Taft.  Certainly.  Let  me  state  the  proposition,  to  see  whether  his  excel- 
lency agrees  with  me.     Any  land  that  is  useful  for  the  construction  of  urban  or  sub- 


166  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

urban  residences  within  a  reasonable  time  has  necessarily  a  value  for  that  purpose 
as  distinguished  from  the  value  that  it  ought  to  have  for  the  raising  of  crops;  but  when 
you  get  land  out  here  in  Santa  Rosa,  there  is  no  probability  that  Manila  is  ever  going 
to  reach  out  to  Santa  Rosa,  or  that  anyone  is  going  to  build  suburban  residences  there, 
and  that  has  to  be  valued  according  to  its  agricultural  character.  The  same  applies 
to  the  Cavite  estates. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Certainly.  It  was  simply  a  general  observation  which  I  made, 
and  which  I  wanted  to  make  for  the  consideration  of  Sefior  Villegas;  for,  if  you  will 
remember,  I  asked  the  question  at  the  beginning  whether  he  had  taken  it  into  due 
consideration  in  his  valuation  of  these  lands — those  lands  which  were  within  the 
urban  zone,  or  which  were  suitable  to  go  within  an  urban  zone,  and  those  lands 
which  were  purely  agricultural. 

Governor  Taft.  As  yet  we  have  not  considered  any  lands  that  were  within  an 
urban  zone;  at  least,  I  do  not  remember. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  It  is  true  I  have  not  asked  him  particularly  that  question,  but 
simply  in  a  general  way,  and  a  question  (which,  by  the  way,  Sefior  Villegas  did  not 
answer)  whether  he  had  taken  into  consideration  in  making  this  assessment  those 
lands  which  were  within  an  urban  zone  and  those  which  were  purely  agricultural 
lands.  I  simply  wished  to  make  this  general  question  in  order  afterwards  to  make 
the  more  particular  questions.  I  will  now  ask  Senor  Villegas  again  if  he  has  taken 
into  consideration  lands  within  an  urban  zone  and  lands  outside  the  urban  zone. 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  I  have. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Further  on  I  will  discuss  which  were  urban  lands  and  which 
were  not  urban  lands. 

Sefior  Villegas.  With  regard  to  the  question  of  the  obligations  of  the  tenant 
toward  the  landlord  in  the  case  of  one  of  these  haciendas,  it  was  the  general  rule  for 
the  tenant  to  give  for  each  cavan  of  seed  that  had  been  furnished  to  him  5  or  6  ca vanes 
of  palay  and  from  6  to  8  pesos  in  money. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  With  regard  to  Sefior  Villegas' s  statement  of  the  improvements 
on  this  hacienda,  I  should  like  to  say  that  there  is  on  this  hacienda  a  ditch  a  kilo- 
meter and  a  half  in  length,  besides  smaller  ditches  of  13,000  meters  in  length.  With 
regard  to  the  valuation  of  the  house,  if  it  was  offered  to  me  for  $30,000  I  would  take 
it  immediately.  There  is  also  a  warehouse  that  is  situated  in  the  neighborhood  of 
the  house  that  is  worth  $10,000,  which  Sefior  Villegas  has  not  taken  into  account  at 
all.  There  is  also  another  fine  house  on  the  estate,  a  magnificent  house,  which  is 
outside  of  the  town  itself,  of  which  no  mention  is  made  by  Sefior  Villegas.  He  has 
also  valued  the  sugar  land  at  much  less  than  the  palay  land,  and  yet  we  all  know 
that  the  sugar  land  is  worth  a  great  deal  more  than  palay  land. 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  do  not  agree  with  Sefior  Gutierrez,  because  the  rice  lands  are 
situated  almost  on  the  lake  shore,  while  the  sugar  lands  are  situated  away  up  in  the 
uplands. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  You  can  say  what  you  like  about  the  matter,  but  everybody 
knows  that  the  sugar  land  is  worth  a  great  deal  more  than  the  rice  land.  The  fact 
of  sugar  land  being  on  the  uplands  is  in  accordance  with  the  nature  of  sugar  land. 
Sugar  land  needs  these  conditions  to  be  sugar  land — it  must  be  on  high  ground. 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  have  taken  into  consideration  the  difficulty  of  transporting  the 
sugar  cane  from  these  high  lands  to  the  pueblo,  which  is  very  costly;  and,  furthermore, 
these  lands  are  not  very  good  lands  for  the  cultivation  of  sugar. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  Sefior  Villegas' s  classification  of  the  land  demonstrates,  to  my 
mind,  that  the  land  must  be  very  valuable  for  the  cultivation  of  sugar.  However, 
the  land  has  been  classified  by  Sefior  Villegas  as  sugar  land,  and  it  is  in  sugar,  and  it 
would  be  certainly  very  foolish  to  plant  sugar  on  half  of  the  land  of  this  estate,  taking 
into  consideration  the  cost  of  planting  sugar  cane,  if  it  were  not  suitable  for  sugar  and 
suitable  only  for  palay. 

Sefior  Villegas.  With  regard  to  the  valuation  that  I  have  made  of  those  lands,  it 
is  in  accordance  with  the  actual  product  of  the  land. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  How  many  pilons  of  sugar  a  hectare  does  the  land  produce? 

Sefior  Villegas.  From  25  to  30  pilons  a  hectare. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  How  much  is  each  pilon  worth? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  price  varies. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  Furthermore,  Sefior  Villegas  has  not  taken  into  consideration 
the  urban  zone  of  Santa  Rosa  in  this  estate,  and  I  know  that  the  town  of  Santa  Rosa 
is  quite  a  good  town. 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  have  taken  it  into  account  in  the  classification  of  first-class 
lands,  for  the  superior  class  lands,  and  the  town  lots  are  about  equal  in  value. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  I  can  not  agree  with  you  that  town  lots  are  of  the  same  value  as 
first-class  or  superior  lands. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  167 

Seiior  Villegas.  Town  lots  in  provincial  towns  are  not  worth  as  much  as  in 
Manila. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  That  is  true.  Seiior  Villegas  also  states  that  the  communication 
between  the  hacienda  and  the  outside  is  not  good,  but  I  can  state  that  the  entire 
hacienda  fronts  upon  the  lake  shore  and  has  easy  communication. 

Seilor  Villegas.  I  have  recognized  the  fact  that  some  of  the  land  lies  on  the  lake 
shore,  and  for  that  reason  I  have  valued  it  as  first-class,  superior  land. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  hi  order  to  demonstrate  the  difference  of  opinion  there  is  with 
regard  to  the  value  of  land,  the  agent  of  the  Augustinian  nuns  has  been  offered  a 
peso  and  a  half  a  square  meter  for  their  lands,  and  they  have  refused  it. 

Governor  Taft.  But  that  is  suburban  property;  the  electric  street  railway  is  bound 
to  go  right  there. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  Santa  Clara  nuns  have  also  been  offered  a  very  high  price 
for  their  estate. 

Governor  Taft.  Now,  about  Calamba.     Is  that  sugar  or  rice  land? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Both  sugar  and  rice. 

Governor  Taft.  There  are  16,424  hectares  in  the  estate. 

Seiior  Gutierrez.  Yes,  more  or  less;  that  is  about  right. 

Governor  Taft.  You  have  estimated  that  of  first-class  land  there  are  3,991  hectares; 
883  hectares  of  second-class,  and  883  of  third-class  lands.  Also  4,626  hectares  of 
sugar  land  which  you  estimate  at  60  pesos  a  hectare,  and  6,036  hectares  of  unculti- 
vated lands.  The  hacienda  house  you  place  at  15,000  pesos,  making  the  total  value 
of  the  estate  §1,102,000. 

Seiior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  this  on  the  lake? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  soil  good? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  hours  is  it  from  Manila? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  steamer  leaving  here  at  7  o'clock  in  the  morning  will  reach 
there  about  1  o'clock  the  same  afternoon;  that  is,  after  making  all  stops. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  improved? 

Seiior  Villegas.  There  are  a  few  improvements. 

Governor  Taft.  It  has  the  main  road  to  Batangas  and  Lipa  running  through  it, 
hasn't  it? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  There  seem  to  be  a  good  many  rivers  and  streams  running  through 
the  estate. 

Sehor  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  but  they  are  not  navigable  streams.  The  San  Juan 
Eiver  is  navigable,  however,  up  to  the  pueblo  of  Calamba. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  there  any  dams  in  the  streams? 

Seiior  Villegas.   Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  they  used  in  irrigating  the  land? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Those  rivers  which  have  dams  are  used  for  the  irrigation  of  land. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  do  the  first-class  lands  produce  here  of  rice? 

Sefior  Villegas.  In  good  seasons,  first-class  rice  lands  produce  from  70  to  80 
ca vanes  in  this  hacienda;  the  lands  lying  along  the  shore  of  the  bay. 

Governor  Taft.  Where  is  the  sugar  land? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Through  the  wooded  uplands. 

Governor  Taft.  I  see  you  have  estimated  this  sugar  land  as  considerably  less  in 
value  than  in  Santa  Rosa.     Why  have  you  made  that  distinction? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Because  the  sugar  land  in  this  estate  is  away  back  in  the  woods, 
almost  up  in  the  foothills  of  the  mountains. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  that  produce  as  much  sugar  cane  as  the  land  in  Santa  Rosa 
per  hectare? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir;  these  sugar  lands  produce  comparatively  little. 

Governor  Taft.  About  this  house,  is  it  in  good  condition? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  a  large  house? 

Sefior  Villegas.  No,  sir;  it  is  a  medium-sized  house. 

Governor  Taft.  You  have  estimated  its  value  as  $15,000? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  You  put  the  valuation  of  5  pesos  a  hectare  on  uncultivated  lands 
for  the  same  reason,  I  presume,  that  you  did  in  other  cases? 

Seiior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  You  have  stated  that  the  first-class  rice  lands  produce  from  70 
to  80  ca  vanes  a  year.     What  do  the  second-class  rice  lands  produce? 

Seiior  Villegas.  From  65  to  75  cavanes  only. 


168  EEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Sen  or  Gutierrez.  How  much  do  the  third-class  lands  produce? 

Senor  Villegas.  From  45  to  55  cavanes  a  year. 

Sen  or  Gutierrez.  How  many  piculs  of  sugar  will  one  hectare  of  sugar- land  produce? 

Senor  Villegas.  From  15  to  20. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  It  produces  over  100. 

Senor  Villegas.  But  you  must  take  into  consideration  that  in  planting  sugar  land 
one-half  of  the  hectare  is  always  left  idle — that  is,  one-half  cultivated  in  one  year 
and  one-half  left  fallow  until  the  next  year. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  So  that  you  have  given  me  the  production  of  one-half  of  a 
hectare  instead  of  one  hectare? 

Senor  Villegas.  No;  I  have  given  the  production  of  one  hectare  because  I  have 
taken  into  consideration  that  a  hectare  that  is  put  to  seed  this  year,  next  year  lies 
idle;  so  that  I  take  the  average  per  year. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  must  not  take  it  as  a  fact  that  the  land  would  be  allowed 
to  lie  idle,  because  if  it  was  planted  to  sugar  cane  one  year,  the  next  year  instead  of 
being  allowed  to  lie  idle  it  would  be  planted  to  corn  or  any  other  crop,  which  would 
be  worth  something. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  simply  took  into  consideration  the  value  of  the  land  with  rela- 
tion to  its  productivity  in  sugar. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  should  not  do  so;  you  should  also  take  into  consideration 
its  productivity  in  other  crops. 

Senor  Villegas.  That  would  be  a  small  affair. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  With  regard  to  the  sugar  lands  in  the  estate  of  Calamba — they 
are  of  such  strong  soil  that  it  is  necessary  that  they  be  cultivated  for  a  long  succession 
of  years  before  they  can  give  a  good  quality  of  sugar.  At  the  present  time  they  do  not 
give  a  good  quality  of  sugar,  but  it  is  not  necessary  to  let  them  lie  idle  at  the  present 
time.     They  ought  to  be  cultivated  every  year  for  a  succession  of  years. 

Senor  Villegas.  But  it  is  the  general  custom  in  this  country  where  the  palay  is 
sown  to  the  land  one  year  and  then  the  straw  is  burned  off,  that  year  they  are 
allowed  to  lie  idle  for  another  year  before  they  are  seeded  again. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  But  that  is  not  the  normal  condition  of  these  islands.  What 
you  refer  to  is  simply  those  lands  which  have  been  recently  cleared  and  which  are 
cultivated  by  the  people  in  the  mountains.  It  may  be  that  they  will  cultivate  them 
one  year  and  allow  them  to  lie  idle,  but  lands  that  are  under  constant  cultivation  are 
cultivated  one  crop  one  year  and  cultivated  to  another  the  next  year.  It  is  the  same 
way  here  as  in  Porto  Rico,  Cuba,  or  anywhere  else. 

Governor  Taft.  I  thought  they  planted  sugar  lands  and  went  right  on  growing 
sugar  for  four  or  five  years  before  they  had  to  renew  the  cane. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  That  is  in  some  points  true,  but  in  other  points  it  is  not. 

Governor  Taft.  How  about  the  island  of  Negros? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  At  Hog,  in  Negros — a  place  which  I  know  very  well — they  cul- 
tivated cane  for  a  period  of  seven  years  without  making  new  plantings. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  sugar  land  in  Negros  worth? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  do  not  know,  but  it  is  worth  a  good  deal  of  money. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  worth  200  pesos  a  hectare? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir;  I  should  think  so. 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  not  worth  from  100  to  150.  How  much  is  that  of  Lacson 
worth?    That  is  as  good  as  there  is. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  do  not  know  what  Lacson' s  hacienda  is  worth.  I  did  know 
what  he  paid  for  it  but  I  have  forgotten. 

Governor  Taft.  The  sugar  land  in  Negros,  along  on  the  coast  there,  has  very  easy 
communication  with  Iloilo,  hasn't  it? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  But  our  communication  is  ever  so  much  easier. 

Governor  Taft.  Yes;  but  they  have  small  vessels  that  run  all  the  time  there, 
haven't  they,  right  across  to  Iloilo? 

Sen  or  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir.  Lacson' s  hacienda  runs  right  down  to  the  shore,  and 
his  lorchas  run  right  up  and  take  the  sugar  from  the  little  railroad  that  he  has  on  the 
shore. 

Governor  Taft.  Sugar  land  there  produces  a  good  deal  more  than  sugar  land  here, 
does  it  not? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  No,  sir;  it  is  better  sugar,  but  much  less.  It  is  possible  that  the 
land  is  very  much  easier  cultivated  in  occidental  Negros.  I  know  that  it  gives  a 
better  quality  of  sugar,  but  it  gives  a  very  much  smaller  crop— that  is,  land  that  is 
worn-out  down  there. 

Governor  Taft.  Some  of  it  is,  but  I  mean  good  land  in  Negros  situated  conven- 
iently toward  Iloilo.  Is  there  any  of  it  that  is  worth  more  than  200  pesos  a  hectare, 
by  estates? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  do  not  know  because  I  do  not  own  any  of  the  land;  but  I  think 


REPOKT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION".  l69 

it  is  possible  that  you  could  find  sugar  lands  worth  that  much  in  Negros,  because 
Negros  is  a  very  large  island  and  very  thinly  populated. 

Governor  Taft.  What  I  want  to  know  is,  why,  if  first-class  sugar  land  in  Negros 
is  worth  generally  not  200  pesos  but  150,  this  should  be  worth  five  and  six  and  seven 
hundred  pesos? 

Seiior  Gutierrez.  For  the  same  reason  that  in  Pampanga  land  is  worth  from  600 
to  800  pesos  a  hectare  where  the  same  lands  in  Tarlac  are  worth  30  to  40  pesos  a 
hectare.  In  Pampanga,  there  is  a  very  thick  population.  Tarlac  is  very  thinly 
inhabited  and  what  they  desire  there  is  that  new  colonists  come  and  cultivate  the 
land. 

Governor  Taft.  Then  you  do  not  judge  wholly  by  the  product  in  ascertaining  the 
value  of  the  land? 

Seiior  Gutierrez.  In  Pampanga  and  other  places  the  value  of  the  land  depends 
upon  the  demand  for  it.  In  our  haciendas  which  have  been  long  opened  up  and 
which  are  surrounded  by  a  thick  population,  the  people  there  have  to  buy  the  prod- 
ucts of  the  land;  consequently  it  is  worth  more. 

Governor  Taft.  In  Negros  the  gross  product  in  many  years  is  worth  as  much  as 
the  land  is  worth,  so  that  it  does  not  show  that  an  estimate  is  necessarily  absurd  of 
the  value  of  the  land  because  it  may  not  exceed  the  gross  product  of  the  land. 

Seiior  Gutierrez.  When  you  deal  with  a  hacienda  that  is  cultivated,  an  old, 
established  hacienda  like  this,  then  it  is  absurd. 

Governor  Taft.  These  lands  in  Negros  have  been  cultivated  for  a  long  time.  You 
stated  that  some  of  the  land  was  cultivated  so  long  that  it  was  thinned. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  They  are  lands  that  have  been  cultivated  for  a  number  of  years 
and  that  have  been  abandoned. 

Governor  Taft.  In  Negros? 

Archbishop  Guidi.  In  some  parts  of  Negros. 

Governor  Taft.  But  these  lands,  some  of  them — in  Santa  Rosa,  for  instance — have 
been  cultivated  for  hundreds  of  years,  according  to  Sefior  Gutierrez.  Have  they  ever 
been  manured?  * 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  I  do  not  know. 

Governor  Taft.  The  fact  is  that  none  of  this  land  has  ever  received  additions  to 
its  strength  by  artificial  means? 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  I  believe  not. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  the  land  become  exhausted  gradually  from  cultivation  of 
sugar? 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir;  with  the  cultivation  of  everything. 

Governor  Taft.  Then  these  lands,  which  are  so  old,  have  been  cultivated  a  long 
time,  haven't  they;  so  that  they  do  not  produce  as  much  as  if  they  were  fresh  lands? 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  That  is  true. 

Governor  Taft.  Then  why  should  they  be  more  valuable  from  the  point  of  pro- 
duction than  the  manured  land  of  Negros,  for  instance? 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  It  is  not  precisely  from  their  productivity  that  their  values  are 
increased,  but  from  their  proximity  to  a  central  market,  from  the  ease  with  which 
they  are  worked,  from  the  large  supply  of  workingmen  which  they  can  draw  upon 
to  cultivate,  and  from  the  fact  that  they  are  all  actually  under  cultivation. 

Governor  Taft.  Now,  we  have  got  back  to  what  I  wished  to  show,  and  that  was 
that  the  value  of  your  land  depends  on  what  it  will  bring  in  the  market,  what  people 
will  pay  for  it;  that  the  productivity  of  the  land  is  only  one  circumstance,  and  the 
fact  that  it  produces  $150  in  a  year,  gross,  is  only  one  circumstance  to  show  what  its 
value  may  be,  and  that  it  may  be  worth  no  more  than  the  gross  production  of  one 
year. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  I  can  never  admit  that  latter  statement.  , 

Governor  Taft.  You  just  admitted  to  me  that  there  was  land  in  Negros  that  pro- 
duced 8150  a  year  and  was  not  worth  more  than  $150. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  Yes;  but  the  trouble  is  that  there  is  no  demand  for  those  lands 
in  Negros.     In  Paragua  there  are  similar  lands. 

Governor  Taft.  That  is  just  what  I  say;  it  depends  on  the  lands. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  Yes;  but  the  uncultivated  land  is  more  subject  to  fluctuations 
than  cultivated  land. 

Governor  Taft.  I  am  speaking  about  cultivated  land  in  Negros.  That  is  what  I 
understood  you  to  refer  to — cultivated  sugar  land  that  will  produce  $150  a  year  and 
yet  is  not  worth  more  than  S150. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  With  respect  to  cultivated  lands  in  Negros,  such  as  you  refer  to, 
if  they  do  produce  150  pesos  a  hectare,  I  can  not  conceive  of  anybody  wanting  to  sell 
them 'for  that  sum.  It  is  impossible  that  anybody  should  wish  to  sell  for  that  sum 
or  less  than  that  sum. 

Governor  Taft.  I  understood  you  to  admit  a  while  ago   (possibly  I  am  wrong 


170  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

about  it)  that  the  gross  production  of  land  frequently  is  equal  for  one  year,  or  even 
greater,  than  the  land  itself  sold  in  the  market. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  No,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Friar  Martin  is  probably  correct  in  this  matter  that  Senor 
Gutierrez  speaks  about,  of  lands  that  are  capable  of  producing  150  pesos  a  year;  that 
there  is  a  possibility  that  they  have  all  the  elements  necessary  to  produce,  if  prop- 
erly cultivated,  150  pesos  a  year,  but  that  owing  to  certain  conditions  and  circum- 
stances, like  lack  of  labor  or  isolated  position,  long  way  from  a  market,  etc.,  they  are 
unable  to  bring  out  their  entire  productivity,  that  is,  to  be  cultivated  to  their  fullest 
extent;  and  in  that  case  such  lands  may  be  sold  at  less  than  what  they  are  capable 
of  producing  in  one  year.  But  I  do  not  believe  that  lands  that  actually  do  pro- 
duce 150  pesos  a  year  could  be  sold  for  anything  less  than  that  sum.  To  give  a  con- 
crete example:  There  are  certain  lands  around  Rome  that  are  cabable  of  great  pro- 
ductivity, but  they  have  gone  begging  in  the  market;  nobody  would  buy  that  land 
on  account  of  malarial  fevers  around  there.  Lately  they  have  found  a  method  of 
combatting  these  fevers  and  the  price  of  these  lands  has  gone  up  wonderfully. 
Formerly,  of  course,  nobody  would  risk  his  life  to  go  out  and  cultivate  those  lands, 
although  it  was  known  that  the  lands  were  capable  of  great  production.  Since  they 
have  discovered  a  way  of  defending  themselves  against  the  attacks  of  the  mosquitos 
by  living  in  mosquito-proof  houses,  the  value  of  those  lands  around  the  Campana  of 
Rome  has  gone  up  from  20  cents  a  square  meter  to  200  and  300  francs  a  hectare. 
That  is  simply  owing  to  the  different  conditions  surrounding  them. 

Governor  Taft.  I  agree  to  what  his  excellency  says,  but  I  still  wish  to  stick  to  the 
point  that  I  am  trying  to  make,  and  that  is,  that  if  you  tell  me  that  land  is  cultivated 
and  produces  $150  gross  receipts  a  year,  you  only  give  me  one  circumstance  in 
determining  what  the  value  of  that  land  is,  and  that  that  may  be  so  affected  by 
other  circumstances  as  to  make  the  value  of  the  land  no  more  than  the  gross  product 
in  one  year.  Those  are,  first,  the  expenses — the  cost  of  labor,  the  question  of  getting 
labor  at  all,  the  danger  from  locusts,  the  difficulty  of  getting  carabaos,  and  a  thou- 
sand and  one  circumstances,  especially  in  the  Tropics,  that  affect  the  net  product 
from  that  gross  product;  and  then,  you  add  to  that  what  is  usually  required  as  in  the 
Tropics  or  in  the  community  as  a  fair  dividend  or  a  fair  percentage  of  income  on 
your  capital,  which,  I  understand,  in  this  community  is  from  20  to  30  per  cent  of 
the  capital;  so  that  it  would  be  very  easy  to  produce  150  pesos  gross  and  then  cut 
down  the  expenses  and  show  that  the  net  product  was  no  more  than  would  be  the 
reasonable  income  on  that  land. 

Mr.  McGregor.  That  is  a  tremendous  interest,  governor. 

Governor  Taft.  I  can  call  every  business  man  in  Manila  and  show  that  he  would 
not  go  into  agriculture  if  he  could  not  get  at  least  20  per  cent.  I  mean  invest  capi- 
tal and  buy  land. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Because  they  are  not  people  who  care  to  do  it. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  But  relatively  the  production  of  the  land  has  also  increased, 
that  is,  relatively  with  the  expenses.  As  the  circumstances  have  become  more  risky 
and  as  capital  has  become  dearer,  so  the  production  of  the  land  has  increased  in  pro- 
portion, so  that  to-day  the  production  of  the  land,  we  will  say,  that  used  to  yield 
$150  is  now  very  much  greater.  Relatively  in  proportion  to  the  expenses  it  is  just  as 
great.  For  instance,  palay  is  worth  a  great  deal  more  now  than  it  was  before.  The 
cultivator  never  loses;  it  is  the  consumer  who  pays  for  all  that.  The  people  who 
are  obliged  to  go  to  market  to  buy  rice  for  food  have  to  pay  for  the  losses  of  the  land- 
owner, but  the  landowner  will  always  get  his  interest  on  his  money. 

Governor  Taft.  That  is  not  my  understanding,  and  1  venture  to  say  that  if  you 
go  through  the  landowners  of  these  islands  you  will  find  that  none  of  them  have 
made  fortunes. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  only  way  you  can  gauge  the  value  of  the  land  is  by  the 
products. 

Governor  Taft.  That  is  only  one  circumstance. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  think  that  is  the  principal  circumstance. 

Governor  Taft.  Let  us  see  how  much  palay  has  come  up  in  price.  Ask  Senor 
Villegas  what  the  old  price  of  palay  was  on  the  hacienda. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  have  known,  when  I  was  a  young  man,  rice  to  sell  from  3  to  4 
reals  a  cavan.  It  went  to  a  dollar,  from  that  it  went  to  $2.20,  from  that  it  has  gone 
up  until  it  is  now  $3.50. 

Governor  Taft.  When  did  it  go  to  $2.20? 

Senor  Villegas.  In  1901  and  1902. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Now  I  will  ask,  why  has  rice  gone  up?  I  will  answer  the 
question  myself.  It  is  because  the  landowner,  the  farmer,  calculates  what  it  has 
cost  him  to  raise  the  rice.  He  calculates  every  penny  that  lie  has  invested  in  the 
cultivation  of  this  rice  until  he  gets  it  into  the  warehouse  and  the  market,  and  then 


KEPOPT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  171 

on  top  of  that  he  adds  what  he  thinks  a  just  interest  on  his  capital,  and  he  sells  it  at 
that  price  on  the  market,  so  that  he  loses  nothing. 

Governor  Taft.  I  venture  to  differ  totally  from  his  excellency.  He  sells  his  rice 
for  what  he  can  get  for  it  in  the  market,  and  that  market  is  determined  by  what  they 
can  import  rice  for  from  Saigon  and  Bangkok  and  from  other  ports.  It  is  determined 
by  the  demand  and  the  supply.  He  does  not  make  the  calculation  and  it  does  not 
do  any  good  to  make  the  calculation,  because  he  has  got  to  sell  the  rice  for  what  he 
can  get  for  it. 

Archbishop  Gutdi.  We  were  speaking,  however,  of  the  price  upon  the  land 
itself,  for  local  consumption. 

Senor  Yillegas.  I  was  speaking  of  the  market  here  in  Manila. 

Governor  Taft.  "What  is  it  on  the  hacienda? 

Senor  Yillegas.  In  Paluan  in  1901  I  was  able  to  purchase  it  a  $1  a  cavan. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  carabao  necessary  for  the  cultivation  of  rice. 

Seiior  Yillegas.  Yes,  sir;  it  can  not  be  cultivated  without  the  carabao. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  value  of  the  carabao  to-day  in  the  market,  anywhere, 
as  compared  with  what  it  was  three  or  four  years  ago? 

Senor  Yillegas.  Formerly  you  could  get  a  carabao  for  from  30,  40,  or  50,  some- 
times at  the  very  dearest  at  60,  pesos  a  head,  but  to-day  you  can  not  buy  a  carabao 
in  the  market  anywhere  for  less  than  150. 

Governor  Taft.  In  other  words,  the  price  of  carabaos  has  trebled  ? 

Senor  Yillegas.  Yes,  sir,  and  even  more. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  "jornal"  or  daily  wages  in  these  provinces  about 
Manila  for  farm  laborers  ? 

Senor  Yillegas.  Fifty  cents  Mexican  a  day  in  the  provinces.  Formerly  it  was  25 
cents. 

Governor  Taft.  In  some  of  the  provinces  has  it  not  increased  to  60  and  70  cents 
Mexican  ? 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Perhaps  25  cents  formerly  was  of  greater  value  than  60  cents 
to-day. 

Governor  Taft.  I  am  speaking  only  of  Mexican,  and  that  is  the  standard  here. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  But  it  is  a  great  mistake  that  we  have  not  yet  gotten  out  of,  in 
regard  to  the  value  of  the  Mexican  money  to-day  and  the  Mexican  money  of  former 
years. 

Governor  Taft.  But  we  are  dealing  altogether  with  Mexican  money  to-day.  The 
price  of  carabaos,  the  price  of  rice,  and  the  price  of  the  "jornal "  is  Mexican. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  agree  with  you.  I  know  that  in  your  mind  you  have  the 
Mexican  money,  but  Senor  Yillegas  does  not  understand  you,  but  he  understands 
that  the  peso  is'  the  peso  of  Spain. 

Governor  Taft.  They  never  had  any  money  here  but  the  Mexican  peso.  It  was 
a  dollar  in  silver  with  the  Mexican  stamp  on  it,  and  that  may  have  varied  in  value 
and  may  have  been  worth  in  gold  100  cents  at  one  time  and  75  cents  at  another,  and 
50  cents  at  another,  and  40  cents  as  it  is  to-day;  but  what  I  am  speaking  of  is  the 
value  in  Mexican,  whatever  that  was  worth  in  gold.  That  standard  may  have  varied, 
but  these  people  only  knew  the  Mexican  dollar;  that  is  all  they  knew.  That  may 
have  varied  in  gold,  and  the  fact  that  it  varied  in  gold  may  have  increased  the  price 
in  gold,  but  I  am  speaking  of  that  standard,  however  varied  that  standard  was. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  standard  as  applied  in  actual  practice  during  this  length  of 
time  works  out  in  this  way,  that  the  article  which  was  worth  one  Mexican  dollar  at 
that  time  is  now  worth  two  or  three  at  the  present  time. 

Governor  Taft.  As  I  conceive,  what  we  have  got  to  do  in  reaching  the  value  of 
this  property  is  to  determine  what  that  property  is  estimated  to  be  worth  by  the 
people  who  are  in  a  position  to  buy  and  in  a  position  to  work  that  land.  It  is  by  the 
demand,  and  the  demand,  as  Senor  Gutierrez  says,  is  determined  by  the  tenants  who 
are  around  and  who  want  the  land.  Now  they  who  form  the  value  and  the  demand 
have  no  other  standard,  whether  it  varies  or  not;  they  had  no  other  standard  except 
the  silver  Mexican  dollar  in  the  last  twenty-five  years.  It  is  true,  I  have  no  doubt, 
that  the  fact  that  this  Mexican  dollar  has  gone  down  in  gold  has  so  affected  values, 
unconsciously  to  these  people,  that  the  value  of  the  land  and  the  value  of  other 
things  has  increased  in  Mexican.  The  only  way  we  can  reach  the  value  of  these 
lands  in  gold  is  to  determine  their  value  in  Mexican  in  the  demand  of  those  people  who 
pay  in  Mexican  and  estimate  in  Mexican  and  then  ourselves,  because  we  go  according 
to  value  in  gold,  reduce  the  Mexican  value  to  a  gold  value  according  to  the  variation 
between  gold  and  silver  at  the  time  that  we  make  the  purchase. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  That  means  that  the  purchaser  determines  the  price  of  the 
land. 

Governor  Taft.  No;  the  seller  also. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  great  thing  for  us  to  find  out  is,  if  these  people  value  $200 


172  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

to-day  in  Mexican  as  its  actual  value  to-day,  or  the  $200  they  have  known  it  in  times 
past,  that  is  the  difficulty. 

Governor  Taft.  What  we  are  discussing  now,  first,  is  the  demand,  and  then  the 
effect  that  the  production  in  Mexican  ought  to  have  on  the  value  and  in  demonstrat- 
ing what  that  demand  is.  We  have  here  the  gross  production  in  Mexican;  we  have 
the  expenses  in  Mexican,  to  wit,  we  have  the  cost  of  the  carabao,  the  cost  of  the  seed, 
the  cost  of  the  labor,  and  the  production,  in  Mexican,  and  we  have  also  what  is  the 
understood  income  or  per  cent  of  income  that  is  required  by  capitalists  in  the  islands. 
That  does  not  necessitate  our  going  into  gold  at  all,  because  we  have  every  element 
in  silver — silver  as  it  is  estimated  by  the  people  to-day. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  My  mind  refuses  to  believe  that  a  carabao  can  be  worth  as 
much  to-day  as  a  hectare  of  ground. 

Governor  Taft.  But  it  is.  I  can  get  hectares  of  ground  that  are  worth  just  a 
third  of  what  the  carabaos  are  worth. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  The  price  that  Senor  Villegas  has  placed  on  the  carabao  is 
about  correct — 150  to  200  pesos  even;  but  this  does  not  show  that  the  land  ought  to 
be  worth  that.  If  the  carabao  is  worth  that  much  the  land  ought  to  be  worth  a 
good  deal  more. 

Governor  Taft.  No;  it  is  because  the  carabaos  have  disappeared;  the  land  is  still 
here. 

Seiior  Gutierrez.  That  is  an  accident. 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  an  accident  that  is  bound  to  last  for  a  number  of  years. 
Then  you  have  surra  that  has  already  destroyed  50  per  cent  of  the  horses. 

(Adjourned  until  March  11,  1903.) 

Continued  from  March  9,  1903,  fifth  session. 

Malacanan  Palace,  Manila,  March  11,  1903. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  should  like  to  know  if  Seiior  Villegas,  upon  making  the  sur- 
vey of  the  Calamba  estate  and  placing  the  value  thereon,  took  into  consideration  the 
fact  that  there  are  coffee  lands  and  hemp  lands  on  the  property? 

Senor  Villegas.  I  have  seen  no  coffee  lands  on  the  property  nor  have  I  seen  any 
abaca  lands.     There  is  a  very  small  amount  of  hemp  land. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Senor  Villegas  also  omits  to  take  into  account  such  important 
improvements  in  the  hacienda  of  Calamba  as  the  large  dam  and  the  smaller  dams, 
22  kilometers  of  ditching  with  new  bridges,  2  kilometers  of  ditching  of  masonry,  and 
a  tubular  siphon  of  iron,  24  meters  long  by  1  meter  in  diameter,  which  is  placed  at  the 
bottom  of  the  river  and  which  is  a  very  costly  work  of  masonry.  Neither  has  he 
taken  into  account  three  warehouses  of  masonry  for  the  purification  of  the  water,  of 
512  cubic  meters  capacity  each,  all  of  which  is  for  irrigating  the  zone  of  cultivable 
land  of  said  hacienda.  Nor  has  he  taken  into  account  six  machines  with  all  their 
accessories,  as  well  as  other  warehouses  and  sugar  mills.  All  these  improvements 
have  cost  over  $400,000  gold. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  have  taken  into  account,  as  will  be  shown  in  my  estimate  of 
the  value  of  the  property,  all  the  small  dams  that  there  are  on  the  property  at  the 
present  time  and  have  valued  them  in  accordance  with  their  present  state  of  repair. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  So,  as  I  understand  you,  you  simply  valued  the  smaller  dams, 
but  all  the  other  irrigation  improvements  you  have  not  taken  into  consideration,  nor 
have  you  taken  into  consideration  the  warehouses  and  the  mill  on  the  property. 

Senor  Villegas.  I  did  not  take  into  consideration  all  of  the  other  improvements 
in  connection  with  the  dams  and  ditching  because  I  thought  that  they  were  merely 
accessories  to  the  general  irrigation  works  on  the  property,  and  as  far  as  machinery 
is  concerned  I  did  not  know  but  that  it  was  private  property,  as  the  property  is 
rented  out  to  private  tenants;  and  it  must  also  be  taken  into  account  what  kind  of 
machinery  you  refer  to.  If  it  is  milling  machinery,  then  it  does  not  belong  to  the 
hacienda  and  is  not  a  part  of  the  hacienda. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  In  the  valuation  which  I  have  the  small  dams  do  not  appear, 
nor  do  the  large  dams,  and  as  far  as  the  machinery  is  concerned,  that  belongs  to  the 
property.     There  are  seven  machines  on  the  property,  all  of  them  in  warehouses. 

Senor  Villegas.  According  to  the  information  I  got  from  the  presidente  and  the 
leading  men  of  Calamba,  I  understood  that  all  of  that  machinery  and  improvements 
were  constructed  by  and  were  the  property  of  the  tenants. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  That  is  not  true.  All  of  the  improvements  on  the  hacienda 
belong  to  the  hacienda  and  were  made  by  the  owners  of  the  hacienda. 

Senor  Villegas.  In  the  plan  itself  I  have  shown  the  portion  which  is  legally 
acknowledged  to  be  the  property  of  the  friars  and  shown  the  other  which  is  not 
recognized  as  the  property  of  the  friars. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Who  has  told  you  which  was  the  part  that  belonged  to  the 
friars  legally  and  which  did  not  belong  to  the  friars? 


KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  173 

Sefior  Villegas.  In  making  the  survey  of  this  land  I  have  shown  on  the  map  that 
part  which  is  legally  recognized  by  the  principales  of  Calamba  as  the  legal  property 
of  the  friars,  and  I  have  also  designated  that  part  of  the  land  which  the  principales 
of  Calamba  say  has  been  usurped  by  the  friars.  I  have  gone  over  and  measured  from 
monument  to  monument,  taking  in  all  of  the  monuments  in  that  land;  that  is  to  say, 
the  land  which  is  legally  recognized  as  belonging  to  the  friars  and  that  land  which 
is  said  to  have  been  usurped. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Have  you  seen  the  title  deeds,  or  how  did  you  determine  which 
part  of  the  land  had  been  usurped  and  which  part  was  that  of  the  friars  legally 
acknowledged? 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  have  not  seen  the  title  deeds  to  the  lands,  but  I  have  simply, 
at  the  request  of  the  principales  and  the  presidente  of  Calamba,  drawn  this  line  out 
on  the  plan  in  order  to  show  which  land  was  legally  recognized  as  the  property  of  the 
friars. 

Governor  Taft.  What  do  the  monuments  consist  of? 

Sefior  Villegas.  They  are  pillars  of  stone  and  masonry. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  only  way  to  draw  these  boundaries  is  with  the  title  deeds 
in  your  hands  and  then  run  the  lines  between  the  monuments. 

Governor  Taft.  Were  there  any  marks  on  this  space  that  the  presidente  and  coun- 
cilors said  was  admitted  to  belong  to  the  friars? 

Sefior  Villegas.     No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Then  you  just  made  that  from  their  statement,  did  you? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Didn't  they  admit  that  the  friars  had  been  in  possession  of  all 
this  property? 

Sefior  Villegas.  Yes,  sir;  they  acknowledged  they  have  had  and  still  have  pos- 
session, but  they  say  it  was  usurped  by  them. 

Governor  Taft.  How  long  have  they  had  possession,  did  they  admit? 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  believe  that  I  myself  was  the  bearer  of  a  communication  from 
the  principales  of  Calamba  to  Sefior  Legarda  with  regard  to  this  matter. 

Governor  Taft.  What  did  that  communication  say? 

Sefior  Villegas.  The  communication  stated  that  from  time  to  time  these  boundary 
monuments  had  been  moved. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  it  not  appear  by  their  admission  that  the  friars  had  been  in- 
possession  of  this  property  from  fifty  to  one  hundred  years? 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  believe  it  is  a  long  time.  The  communication  states  the  time 
upon  which  the  boundary  monuments  were  moved. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  It  is  a  useless  question. 

Governor  Taft.  I  want  to  get  at  actual  possession,  because  actual  possession  in 
certain  respects  is  better  than  the  deed. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  Possession  has  been  effective  from  1830  to  1898. 

Governor  Taft.  That  wTas  my  understanding  when  I  examined  the  heads  of  the 
religious  orders.  Perhaps  I  saw  Andrews's  Chain  of  Title,  in  which  it  appeared  that 
this  had  been  in  possession  of  the  friars  for  some  eighty  or  one  hundred  years. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  Furthermore,  Sefior  Villegas  has  given  all  that  land  over,  in 
his  estimates,  to  the  friars.  It  is  only  now  that  he  makes  that  remark  with  regard  to 
the  land  being  usurped. 

Governor  Taft.  In  justice  to  him,  he  has  put  in  here  this  legend,  this  memoran- 
dum, as  to  the  amount  admitted  legally  to  belong  to  the  friars. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  I  see  that  he  has  put  down  as  our  property  16,419  hectares.  I 
do  not  know  what  the  plan  says. 

Governor  Taft.  The  truth  is  that  he  was  not  employed  to  look  into  the  title  at  all. 
He  was  asked  to  go  and  survey  and  report  on  the  classes  of  land  and  their  values.  He 
was  asked  to  go  to  the  haciendas,  to  whoever  they  belonged,  it  made  no  difference. 

Sefior  Villegas.  I  have  simply  shown  in  the  plan  that  part  of  the  land  which  is 
acknowledged  to  be  the  legal  property  of  the  friars. 

Sefior  Gutierrez.  Sefior  Villegas  has  valued  the  uncultivated  lands  of  the  hacienda 
at  Calamba  at  5  pesos  a  hectare.  These  lands  contain  very  fine  timber,  both  for 
building  and  for  firewood ;  clay  mines  and  chalk  mines,  of  which  a  very  fine  quality 
of  crockery  has  been  made.  Whereas  in  the  hacienda  of  Pandi  he  has  valued  the 
uncultivated  lands  at  $25  a  hectare,  and  there  is  absolutely  no  comparison  between 
the  values  of  the  two  lands.  In  the  first  place,  Calamba  is  nearer  to  the  market  and 
it  is  better  situated  in  every  way  than  Pandi.  Therefore  it  is  an  absurd  valuation 
that  he  has  placed  on  the  two  lands. 

Sefior  Villegas.  There  is  no  comparison  between  the  soil  of  the  uncultivated 
lands  at  Pandi  and  the  uncultivated  lands  of  the  estate  of  Calamba.  The  former  are 
gently  sloping  and  have  but  a  small  growth  of  timber  on  them,  which  can  be  easily 
burned  off,  so  that  they  are,  at  a  very  small  expense,  susceptible  of  cultivation;  but 


174  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

the  lands  of  the  estate  of  Calamba  are  covered  with  a  thick  growth  of  timber  and  are 
very  mountainous  and  broken,  and  it  would  be  extremely  expensive  to  cultivate 
them. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  The  uncultivated  lands  at  the  Calamba  estate  not  only  have 
very  valuable  timber  upon  them,  but  also  have  an  almost  inexhaustible  supply  of 
firewood,  which  can  be  very  easily  gotten  out.  Its  soil  is  a  vegetable  soil  and  it  is 
very  rich  in  comparison  with  that  of  Pandi.  Pandi  has  a  stony  soil  and  is  not  rich 
at  all.  A  portion  of  the  uncultivated  land  at  the  Calamba  estate  is  suitable  for  sugar 
culture;  it  is  gently  sloping,  and  very  well  suited  for  the  cultivation  of  sugar. 

Senor  Villegas.  In  my  opinion  the  soil  at  Pandi  is  very  good  for  any  sort  of 
agriculture,  but  the  soil  at  Calamba — that  part  of  it  which  I  have  valued  as  unculti- 
vated land — is  very  broken  and  it  is  only  forest  land. 

TESTIMONY   OP   GREGORIO   CORCUERA. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  like  to  ask,  in  order  to  get  through  with  this  witness, 
which  estates  he  surveyed? 

Gregorio  Corcuera.  Lolomboy  and  Santa  Clara. 

Governor  Taft.  I  believe  there  is  some  difference  between  us  as  to  the  number  of 
hectares  in  Lolomboy? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  There  is  a  difference  of  1,056  hectares. 

Governor  Taft.  How  did  you  reach  the  area  of  this  hacienda? 

Senor  Corcuera.  I  used  the  system  of  making  a  complete  survey  around  the 
hacienda,  availing  myself  of  the  services  of  different  guides.  If  I  had  had  one  effi- 
cient guide,  perhaps  I  might  have  gotten  closer  to  the  actual  area  of  the  hacienda, 
but  I  was  obliged  to  avail  myself  of  the  services  of  several  guides. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  find  stones  marking  the  hacienda,  and  did  you  run  your 
lines  by  those  marks? 

Senor  Corcuera.  Yes,  sir.  If  there  is  any  difference,  it  is  the  fault  of  the  guide, 
because  I  did  not  have  an  official  guide  from  the  hacienda,  but  had  to  avail  myself  of 
other  guides.     These  boundaries  are  very  clear. 

Governor  Taft.  Most  of  the  boundaries  here  [pointing  to  place  on  map]  are  natu- 
ral boundaries,  are  they  not? 

Senor  Corcuera.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  all  these  boundaries  here  marked? 

Senor  Corcuera.  Yes,  sir;  they  are  very  well  marked. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  not  those  old  surveys,  many  of  them,  quite  defective  in  the 
matter  of  area? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir;  but  all  of  our  surveys  have  been  made  by  engineers. 

Governor  Taft.  Has  Senor  Gutierrez  a  map? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir;  it  is  an  old  map.  I  have  some  maps  in  the  office,  but 
do  not  remember  what  the  date  of  the  survey  is. 

Governor  Taft.  I  should  think  you  might  compare  the  maps. 

Senor  Corcuera.  I  have  found  a  map  in  a  house  on  the  estate  which  was  made, 
not  by  an  engineer,  but  by  a  surveyor.  I  can  not  say  whether  it  was  like  this  one  or 
not. 

Governor  Taft.  I  think  we  have  agreed  pretty  well  except  with  respect  to  Lolom- 
boy, where  there  is  a  difference  of  1,056  hectares. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  This  difficulty  can  be  easily  gotten  over  by  a  study  between 
this  map  and  the  old  maps. 

Senor  Corcuera.  This  estate  adjoins  the  Santa  Clara  estate.  Perhaps  I  have  included 
in  the  Santa  Clara  estate  the  land  which  is  lacking  in  this.  I  was  told  by  the  people 
on  the  hacienda  there  that  they  owned  some  other  land  in  the  pueblo  of  Polo  belong- 
ing to  this  hacienda,  and  perhaps  that  is  where  the  land  lies. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  go  over  this  estate  to  examine  the  character  of  the  land? 

Senor  Corcuera.  Yes,  sir;  I  have  personally  been  over  the  estate. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  character  of  the  land  on  that  estate? 

Senor  Corcuera.  It  is  all  rice  land. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  a  hectare  will  the  best  land  produce  in  a  year? 

Senor  Corcuera.  In  good  seasons  when  there  is  plenty  of  water  it  will  produce  as 
high  as  100  cavanes  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  What  do  they  call  land  of  that  character? 

Senor  Corcuera.  Superior  quality. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  that  worth  in  the  province  of  Bulacan? 

Senor  Corcuera.  Two  hundred  pesos  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  How  do  you  fix  that  value? 

Senor  Corcuera.  In  making  the  valuation  I  went  around  to  the  neighboring  towns 
to  find  out  what  property  which  had  been  sold  at  this  time  was  worth,  and  taking 


KEPORT    OF    THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  175 

that  into  consideration  and  taking  my  own  judgment  into  consideration  I  arrived  at 
the  price  which  I  fixed  on  the  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Had  land  of  this  kind  been  sold  up  there? 

Senor  Coecueea.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  those  sales  average  200  pesos  a  hectare? 

Senor  Coecueea.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  of  the  superior  land  is  found  in  that  estate? 

Senor  Coecueea.  Nearly  all  the  land  of  the  estate,  by  reason  of  the  easy  commu- 
nication which  it  has,  may  be  considered  as  superior. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  hectares  are  there  in  that  estate? 

Senor  Coecueea.  Four  thousand  five  hundred  and  eighty-eight  hectares. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  hectares  of  that  are  superior  land? 

Senor  Coecueea.  Three  thousand  three  hundred  and  twenty-six  hectares  are  supe- 
rior lands. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  remainder? 

Senor  Coecueea.  The  balance  is  uncultivated  town  lots  and  fishing  grounds. 

Governor  Taft.  What  do  you  estimate  the  uncultivated  lands  at? 

Senor  Coecueea.  Five  pesos  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  Why  did  you  make  that  estimate? 

Senor  Coecueea.  During  the  former  government  when  I  held  the  position  of  assist- 
ant forester  they  used  to  assess  uncultivated  lands  at  from  $1,  $2,  $4,  and  $5  a  hectare, 
according  to  the  quality  of  the  land,  and  taking  into  consideration  the  quality  of  this 
land  I  have  assessed  it  at  5  pesos  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  hectares  of  uncultivated  land  are  there? 

Senor  Coecueea.  Five  hundred  and  forty-three  hectares. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  did  you  put  down  as  town  lots  or  solares,  and  what 
price  did  you  give  them? 

Senor  Coecueea.  One  hundred  and  sixty-four  hectares  in  solares,  at  125  pesos  a 
hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  How  did  you  come  to  fix  the  price  at  $125? 

Senor  Coecueea.  When  I  made  the  survey  I  generally  inquired  of  the  residents 
around  there  what  the  value  of  the  land  was,  and  I  took  that  into  consideration,  and 
then,  taking  my  own  judgment  into  consideration,  I  fixed  this  price  on  them. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  the  hacienda  of  Santa  Clara  and  the  hacienda  of  Lolomboy 
the  only  two  that  you  surveyed? 

Senor  Coecueea.  Yes,  sir. 

Senor  Gutieeeez.  What  value  have  you  placed  upon  the  Mexican  dollar  in  your 
assessment? 

Senor  Coecueea.  It  is  the  Mexican  dollar  to  which  we  have  always  been  accus- 
tomed here,  and  especially  in  such  places  as  this,  in  which  all  sales  and  transactions 
are  made  in  Mexican  dollars. 

Senor  Gutieeeez.  Senor  Corcuera  has  said  that  there  are  647  hectares  of  unculti- 
vated land,  and  I  will  state  in  regard  to  that  if  there  is  any  land  that  is  not  under  cul- 
tivation it  is  because  of  the  lack  of  cattle;  that  there  is  not  a  single  square  meter  of 
land  that  is  not  cultivated  land.  It  has  always  been  under  cultivation.  It  may  be, 
through  some  accidental  cause,  through  some  temporary  reason,  that  it  is  not  now 
under  cultivation;  but  it  has  always  been  cultivated. 

Senor  Coecueea.  As  I  saw  those  uncultivated  lands,  it  was  impossible  for  a  carabao 
to  get  through ;  and  even  further  than  that,  to  make  the  surveys  it  was  necessary  to 
use  eight  or  ten  men  to  get  through  the  brush  in  order  to  make  the  measurements. 

Senor  Gutieeeez.  That  is  simply  for  the  reason  I  stated  the  other  day,  and  that  is 
that  when  the  land  is  left  without  cultivation  for  a  single  year  the  vegetation  grows 
up  so  quickly  that  it  appears  to  be  in  a  wild  state;  but  this  land  has  always  been 
cultivated. 

Senor  Coecueea.  I  do  not  know  anything  about  that;  I  simply  set  things  down  in 
my  estimate  as  I  found  them. 

Senor  Gutieeeez.  Senor  Corcuera  has  not  taken  into  consideration  the  value  of 
the  improvements  on  the  Lolomboy  estate  or  on  the  Pandi  estate.  On  the  Lolomboy 
estate  the  improvements  for  irrigation  are  very  valuable. 

Senor  Coecueea.  I  have  taken  the  improvements  into  consideration,  and  have 
valued  them  at  40,000  pesos.  This  includes  the  house  on  the  estate  and  warehouses 
as  well  as  the  warehouse  for  the  rice. 

Sefior  Gutieeeez.  But  the  house  on  the  estate  alone  is  worth  more  than  $60,000; 
it  is  all  built  of  stone  and  the  walls  are  over  a  half  a  meter  in  thickness. 

Sefior  Coecueea.  In  making  the  assessment  of  the  improvements  I  have  searched 
out  the  oldest  inhabitants  there,  and  I  was  finally  directed  to  the  son  of  the  man 
who  was  in  charge  of  the  work  when  the  work  was  constructed  for  all  the  improve- 


176  EEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

ments  there,  and  he  told  me  that,  more  or  less,  that  was  the  value  of  the  improve- 
ments on  the  land.     This  was  also  my  own  judgment. 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  So  that  Sehor  Corcuera  has  simply  placed  his  valuation  upon 
the  testimony  of  the  son  of  the  alleged  superintendent  of  the  construction  of  the 
house. 

Senor  Corcuera.  I  made  this  estimate  in  accordance  with  my  best  knowledge  and 
understanding.  If  I  were  making  the  estimate  over  again  I  would  put  it  at  less  than 
I  did  put  it,  because  naturally  as  time  goes  on  the  house  and  the  dams  and  all  the 
other  improvements  deteriorate. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Are  you  competent  to  appraise  the  value  of  a  building? 

Senor  Corcuera.  No,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  may  be  quite  competent  to  value  and  appraise  land,  but 
according  to  your  own  statement  you  have  not  the  necessary  knowledge  to  appraise 
a  building. 

Sehor  Corcuera.  I  am  not  competent  to  do  that,  but  placed  an  estimate  on  it  to 
the  best  of  my  knowledge  and  understanding. 

Governor  Taft.  In  what  condition  was  the  house? 

Senor  Corcuera.  The  house  is  in  a  poor  state  and  needs  repairs. 

Governor  Taft.  What  impression  did  you  get  from  looking  at  the  nouse  as  to 
its  age? 

Senor  Corcuera.  It  is  a  very  old  house. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  there  evidence  of  another  house  having  been  there  next  to  it 
which  was  destroyed?    I  mean,  is  there  evidence  of  its  being  smaller  than  it  was? 

Senor  Corcuera.  No,  sir;  there  are  no  traces  there. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  include  in  this  $40,000  the  value  of  the  dams? 

Senor  Corcuera.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  do  you  estimate  the  value  of  those  dams? 

Senor  Corcuera.  As  I  have  said,  in  accordance  with  the  statement  of  the  son  of 
the  superintendent  of  construction  on  those  improvements  as  to  what  they  cost. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Are  you  sure  that  that  individual  spoke  the  truth? 

Senor  Corcuera.  I  thought  so. 

Governor  Taft.  What  \vas  the  comparative  cost  of  the  dams  and  the  house? 

Senor  Corcuera.  About  $25,000  for  the  dam  and  $15,000  for  the  house. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  the  dams  in  good  condition,  or  otherwise? 

Senor  Corcuera.  Part  of  them  are  in  good  condition,  and  part  of  them  are  not. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  would  like  to  state  that  the  dam  alone  cost  $40,000  gold.  It  is 
25  meters  long,  3  meters  high,  and  2  wide.  Besides  there  are  a  lot  of  other  dams, 
and  according  to  the  information  that  I  have  from  my  administrator  I  think  they  are 
all  in  very  good  condition.  There  was  one  which  was  in  a  bad  state  of  repair,  but 
that  has  been  repaired  now  and  they  are  doing  the  work  which  they  have  always 
done.     In  what  month  did  3^011  make  the  estimate? 

Senor  Corcuera.  In  November  and  December,  1901.  They  were  not  then  all  of 
them  in  good  condition. 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  Perhaps  Sehor  Corcuera  has  simply  limited  his  work  to  making 
a  survey  of  the  boundaries  of  the  estate  and  has  not  gone  into  the  interior  of  the 
estate. 

Sehor  Corcuera.  I  was  in  the  interior  of  the  estate,  have  examined  the  land,  and 
furthermore,  I  told  the  administrator  down  there  that  his  dams  were  in  bad  condi- 
tion.    I  followed  up  the  ditches  and  could  see  that  they  were  not  irrigating  the  land. 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  It  may  be  that  some  of  the  ditches  were  not  in  good  condition, 
but  the  dams  were  all  in  good  condition. 

Sehor  Corcuera.  Perhaps  that  was  it. 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  Sehor  Corcuera  has  stated  that  he  has  reached  this  valuation 
after  having  made  investigation  of  sales  around  the  neighboring  pueblos  and  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  the  hacienda.  I  want  to  ask  him  if  he  knows  if  those  sales 
actually  took  place,  and  when. 

Sehor  Corcuera.  They  took  place  at  the  time  I  made  the  survey,  or  about  that 
time. 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  Did  you  know  there  were  any  title  deeds  of  evidence? 

Sehor  Corcuera.  Undoubtedly  there  must  have  been  some. 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  On  the  other  hand,  I  would  like  to  present  some  title  deeds  here 
showing  sales  of  land  made  in  that  vicinity  at  a  very  much  higher  price. 

Governor  Taft.  Were  these  sales  made  later  than  the  survey  or  before  the  survey? 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  Much  before  the  survey.  I  can  present  a  great  many  more. 
Here  is  one  for  5  hectares,  at  $1,500  gold. 

Governor  Taft.  Will  you  let  me  keep  these,  so  that  I  can  get  a  memorandum  of 
them? 

Sehor  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir.     I  have  a  great  many  more  if  you  wish. 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  177 

Governor  Taft.  I  want  all  I  can  get. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  could  get  you  some,  though  I  fear  I  can  not  get  as  many  as  I 
would  wish,  because  the  owners  of  the  deeds  might  be  afraid  of  their  being  lost. 
Here  are  some  other  documents  which  I  have,  which  show  that  the  tenants  used  to 
convey  their  rights  to  cultivate  the  land  for  $200  a  hectare — and  I  can  show  a  great 
many  inore — and  that  is  gold. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  like  to  know  what  you  mean  by  gold.  I  can  bring  you 
a  bank  bill  to-day  that  agrees  to  pay  you,  by  a  legitimate  and  responsible  bank  here, 
"pesos  fuertes;"  that  means  Mexican.  You  call  it  " pesos  fuertes,"  but  it  does  not 
mean  anything  more  than  Mexican. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  do  not  discuss  the  value  of  the  Mexican  dollar  or  the  value  of 
the  peso,  but  simply  what  was  paid  at  that  time  for  that  privilege  of  cultivating  the 
land,  which  at  thai  time  was  gold,  because  the  gold  money  circulated  at  that  time 
here.  I  think  it  is  indisputable  that  if  $200  was  paid  simply  for  the  privilege  of 
being  one  of  the  tenants  of  the  estate,  the  value  of  the  land  now  is  over  $200. 

Governor  Taft.  I  do  not  agree  with  that;  but  I  want  to  look  at  all  that  evidence. 
Is  there  any  other  document  of  sale  but  this  one? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  would  have  to  get  them  from  the  landowners  or  the  tenants. 
The  copies  in  the  registrar's  office  have  been  destroyed.  They  are  all  public  docu- 
ments, however. 

Governor  Taft.  Here  is  a  list  of  land  sales  and  tax  declarations  in  Bulacan  Prov- 
ince, prepared  by  Senor  Villegas. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  You  must  take  into  consideration  that  those  sales  have  been 
sales  of  poor  men  to  rich  men;  that  is  to  say,  from  poor  men  indebted  to  rich  men 
and  who  had  a  mortgage  over  that  property  and  took  the  property  for  the  debt.  It 
is  just  the  same  difference  as  buying  a  jewel  from  a  jewelry  shop  and  from  a  pawn 
shop. 

Governor  Taft.  These  I  understand  to  be  actual  sales  in  Bulacan  in  1901  and  1902. 
The  first  sale  is  at  Obando — rice  land  at  143  pesos  a  hectare.  In  Bulacan,  16  hectares, 
at  237  pesos  a  hectare.     In  Bocaue,  6  J  hectares,  at  156  pesos  a  hectare. 

Senor  Villegas.  The  hacienda  of  Lolomboy  is  at  Bocaue. 

Governor  Taft.  In  Baliuag,  12  hectares,  at  150  pesos  a  hectare.  At  Meycauayan, 
is  it,  160  pesoe  a  hectare. 

Senor  Villegas.  That  is  near  the  hacienda  of  Polo. 

Governor  Taft.  One  hundred  and  thirty  hectares  in  San  Miguel,  at  61  pesos  a  hec- 
tare. In  Guiguinto,  2  hectares,  at  100  pesos  a  hectare.  In  Hagonoy,  11  hectares  of 
rice  land  at  400  pesos.  In  Barascain,  33  hectares,  at  382  pesos  a  hectare;  adjacent  to 
Malolos,  right  near  the  railway  line.  The  next  one,  at  92.70  a  hectare,  in  Quingua. 
Does  Senor  Villegas  know  anything  about  these  sales? 

Seiior  Villegas.  I  have  official  letters  all  prepared  with  respect  to  these  sales, 
from  information  which  I  have  received  from  the  presidentes  of  the  towns  where 
the  sales  have  been  made.  I  have  all  that  data  on  hand,  and  am  working  on  it  now. 
These  are  all  on  the  official  register  of  sales.  I  can  get  more  data  from  the  official 
registers.     I  can  also  go  to  the  pueblos  and  see  the  deeds. 

Governor  Taft.  We  want  the  circumstances  of  these  different  sales.  For  instance, 
this  varies  from  400  pesos  a  hectare  to  61  pesos. 

Senor  Villegas.  AVith  regard  to  the  land  at  Hagonoy,  at  400  pesos  a  hectare,  you 
can  get  three  crops  a  year  from  it.     It  is  above  superior  land. 

Governor  Taft.  We  want  information  about  all  of  this  land. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  have  here  a  record  of  the  sale  of  1  hectare  at  200  pesos,  made 
twenty  years  ago,  with  the  privilege  of  buying  back. 

Governor  Taft.  We  are  not  estimating  twenty  years  ago. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Now  everything  has  gone  up;  it  must  be  worth  a  great  deal 
more  now  than  it  was  before. 

Governor  Taft.  He  was  not  buying  a  lawsuit,  as  we  are. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  There  will  not  be  any  lawsuit. 

Friar  Martin.  I  have  perfect  confidence  in  the  government  and  the  people  at  the 
head  of  the  government. 

Governor  Taft.  I  have  perfect  confidence  in  my  friend  McGregor's  Government  in 
England,  but  the  Irish  estates  are  not  worth  very  much  to-day,  with  all  the  power 
of  England  next  door.  If  you  have  the  people  against  you  with  reference  to  the  title 
and  ownership,  then  you  have  got  a  fact  that  you  have  to  take  into  consideration. 

Friar  Martin.  Notwithstanding  this  statement,  I  will  challenge,  with  all  due  defer- 
ence to  you,  anyone  to  produce  titles  that  are  more  legally  perfect  than  our  titles. 
They  have  been  passed  upon  by  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States. 

Governor  Taft.  Where  property  has  been  held  for  fifty  or  one  hundred  years, 
that  is  enough  for  me. 

war  1903 — vol  5 12 


178  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Friar  Maetin.  I  have  a  perfect  chain  of  titles;  not  only  of  titles  duly  registered 
under  the  Spanish  Government  in  compliance  with  the  laws  on  registration,  but  also 
all  the  original  titles,  as  the  land  was  acquired  by  us  by  piece.  All  the  litigation 
and  every  paper  bearing  on  the  title  is  complete. 

Governor  Taft.  I  am  entirely  willing  to  concede  that,  and  I  am  entirely  willing 
also,  should  this  thing  fall  through,  to  let  them  go  into  the  courts  and  get  their 
decrees,  and  enforce  them  with  all  the  force  I  have  whenever  they  have  a  legal  decree 
of  the  court;  but  we  are  now  discussing  a  commercial  transaction.  I  want  to  get 
these  lands,  and  I  want  to  pay  for  them  what  is  the  fair  price  in  view  of  all  the  cir- 
cumstances. If  you  keep  the  lands,  you  have  before  you  a  constant  turmoil.  We 
can  not  help  it — it  exists,  and  it  does  not  do  to  say  that  a  government  must  be  strong 
enough  to  put  down  all  lawlessness.  I  cite  the  instance  of  Ireland.  It  is  not  possi- 
ble to  make  the  property  of  Ireland  valuable  in  view  of  the  opinion  that  the  inhabit- 
ants have  as  to  those  titles,  good  as  they  are.  If  you  keep  the  property,  you  will 
have  on  your  hands  constant  trouble  and  turmoil;  if  we  get  it  we  will  have,  I  hope, 
less,  but  nevertheless  it  will  be  great  trouble  for  us.  I  do  not  see  how  we  can  ignore 
that  fact  in  reaching  what  we  can  afford  to  pay  and  what  you  can  afford  to  take. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  thank  you  very  much  for  what  you  have  stated  with  regard 
to  your  disposition  to  enforce  any  judicial  decree  of  the  courts  in  case  that  these 
negotiations  should  fail;  but  I  do  not  think  that  there  is  any  comparison  between 
the  Irish  question  and  the  question  in  the  Philippines,  because  the  Irish  question  is 
purely  an  agrarian  question,  which  it  is  not  in  the  Philippines.  In  the  Philippines 
we  have  too  much  land;  right  in  the  neighborhood  of  these  estates  that  are  in  ques- 
tion there  are  thousands  of  acres  of  land.  There  is  plenty  of  land  for  everybody 
here.     Therefore  it  is  not  an  agrarian  question. 

Governor  Taft.  The  word  agrarian,  I  think,  means  a  field,  and  it  is  certainly  a 
question  arising  with  reference  to  the  cultivation  of  the  fields.  It  is  the  question  of 
moving  certain  people  off  who  won't  pay  their  rents.  It  is  the  question  of  eviction. 
We  have  heard  of  evictions  for  twenty  years — thirty  years — in  Ireland,  since  Glad- 
stone passed  his  first  landed  estates  act  with  respect  to  Ireland,  and  England,  which 
has  prided  herself  on  the  sacredness  of  private  property,  was  obliged,  in  view  of  the 
conditions  in  Ireland,  to  take  away  from  the  owners  of  those  landed  estates  that 
which  up  to  that  time  had  always  been  considered  the  first  rule  of  the*  English  con- 
stitution. We  could  not  have  done  it  under  the  American  Constitution,  because  it 
is  a  written  constitution.  I  am  only  citing  that  to  show  the  difficulties  that  there  are 
in  it  that  are  not  disposed  of  by  reasoning  with  reference  to  private  property  and 
the  assertion  of  rights  in  the  courts.  The  only  reason  why  we  are  trying  to  get 
these  lands  is  because  we  think  that  if  we  get  control  of  them  it  may  be  easier  for 
us  to  dispose  of  them  than  for  those  gentlemen  who  now  hold  them.  On  the  one 
side  is  the  advantage  which  we  think  will  be  gained  by  getting  these  lands  into  the 
hands  of  the  government  and  the  possibly  greater  power  which  the  government  will 
have  in  dealing  with  these  tenants  and  adjusting  a  compromise  with  them.  That  is 
one  advantage.  On  the  other  hand,  there  is  th£  great  load  of  debt  that  will  be  put 
on  the  entire  Archipelago;  and  the  question  which  we  have  to  decide  for  the  gov- 
ernment is,  when  the  size  of  that  debt  would  be  so  great  as  to  outweigh  the  advan- 
tage. We  have  the  whole  people  of  the  islands  as  our  constituents  with  reference  to 
that  debt.  Now,  Senor  Gutierrez  is  sure  that  we  are  going  to  make  a  profitable 
transaction  out  of  it.     I  wish  I  could  think  so. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  You  have  with  a  great  deal  of  talent  and  very  ingeniously  taken 
up  the  cause  of  the  tenants  and  defended  that  cause  as  a  very  brilliant  and  able  law- 
yer, but,  notwithstanding  this,  I  recognize  the  fact  that  in  your  inner  conscience  you 
know  you  are  going  to  make  a  good  thing  out  of  those  lands.  As  far  as  I  am  person- 
ally concerned,  I  know  I  could  sell  my  lands  to  the  tenants  to-day  at  a  greater  profit 
than  to  you. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  vote,  as  a  member  of  the  Commission,  to  take  out  a  million 
dollars  gold  from  the  treasury  to  have  those  lands  transferred  from  their  present  own- 
ers to  the  tenants.  In  other  words,  I  would  be  willing  to  lose  that  amount,  and 
think  that  our  transaction  was  a  very  profitable  one  so  far  as  the  politics  and  safety 
of  this  country  is  concerned. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Speaking  for  my  own  haciendas,  I  know  that  I  can  more  profit- 
ably dispose  of  all  the  land  to  the  tenants  than  to  the  government.  I  have  disposed 
of  some  of  it  to  the  tenants. 

Governor  Taft.  I  wish  you  could  dispose  of  ?11  of  it.  I  do  not  want  the  land  if 
you  can  get  it  into  the  hands  of  the  tenants. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  have  already  effected  sales  at  a  larger  price  than  I  have  asked 
the  government,  and  the  very  minute  that  the  tenants  knew  that  the  government 
was  out  of  the  business  altogether  they  would  be  sure  to  buy  from  me  and  give  me 
a  better  price  than  I  ask  from  the  government. 


REPOKT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  179 

Governor  Taft.  If  the  government  can  not  buy  at  a  reasonable  price,  then  we  will 
see  which  is  the  more  profitable.  My  impression  is  that  if  we  were  to  break  it  off 
now  and  let  it  run  for  two  years  you  gentlemen  would  be  in  begging  us  to  take  it. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  The  purpose  of  my  company  always  was  to  exploit  the  property, 
not  to  sell.  We  did  not  buy  for  the  purpose  of  selling,  but  for  the  purpose  of  making 
money  out  of  it,  and  working  the  property  at  the  same  time. 

Governor  Taft.  I  do  not  think  that  if  we  let  this  thing  go  for  two  years  and  you 
make  your  efforts  the  government  would  be  very  anxious  to  buy  when  you  come 
again,  for  the  result  of  your  two  years'  labor  is  going  to  be  a  great  deal  of  trouble  for 
the  government.     I  know  that. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  do  not  think  the  difficulty  will  be  so  great  as  you  estimate  for 
the  companies  to  manage  the  property  when  the  people  once  know  that  the  govern- 
ment recognizes  our  rights.  The  people  of  Imus  have  told  me  all  along  for  the  last 
two  years  that  as  soon  as  I  gave  them  some  assurance  that  the  government  recognized 
us  as  the  proper  people  they  would  pay  their  rents.  I  asked  General  Wright  for  a 
letter  telling  these  people  that  our  title  was  good,  but  he  said  he  could  not  do  so. 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  no  part  of  the  executive  department  in  the  government  to 
show  to  whom  land  belongs.  I  have  expressed  publicly,  and  I  have  not  hesitated 
to  say  both  before  the  Congressional  committe  and  in  a  report  that  I  made  to  the 
Secretary  of  War,  that  your  titles  were  probably  the  best  in  the  islands.  That  is  a 
matter  of  opinion  on  my  part.  But  I  can  not  give  effect  to  that  by  telling  the  people 
wThat  they  must  do,  for  the  reason  that  the  question  of  title  has  to  be  settled  in  the 
courts  if  it  is  disputed. 

Mr.  McGregor.  My  own  judgment  is  that  the  judges  of  the  courts  will  uphold 
those  titles. 

Governor  Taft.  I  am  not  disputing  the  title  in  this  transaction  at  all,  and  do  not 
intend  to;  but  it  is  not  for  the  executive  part  of  the  government  to  say  that  this  title 
is  good  and  that  is  bad,  because  it  is  not  a  court.  It  is  only  the  executive,  and  it 
enforces  the  decrees  of  the  courts.  If  you  bring  a  decree  of  the  court  that  you  are 
entitled  to  possession,  I  will  put  you  in  possession.  It  is  my  duty  to  do  that;  I  am 
the  executive  officer,  charged  with  the  duty  of  enforcing  that  decree.  That  is  the 
difficulty  of  the  division  between  the  executive  and  the  judicial  powers  of  the  gov- 
ernment, but  it  exists. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Now  that  the  judges  will  know  your  own  opinion  and  the  opinion 
of  the  Commission,  I  have  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  they  will  give  a  decree  in 
our  favor. 

Governor  Taft.  They  ought  not  to  be  governed  by  my  opinion.  I  am  not  a 
judge;  I  am  only  the  executive  officer,  and  my  opinion  is  no  better  than  that  of  any 
other  lawyer.  Of  course  I  have  not  investigated  the  question  of  the  validity  of  the 
titles.  I  am  not  sufficiently  versed  in  the  civil  law  to  justify  my  passing  on  the  ques- 
tion, but  when  I  am  called  upon  as  an  executive  officer  to  report  to  my  superior, 
then  I  have  the  right  to  express  an  opinion. 

Mr.  McGregor.  The  people  of  Imus  have  always  said  as  soon  as  they  saw  that  we 
were  the  right  people  they  would  pay  their  rent.  I  do  not  think  there  will  be  any 
difficulty  when  the  people  thoroughly  understand  that  they  have  no  legal  right. 

Governor  Taft.  I  can  not  conscientiously  load  the  government  of  the  Philippines 
with  a  very  heavy  debt  when  I  do  not  think  the  land,  as  it  stands  to-day,  under  the 
circumstances,  is  worth  the  amount.  It  is  a  question  of  balancing  advantages  to  the 
government  of  the  Philippines — that  is  all.  The  ownership  of  the  land,  the  price, 
is  only  incidentallv  important  in  determining  what  I  would  be  justified  in  paying. 

Adjourned  until"  March  18,  1903. 

Continued  from  March  11,  1903,  sixth  session. 

Malacanan  Palace,  Manila,  March  18,  1903. 

TESTIMONY    OF   MATHIAS   GONZALES. 

Governor  Taft.  Where  do  you  live? 

Senor  Gonzales.  In  JBautista,  in  Pangasinan. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  father's  name? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Francisco  Gonzales. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  he  who  owns  a  large  estate  in  Pangasinan  and  Nueva  Ecija? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir;  and  partly  in  Tarlac  also. 

Governor  Taft.  How  large  an  estate  is  that? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Thirty-two  thousand  hectares. 

Governor  Taft.  Have  you  attended  at  all  to  your  father's  affairs? 

Senor  Gonzales.  I  am  at  present  the  manager  of  the  estate. 


180  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Governor  Taft.  How  long  have  you  been  engaged  in  that  work? 

Sefior  Gonzales.  Before  the  revolution  I  took  full  charge  of  the  management  of 
the  estate,  but  before  that  time  I  had  a  great  deal  of  knowledge  concerning  it,  owing 
to  my  associations  with  it. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  raised  on  the  estate? 

Sefior  Gonzales.  Rice  or  palay. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  land  irrigated? 

Senor  Gonzales.  The  majority  of  the  land  is  irrigated. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Is  it  natural  or  artificial? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Natural. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  use  dams? 

Senor  Gonzales.  In  parts  of  the  estate  we  do. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  there  first-class  superior  land  in  this  32,000  hectares? 

Senor  Gonzales.  We  have  a  great  deal  of  first-class  land. 

Governor  Taft.  What  does  the  land  produce  per  year  per  hectare? 

Senor  Gonzales.  From  90  to  100  cavanes  per  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  know,  generally,  the  value  of  rice  land  of  the  first  class, 
as  described  by  you,  in  the  provinces  of  Pangasinan,  Tarlac,  Pampanga,  and  Bulacan? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir;  the  maximum  price  in  Pangasinan  and  Tarlac  per  hec- 
tare for  first  class  superior  lands  is  200  pesos  a  hectare. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Do  you  mean  to  say  that  100  cavanes  per  hectare  is  the  max- 
imum? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Some  of  the  lands  might  produce  as  much  as  20  cavanes  more 
per  hectare. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  should  have  mentioned  the  fact  that  you  did  not  refer  to 
those  lands  that  were  exceptionally  productive. 

Governor  Taft.  When  you  mention  from  90  to  100  cavanes,  is  that  the  method  of 
classifying  superior  first-class  lands? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  You  have  doubtless  hectares  that  will  produce  more  than  100 
cavanes,  but  I  am  speaking  now  of  an  average  which  permits  a  classification. 

Senor  Gonzales.  I  so  understood  you  when  I  answered. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  price  of  the  same  kind  of  land  in  Pampanga  and 
Bulacan? 

Senor  Gonzales.  In  Bulacan  the  price  of  such  lands  is  higher  than  in  the  other 
provinces.  When  close  to  a  market  and  having  an  abundance  of  water  for  irrigation 
purposes  the  price  may  go  as  high  as  300  pesos  per  hectare. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Do  you  refer  to  the  Mexican  peso  at  its  actual  present  market 
value? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Would  the  price  of  the  lands  have  been  the  same  several  years 
ago  when  the  value  of  the  Mexican  peso  was  different? 

Senor  Gonzales.  The  price  of  the  land  several  years  ago  was  less  than  it  is  to-day; 
that  is,  about  250  pesos  where  it  is  to-day  300  pesos.  The  exchange  value  between 
silver  and  gold  does  not  influence  the  price  of  land  very  much  in  the  provinces,  nor 
does  the  loss  of  cattle,  even,  affect  the  price  of  the  land  A^ery  much.  What  most 
affects  its  price  is  the  demand  for  it  and  the  lack  of  capital. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  do  you  or  your  father  get  of  the  gross  products  of  the 
land  as  rental? 

Senor  Gonzales.  On  first-class  land,  10  per  cent  of  the  gross  product;  on  second- 
class  land,  8  per  cent,  and  third-class  land,  5  per  cent. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  a  fair  statement  of  what  smaller  landowners  would  get 
from  their  tenants? 

Senor  Gonzales.  No,  sir;  the  net  profit  which  they  get  is  from  12  to  14  per  cent  of 
the  products. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  a  custom  to  make  contracts  for  a  percentage  of  the  gross 
product? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir;  also.     In  such  cases  the  landlord  gets  10  per  cent. 

Governor  Taft.  .But  I  am  speaking  now  of  the  smaller  landowners. 

Senor  Gonzales.  In  such  cases  about  18  per  cent  of  the  gross  product. 

Governor  Taft.  The  reason  why  you  and  your  father  are  content  with  10  per  cent 
is,  if  I  understood  you  the  other  day,  that  your  tenants  have  some  peculiar  ideas. 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir;  and  in  order  to  avoid  difficulty  with  our  tenants  we 
have  lowered  the  price  that  is  due  to  us  as  rent. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  know  anything  about  the  price  of  land  in  Cavite? 

Senor  Gonzales.  No,  sir. 

Senor  Gutieerez.  Senor  Gonzales  has  simply  testified  what  he  believes  to  be  the 
truth  with  regard  to  his  own  personal  experience,  and  he  has  simply  given  his  opin- 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  181 

ions  which  have  been  based  on  his  own  personal  experience.  For  my  part  I  have 
already  given  my  ideas  on  this  subject  and  have  shown  that  for  the  mere  usufruct  of 
the  ana  as  much  as  200  pesos  was  paid  per  hectare. 

oovernor  Taft.  In  1882? 

oenor  Gutierrez.  Not  only  in  1882,  but  in  1892,  1896,  and  1897 — at  any  year  when 
it  was  profitable  to  work  the  lands. 

Governor  Taft.  My  judgment  is  that  Seiior  Gonzales,  since  you  are  expressing 
your  opinion  about  his  evidence,  is  probably  the  best  qualified  witness  to  speak, 
because  he  covers  four  of  five  provinces.  He  is  a  large  landowner  himself,  and  he  is 
familiar  with  the  prices  that  prevail  in  those  four  provinces.  I  would  like  to  ask 
Senor  Gonzales  if  his  property  in  Pangasinan  is  convenient  to  the  market. 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  In  what  way  does  it  reach  the  market? 

Senor  Gonzales.  We  have  at  Bautista,  which  is  a  railway  station,  a  large  market, 
and  we  also  have  another  market  at  Dagupan. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  the  growing  of  rice  on  land  exhaust  the  land? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  land  in  Pangasinan  and  Tarlac  less  worn  by  the  cultivation 
of  the  rice  which  grows  there  than  the  land  in  Bulacan? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir;  much  less  worn. 

Governor  Taft.  It  is  fresher  land,  is  it? 

Seiior  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir;  it  is  more  fertile. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Do  not  these  lands  produce  other  crops,  like  sugar  cane,  aside 
from  rice? 

Senor  Gonzales.  They  could  produce  it,  but  I  have  never  engaged  in  the  cultiva- 
tion of  sugar  and  therefore  do  not  know  whether  it  would  be  more  profitable  than 
rice  culture. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  know  whether  it  has  been  the  custom  in  the  Philippine 
Islands  on  any  large  estates  to  use  fertilizer  or  manure  to  make  up  for  the  loss  in  the 
fertility  of  the  soil  by  reason  of  many  years  of  crops? 

Senor  Gonzales.  I  have  no  knowledge  of  any  fertilizer  being  used  in  any  province. 

Governor  Taft.  Therefore  if  land  has  been  used  for  one  hundred  or  two  hundred 
years  for  rice  lands,  it  is  not  so  good  as  land  which  has  been  used  for  only  twenty  or 
thirty  years,  is  it? 

Senor  Gonzales.  There  is  a  great  difference  in  the  production  of  such  lands  and  the 
production  of  new  lands. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  there  danger  that  it  may  change  its  classification  as  time  goes 
on  and  become  second-class  land  instead  of  first-class  land? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  infer  from  what  you  have  said  that  land  which  has  been  cul- 
tivated for  a  long  time  is  not  as  good  as  land  which  has  not  been  cultivated,  if  all 
other  conditions  are  equal. 

Senor  Gonzales.  That  is  undoubtedly  so. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  In  an  hacienda  which  had  lands  that  had  been  cultivated  for  a 
long  time,  and  which  yielded  the  same  production  as  lands  which  had  not  been  cul- 
tivated before  which  were  capable  of  yielding  an  equal  production,  the  latter  should 
be  preferred  to  the  former? 

Senor  Gonzales.  Undoubtedly  the  latter  would  have  the  preference  over  the 
former. 

Friar  Martin.  How  many  hectares  have  vou  under  cultivation  in  that  estate  of 
32,000  hectares? 

Senor  Gonzales.  About  11,000. 

Friar  Martin.  Have  they  been  cultivated  for  a  long  time — that  is,  those  that  are 
at  present  under  cultivation? 

Seiior  Gonzales.  We  have  had  more  under  cultivation  formerly. 

Friar  Martin.  I  think  Senor  Gonzales  must  know  that  in  the  provinces  of  Pan- 
gasinan, Tarlac,  and  Nueva  Ecija  the  population  is  very  thin,  and  that  in  his  haci- 
endas there  must  be  some  difficulty  in  securing  the  requisite  number  of  laborers  or 
tenants  to  work  the  lands. 

Senor  Gonzales.  Yes;  that  is  true. 

Friar  Martin.  You  must  also  be  aware  of  the  fact  that  in  Bulacan  the  conditions 
are  exactly  the  opposite;  there  the  population  is  very  dense,  and  the  very  minute 
that  one  tenant  leaves  his  piece  of  land  there  are  four  or  five  applicants  for  it. 
This  does  not  happen  in  any  of  the  other  provinces  mentioned,  and  therefore  the 
land  is  in  much  greater  demand  in  Bulacan  than  in  the  others. 

Seiior  Gonzales.  It  is  true  that  the  population  is  denser  and  that  those  conditions 
prevail  in  Bulacan,  but  at  the  present  time  the  demand  for  lands  is  very  meager, 
owing  to  the  lack  of  money  among  the  people. 


182  REPORT    OP    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.       » 

Friar  Martin.  I  did  not  refer  to  purchases  of  land,  but  to  the  fact  that  there  were 
plenty  of  people  there  able  to  work  the  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  the  difference  that  you  make  between  the  price  of  land  in 
Pangasinan  and  that  in  Bulacan  arise  from  that  cause?  Have  you  not  made  allow- 
ance for  that,  and  is  not  that  the  reason  for  the  difference  in  price? 

Seiior  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Have  you  any  interest,  one  way  or  the  other,  in  the  price  of  the 
land  which  we  are  considering  the  purchase  of? 

Sefior  Gonzales.  The  only  interest  that  I  take  in  this  sale  wThich  is  going  on 
between  the  religious  orders  and  the  Government  is  simply  the  interest  that  the 
owner  of  an  estate  takes  who  wishes  to  also  sell  his  estate  in  any  transaction  of  this 
nature. 

Governor  Taft.  You  would  be  willing  to  sell  your  estate,  would  you? 

Seiior  Gonzales.  Yes,  sir;  at  the  price  which  I  have  indicated. 

TESTIMONY    OF   SENOR   JOSE    LUZURIAGA,   MEMBER    OF   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 

Governor  Taft.  Seiior  Luzuriaga,  you  are  a  member  of  the  Philippine  Commission? 

Seiior  Luzuriaga.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  You  are  a  citizen  of  the  province  of  Occidental  Negros? 

Sefior  Luzuriaga.  Yes,  sir;  of  Bacolod,  the  capital. 

Governor  Taft.  You  have  lived  in  Occidental  Negros,  as  I  understand  it,  all  your 
life? 

Seiior  Luzuriaga.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  yo  own  land  in  Negros? 

Seiior  Luzuriaga.  Yes,  sir;  I  am  the  owner  of  three  estates  which  are  devoted 
principally  to  the  cultivation  of  sugar  cane  and  also  rice. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  you  familiar  with  the  prices  of  sugar  land  per  hectare  in 
Occidental  Negros? 

Sefior  Luzuriaga.  Yes,  sir;  I  can  testify  on  that  matter. 

Governor  Taft.  tlow  far  from  the  sugar  market  is  land  in  Negros? 

Seiior  Luzuriaga.  The  local  markets  for  the  sugar  grown  on  the  estates  in  Occi- 
dental Negros  are  situated  on  the  coast  of  that  province.  They  are  Silay,  Saravia, 
Bacolod,  Talisay,  San  Enrique,  Bago,  and  Pontevedra,  and  on  the  southern  Coast 
Hog,  all  of  which  are  maritime  ports;  but  from  these  local  markets  the  sugar  is 
shipped  to  the  central  market,  which  is  situated  in  the  town  of  Iloilo. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  the  habit  of  the  vessels  which  carry  the  sugar  to  beach — 
come  right  up  on  the  shore — and  take  the  sugar  from  the  estate  directly  to  Iloilo? 

Seiior  Luzuriaga.  In  some  cases  the  lorchas  are  able  to  come  right  up  to  the  estate, 
but  as  a  general  rule  the  sugar  is  shipped  from  the  coast  itself,  where  the  boats  come 
right  up  to  the  coast  and  are  loaded  there  and  take  the  sugar  to  Iloilo. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  is  the  ordinary  gross  product  from  a  hectare  of  first- 
class  sugar  land? 

Sefior  Luzuriaga.  That  depends  upon  the  class  of  lands.  Sugar  lands  are  classi- 
fied into  first,  second,  and  third  class  lands.  The  product  of  first-class  lands — that 
is,  of  the  superior  lands — is  80  piculs  per  hectare.  But  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that 
that  is  the  product  of  a  good  year.     It  will  not  produce  that  in  ordinary  years. 

Governor  Taft.  I  would  like  to  ask  you  generally  as  to  the  classification  of  land. 
Do  they  classify  land  according  to  the  production  in  the  good  years,  when  the  condi- 
tions are  all  favorable,  or  according  to  the  average  through  favorable  and  unfavora- 
ble years? 

Sefior  Luzuriaga.  As  a  general  rule  the  classification  is  made  on  the  basis  of  five 
years.  It  is  calculated  that  in  those  five  years  one  crop  will  be  an  extraordinarily 
good  crop,  two  years  will  be  ordinary  crops,  and  two  years  bad  crops. 

Governor  Taft.  When  you  say  first-class  land  will  produce  80  piculs  a  year,  do  you 
mean  in  a  good  year? 

Sefior  Luzuriaga.  Yes;  I  mean  in  a  good  year.  The  two  years  of  average  crops 
would  produce  about  60  piculs  of  sugar,  and  the  two  bad  years  I  calculate  would 
produce  about  25  piculs;  that  is,  on  an  average. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Is  it  the  custom  to  renew  the  seeding  of  the  sugar  cane  every 
year? 

Sefior  Luzuriaga.  In  my  estates  I  have  always  been  accustomed  to  do  so,  but  in 
certain  parts  of  Negros,  around  Isabela  for  instance,  they  do  not  renew  the  stalks  for 
three  years. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Is  this  land  not  worth  a  great  deal  more? 

Seiior  Luzuriaga.  It  was  owing  to  the  fact  that  it  was  not  so  expensive  to  culti- 
vate. 


REPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  183 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  is  sugar  land  worth  to-day  that  produces  80  piculs  in 
a  good  year? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  That  also  depends  on  the  quality  of  the  sugar.  There  are  four 
classes  of  sugar  raised  in  the  island  of  Negros — first,  second,  and  third  class  and  the 
common  or  ordinary.  At  the  present  time  they  are  getting  an  extraordinarily  good 
price  for  the  sugar. "  Number  1  sugar  is  worth  in  Iloilo  as  much  as  $6  a  picul.  There 
is  a  difference  of  3  reals  between  No.  1  and  No.  2  sugar,  and  from  No.  2  to  No.  3  of 
2  reals. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  understood  you  to  say  that  this  was  an  abnormal  price  paid 
this  year,  but  from  my  understanding  of  the  matter,  which  I  have  based  upon  a 
reading  of  the  newspapers,  the  reduction  of  the  Dingley  tariff  will  have  such  an  effect 
on  the  Philippines  with  regard  to  sugar  culture  that  the  price  of  sugar  will  go  still 
higher. 

Sefior  Luzueiaga.  The  opening  of  the  United  States  market  is  only  one  factor  in 
the  situation.  The  price  is  governed  more  by  supply  and  demand;  it  depends 
altogether  on  the  production  of  beet  sugar  in  the  United  States  and  other  places,  and 
the  production  of  cane  sugar  in  Java,  Cuba,  and  other  countries. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  sugar  planters  of  the  Philippines  would  have  this  advan- 
tage, that  they  could  export  their  sugar  to  the  United  States  market  without  paying 
any  duties,  and  it  would  undoubtedly  have  the  effect  of  raising  the  value  of  sugar 
land  in  the  Philippines. 

Governor  Taft.  I  want  to  speed  the  day  when  sugar  can  go  from  these  islands  into 
the  United  States,  but  the  difficulty  is  that  Congress  has  adjourned  without  passing 
such  a  law,  and  the  reduction  of  25  per  cent  on  the  Dingley  law  has  made  no  appre- 
ciable difference.  The  prospect  of  further  reducing  the  Dingley  tariff  50  per  cent,  so 
the  merchants  informed  me  the  other  day,  had  the  effect  of  increasing  the  price  of 
sugar,  but  with  the  failure  to  reduce  the  tariff  the  price  of  sugar,  I  presume,  has 
fallen. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  But  the  fact  that  Congress  has  not  denied  that  reduction  in 
the  tariff,  but  simply  postponed  action  upon  it,  gives  me  to  understand  that  there  is 
a  probability  that  Congress  will  in  the  future  grant  this  reduction.  At  any  rate,  it 
is  more  reasonable  to  believe  that  the  reduction  will  be  granted  than  that  it  will  not 
be  granted. 

Governor  Taft.  I  sincerely  concur  in  that.  I  believe  that  Congress  will  do  it  at 
the  next  session.  I  shall  be  very  much  disappointed  if  it  does  not  reduce  the  duties 
on  sugar  and  tobacco  from  the  Philippines.  But  this  is  a  little  aside  from  the  dis- 
cussion. I  wanted  to  get  at  the  price  of  land  in  the  Philippines  at  the  present  high 
price  of  sugar. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  The  point  I  wish  to  make  is  this:  Senor  Luzuriaga  has  said 
that  this  was  an  abnormal  and  extraordinary  price  for  sugar  this  year.  This  extra- 
ordinary and  abnormal  price  will  in  the  future  be  an  ordinary  price. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  difference  between  the  price  of  sugar  in  Negros  and 
the  price  in  Iloilo? 

Senor  Luzuriaga.  Fifty  cents. 

Governor  Taft.  So  that  the  price  is  $5.50  a  picul  on  the  land  where  it  is  produced? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  That  was  the  price  in  the  months  of  January  and  February,  but 
now  it  has  lowered  a  little.  At  present  we  can  get  only  $4.60  for  No.  1  sugar  on  the 
hacienda. 

Governor  Taft.  Let  us  take  it  in  round  figures,  $5  a  picul  in  Negros.  Would  that 
mean  that  a  hectare  would  produce  400  pesos  a  hectare  value  of  the  gross  product? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  that  land  which  makes  a  grossx  product  of  400  pesos  a 
year  in  good  years  worth,  as  land  is  sold  in  Negros,  per  hectare? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  Owing  to  a  very  special  condition  of  things  down  there,  that 
land  which  produces  400  pesos  a  year  per  hectare  is  to-day  worth  not  one-half  of  that 
sum.  That  is  due  to  the  special  circumstances  down  there  and  the  lack  of  money. 
It  simply  involves  the  principle  of  supply  and  demand. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  know  whether  there  is  any  greater  lack  of  money  in  Cavite 
than  in  Negros? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  I  understand  there  is  a  great  scarcity  of  money  in  Cavite  prov- 
ince, so  much  so  that  I  have  been  given  to  understand  that  one-half  of  the  inhabit- 
ants there  are  engaged  in  robbing  the  other  half.  The  lack  of  money  is  very  much 
felt  in  Occidental  Negros,  and  it  has  had  this  effect  on  sugar  cultivation,  that  one- 
fifth  of  the  land  is  now  devoted  to  sugar  culture  that  has  been  devoted  two  years 
before. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  take  it  that  the  present  conditions  that  prevail  in  the  islands 
are  altogether  abnormal,  and  I  do  not  think  we  can  base  any  argument  on  these 
abnormal  conditions,  because  there  may  be  a  change  any  day.     Perhaps  to-morrow 


184  REPORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

things  may  regulate  themselves,  and  it  is  impossible  to  make  any  calculations  on 
such  an  abnormal  situation. 

Seil  or  Luzueiaga.  The  trouble  is  that  we  have  been  living  under  these  abnormal 
conditions  four  or  five  years  and  we  are  within  them  yet. 

Governor  Taft.  What,  as  a  rule,  is  the  price  of  first-class  land  in  Negros  to-day, 
per  hectare? 

Sefior  Luzueiaga.  As  a  rule,  from  100  to  150  Mexican  pesos  per  hectare  for  first- 
class  land. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  If  these  are  the  prices  paid  in  these  abnormal  times,  what  was 
the  land  worth  during  normal  times? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  About  100  pesos. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Do  you  refer  to  the  land  here?  Several  witnesses  have  testi- 
fied that  the  land  was  worth  200  pesos. 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  My  remarks  applied  to  the  island  of  Negros.  I  know  a  great 
many  estates  that  are  now  advertised  for  sale  in  Negros.  They  are  simply  given 
away  almost.- 

Governor  Taft.  Are  there  some  sold  there?  Do  you  judge  from  the  prices  actually 
brought? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  your  estimate  based  on  that? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  Yes,  sir;  you  can  search  the  records  down  there  and  find  my 
statements  to  be  based  on  sales  actually  made. 

Governor  Taft.  And  I  understand  that  for  the  purposes  of  growing  sugar  Negros  is 
just  as  convenient  to  the  sugar  market  as  Cavite — or  is  that  so? 

Sefior  Luzueiaga.  Yes,  sir;  that  is  true  with  regard  to  the  markets,  and  I  doubt 
whether  there  are  any  lands  in  Cavite  that  are  as  fertile  and  as  good  for  sugar  culti- 
vation as  in  Negros. 

Governor  Taft.  How  is  it  with  reference  to  Pampanga? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  In  Pampanga  there  are  no  lands  that  are  equal  in  fertility  or  in 
productivity  to  those  in  Negros.     I  have  seen  some  of  the  land  in  Pampanga. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  Iloilo  as  convenient  to  Negros  as  Manila  to  Pampanga? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  Yes,  sir;  the  market  of  Iloilo  is  only  about  three  hours  away. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  the  expense  of  raising  sugar,  in  proportion  to  the  value  of  the 
product,  greater  or  less  than  that  of  raising  rice? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  Proportionately,  the  expense  of  cultivating  sugar  cane  is  much 
greater  than  cultivating  palay. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  comparative  expense  of  the  two? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  In  good  times  in  Negros  we  could  produce  1  picul  of  sugar  at  an 
expense  of  3  pesos,  Mexican.  .  Now  the  expenses  are  very  much  greater,  owing  to 
the  fact  that  the  locusts  have  appeared  down  there,  the  cattle  have  all  died,  and 
the  cultivation  has  to  be  done  entirely  by  hand.     The  price  of  labor  has  also  risen. 

Governor  Taft.  What  do  you  calculate  it  is  now? 

Senor  Luzueiaga.  All  expenses  could  be  covered  I  think,  approximately,  by  4 
pesos;  that  is,  including  all  expense  of  placing  it  in  the  market. 

Senor  Gutieeeez.  I  can  not  agree  with  Senor  Luzuriaga  with  regard  to  his  state- 
ment that  formerly  the  cost  of  raising  sugar  was  3  pesos  per  picul. 

Sefior  Luzueiaga.  I  refer  to  the  time  immediately  before  the  outbreak  of  the  revolu- 
tion, not  to  twenty  or  thirty  years  back,  when  the  price  of  labor  was  so  very  much 
cheaper  than  it  is  now. 

Senor  Gutieeeez.  I  do  not  think  that  the  expense  of  raising  1  picul  of  sugar  could 
ever  have  exceeded  from  $2  to  $2.25,  Mexican,  and  I,  myself,  who  have  had  experi- 
ence as  a  sugar  planter,  have  never  exceeded  this  sum.  Furthermore,  there  was  a 
great  difference  between  the  cost-  of  raising  sugar  between  a  native  and  a  foreign 
planter.  The  native  planter  was  able  to  either  hire  his  labor  at  a  much  cheaper  price 
than  the  foreign  planter  or  else  he  worked  his  land  on  shares,  and  working  on  shares 
is  a  very  much  cheaper  method  than  working  it  by  day  labor. 

TESTIMONY   OF   MAEIANO   BUNZALAN. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name  and  where  do  you  live. 

Sefior  Maeiano  Bunzalan.  My  name  is  Mariano  Bunzalan.     I  live  at  Rosario, 
Cavite. 
Governor  Taft.  Have  you  lived  at  Rosario  most  of  your  life? 
Sefior  Bunzalan.  Yes,  sir. 
Governor  Taft.  Are  you  a  farmer? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  Yes,  sir;  I  am  an  owner  of  agricultural  lands. 
Governor  Taft.  Is  Rosario  on  the  hacienda  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon? 
Sefior  Bunzalan.  Yes,  sir. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  185 

Governor  Taft.  Are  you  familiar  with  the  estate  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon? 

Sefior  Bunzalan.  Yes,  sir;  I  have  more  or  less  intimate  knowledge  of  the  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  know  of  first-class,  superior  land  in  that  hacienda? 

Sehor  Bunzalan.  I  have  a  more  or  less  intimate  knowledge  of  the  first-class  lands 
on  that  estate.     I  am  a  landowner  on  that  estate. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  cavanes  a  year  will  first-class  land  on  the  estate  of  San 
Francisco  de  Malabon  produce? 

Sefior  Bunzalan.  The  lands  belonging  to  the  pueblo  of  Rosario  produce  per  hectare 
of  first-class  land  about  50  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  But  in  good  years  what  do  they  produce? 

Sefior  Bunzalan.  That  is  what  they  produce  in  good  years.  It  is  because  the  land 
on  that  estate  is  pretty  Avell  worn-out. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  that  land  worth  which  you  describe  as  first-class  land? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  If  we  take  into  consideration  the  present  conditions,  I  would 
calculate  that  the  lands  were  worth  at  present  about  100  pesos  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  there  land  which  produces  in  Cavite  from  90  to  100  cavanes  a 
hectare  in  good  times? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  I  do  not  know  of  any. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  most  that  you  know  of  land  producing  in  good  times? 
I  do  not  mean  when  land  is  not  planted  at  all,  but  I  mean  in  good  times. 

Senor  Bunzalan.  A  long  time  ago,  when  I  was  29  or  30  years  old  ( I  am  now  65 
years  old),  I  have  known  of  lands  to  produce  60  or  70  cavanes  of  palay,  but  I  can 
bet  anybody  that  those  same  lands  will  not  produce  to-day  over  50  cavanes  a  year. 

Governor  Taft.  Does  the  land  you  speak  of  produce  two  crops  a  year? 

Sefior  Bunzalan.  When  I  say  that  lands  have  produced  50  cavanes,  I  refer  to  lands 
which  produce  one  crop  a  year. 

Governor  Taft.  But  is  there  land  there  that  is  so  irrigated  that  it  can  produce  two 
crops  a  year? 

Sefior  Bunzalan.  Yes,  sir.  There  are  lands  that  can  be  cultivated  so  as  to  produce 
two  crops  a  year,  but  they  do  not  cultivate  them  in  that  manner.  By  cultivating 
two  crops  they  do  not  gain  anything  in  production;  it  is  more  expensive  to  them. 

Governor  Taft.  If  they  cultivate  two  crops  they  get  more  gross  crops  than  when 
they  produce  one,  do  they  not? 

Sefior  Bunzalan.  It  was  formerly  so,  but  not  now.  At  present  farmers  prefer  to 
cultivate  only  one  crop  a  year. 

Governor  Taft.  That  is  because  he  doubles  his  expenses,  isn't  it? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Suppose  he  did  raise  from  that  land  two  crops  a  year,  what  would 
be  the  gross  number  of  cavanes? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  The  production  would  be  about  the  same,  and  perhaps  less. 
For  instance,  if  they  cultivate  lands  so  as  to  get  two  crops  a  year,  the  first  crop  will 
probably  yield  30  cavanes  and  the  second  crop  would  yield  them  enough  perhaps  to 
make  up  as  much  as  they  would  get  from  one  crop  alone;  and  the  farmers  knowing 
this,  and  knowing  how  much  more  expensive  it  is,  only  plant  one  crop  a  year. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  they  plant  it  any  differently  when  they  plant  for  two  crops 
than  for  only  one? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  The  first  is  a  transplantation  of  the  plants,  and  the  second  crop 
is  simply  the  sowing  of  the  seed. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  have  testified  that  these  lands  produce  50  cavanes  a  hec- 
tare in  one  crop  a  year.     Do  you  mean  that  they  produce  that  at  the  present  time? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  No;  in  good  years;  that  is  the  maximum  in  good  years. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  What  does  it  produce  at  the  present  time? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  This  year  it  produced  practically  nothing,  because  we  have  had 
the  locusts  down  there  and  there  has  been  a  lack  of  water. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  It  is  useless  to  examine  this  witness  further. 

Governor  Taft.  The  first  crop,  whether  it  be  the  only  crop  or  the  crop  of  two 
crops  in  a  year,  is  always  planted,  is  it  not? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  For  one  cultivation  only  the  plants  are  transplanted,  and  for  two 
cultivations  for  the  first  lot  the  plants  are  transplanted,  but  for  the  second  crop  the 
seed  is  simply  sown  on  the  ground. 

Governor  Taft.  I  do  not  understand  why  the  first  crop,  which  is  planted  by  trans- 
planted plants,  produces  any  less  whether  you  add  the  second  crop  or  not. 

Senor  Bunzalan.  We  will  suppose  that  I  gathered  two  crops  last  year.  If  this 
year  I  attempt  to  do  the  same  thing  the  production  will  be  very  much  less  than  if  I 
had  only  gathered  one  crop  the  year  before,  because  the  land  loses  some  of  its  fertil- 
ity in  being  forced  to  growtwo  crops  in  one  year,  so  this  year  my  production  would 
be  less  from  the  plants  which  I  transplanted  for  the  first  crop. 


186  EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  mean,  then,  that  yon  do  not  plant  two  crops  in  one  year 
because  two  crops  exhaust  the  soil  too  much? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  I  understood  you  to  say  that  in  the  town  of  Kosario,  in  that  part 
of  the  hacienda  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon  which  is  included  in  Eosario,  you  know 
of  no  land  that  produces  to-day  or  will  produce  in  good  years  to-day  to  exceed  50 
cavanes  a  year? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  Yes,  sir;  that  is  what  I  stated. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  do  you  cultivate  yourself? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  I  have  a  piece  of  ground  there  which,  according  to  the  measure- 
ment of  the  administrator  of  the  estate,  amounts  to  3  cavanes  and  20  gantas  of  land, 
and  from  this  land  I  have  gathered  120  cavanes  and  at  the  very  most  130.  Very 
rarely  have  I  gathered  more  than  130  from  this  land. 

Governor  Taft.  How  is  your  land  classified;  is  it  first,  second,  or  third  class  land? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  The  administrator  classifies  it  as  first-class  land. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  custom  in  Cavite  as  to  what  the  owner  of  the  land 
gets,  what  the  lessee  of  the  land  gets,  and  what  the  workman  who  works  on  shares 
gets  out  of  the  gross  product;  what  is  the  annual  rental? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  For  the  3  cavanes  and  20  gantas  in  my  possession  I  paid  37  cava- 
nes of  rice. 

Governor  Taft.  That  is  about  10  per  cent. 

Senor  Bunzalan.  Out  of  the  gross  product  from  the  land  of  120  or  125  cavanes  oi 
rice  I  paid  to  the  administrator  of  the  estate  37  cavanes  as  rental. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  What  were  the  expenses  that  were  deducted  after  that? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  All  expenses,  including  the  seeding  and  gathering  of  the  crop, 
amounted  to  from  36  to  38  pesos.  ' 

Archbishop  Guidi.  There  we  have  37  cavanes  that  you  have  given  for  rental,  36 
pesos  that  have  been  deducted  for  expenses,  and  then  what  was  left  was  to  be  divided 
between  you  and  the  worker  of  the  land;  so  that  what  was  left  to  you  must  have 
been  very  insignificant.     How  much  was  left  to  you? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  It  was  sometimes  less  than  what  I  had  paid  for  rental. 

Governor  Taft.  The  rental  of  the  owner  was  determined  in  this  manner,  wasn't 
it — that  he  paid  10  cavanes  for  every  1  cavan  used  for  seed? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  As  a  general  rule  it  is  about  10  cavanes.  though  I  have  seen  con- 
tracts made  for  11  cavanes;  that  is,  first-class  land.  For  second-class  landless,  some- 
times 8  cavanes.  For  my  land  I  paid  for  3  cavanes  and  18  gantas  37  cavanes  of 
palay. 

Governor  Taft.  But  the  rental  was  determined  by  the  cavanes  used  for  seed, 
was  it? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  The  amount  of  seed  that  was  given  to  the  tenant  had  reference 
not  only  to  the  seed  itself  but  to  the  amount  of  ground  which  the  seed  would  plant. 

Governor  Taft.  A  cavan  of  seed  would  ordinarily  plant  1  hectare  of  land,  so  that 
they  have  come  to  use  cavan  as  equivalent  to  a  hectare.  In  other  words,  cavan 
means  to  them  an  area  of  land. 

Friar  Martin.  How  many  hectares  of  land  do  you  own  there? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  None. 

Archbishop  Guidi.     How  is  it  that  you  claim  possession  over  this  land? 

Senor  Bunzalan.  I  had  possession  as  lessee  of  the  land,  and  because  I  paid  my 
annual  stipend. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  would  like  to  call  attention  to  the  great  contradiction  that 
there  is  between  the  testimony  of  this  witness  and  the  testimony  of  the  expert  of  the 
Government  who  has  testified  here  regarding  the  value  of  the  lands. 

TESTIMONY    OF   DOMINGO    COLMENER. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name  and  where  do  live? 

Senor  Colmener.  Domingo  Colmener.  I  live  at  San  Francisco  de  Malabon,  which 
is  within  the  hacienda  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  you  one  of  the  tenants  of  the  estate? 

Senor  Colmener.   Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  land  did  you  have? 

Senor  Colmener.  About  23  cavanes,  more  or  less.  We  measure  land  down  there 
by  cavanes,  not  by  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  first  or  second  class  land? 

Senor  Colmener.  Of  the  land  which  I  own  there  is  some  which  is  irrigated  and 
some  which  is  not  irrigated. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  they  not  divide  it  into  first,  second,  and  third  class  land? 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  187 

Sen  or  Colmener.  I  do  not  know  whether  the  hacienda  itself  has  classified  the  land 
or  not,  but  I  am  quite  sure  that  I  paid  a  bulk  annual  rental  of  300  cavanes  in  rice. 
Besides  this  I  also  paid  in  money  about  70  pesos  Mexican. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  per  hectare  did  your  best  land  produce  per  cavan  in 
a  good  year? 

Seiior  Colmener.  Fifty  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  have  two  crops  or  one? 

Senor  Colmener.  My  land  would  only  produce  one  crop  a  year,  but  there  was 
land  on  the  estate  that  would  produce  two  crops. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  would  two  crops  produce  a  year? 

Senor  Colmener.  When  land  yielded  two  crops  a  year  the  gross  product  was  80 
cavanes  a  year  for  first-class  land.     I  believe  that  is  the  maximum. 

Governor  Taft.  Had  you  any  of  that  in  your  estate? 

Senor  Colmener.  I  can  not  recollect  that  I  ever  gathered  two  crops  from  any  of 
my  land.  The  reason  why  many  of  the  tenants  were  unable  to  gather  two  crops 
from  their  land  was  owing  to  the  fact  that  a  certain  municipal  official,  who  at  that 
time  was  called  a  justicio,  would  allot  certain  pieces  of  ground  which  were  to  be  cul- 
tivated twice.  This  was  done  in  order  not  to  create  a  scarcity  of  water,  because 
during  the  dry  season,  they  had  to  be  very  careful  with  their  water  so  as  not  to 
create  a  scarcity. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  price  of  land  in  Cavite  that  would  produce  80  cavanes 
per  hectare  in  two  crops? 

Senor  Colmener.  I  believe  as  high  as  100  pesos  Mexican. 

TESTIMONY  OF  JOSE  DEL  ROSARIO. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name? 

Senor  Rosario.  Jose  del  Rosario. 

Governor  Taft.  Where  do  you  live? 

Senor  Rosario.  At  Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon. 

Governor  Taft.  Were  you  a  tenant  of  the  estate  of  Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon? 

Seiior  Rosario.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  pay  rent  to  the  administrator  of  the  estate  of  Santa  Cruz 
de  Malabon? 

Senor  Rosario.  I  do  not  know  that  I  paid  any  rent  for  that  land,  but  I  do  know 
that  a  certain  sum  was  exacted  of  me  by  the  administrator. 

Governor  Taft.  What  sum  was  exacted  from  you?  We  are  not  here  to  examine 
titles. 

Seiior  Rosario.  There  is  some  land  for  which  8  cavanes  was  paid  for  each  cavan  of 
land,  some  for  which  only  4  cavanes  w^as  paid  for  each  cavan  of  land. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  of  that  did  you  cultivate? 

Senor  Rosario.  Eight  and  one-half  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  What  did  you  pay  to  the  administrator  for  those  8  cavanes? 

Senor  Rosario.  Sixty-six  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  have  first  and  second  class  land? 

Senor  Rosario.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  was  produced  on  the  first-class  land? 

Senor  Rosario.  In  the  very  best  of  times  and  the  very  best  of  crops,  50  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  How  wras  that  divided? 

Senor  Rosario.  After  deducting  the  expenses  of  the  cultivation  of  land  and  pay- 
ing the  part  which  was  paid  to  the  administrator  of  the  estate  the  balance  was 
divided  between  the  lessee  of  the  ground  and  the  workmen.> 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  out  of  50  cavanes  did  that  bring  to  you? 

Senor  Rosario.  From  17  to  18  cavanes  per  cavan. 

Archbishop  Guldi.  How  many  crops  a  year? 

Seiior  Rosario.  One  a  year. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Have  you  never  had  two  crops  a  year? 

Senor  Rosario.  Not  on  my  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Was  your  land  irrigated? 

Senor  Rosario.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  was  the  question  whether  they  had  two  crops  regulated? 

Senor  Rosario.  I  do  not  know  whether  there  was  any  regulation  as  to  raising  two 
crops  a  year,  as  I  myself  have  never  raised  two  crops. 

Governor  Taft.  Why? 

Senor  Rosario.  Because  I  did  not  wish  to  tire  my  stock  too  much. 

Governor  Taft.  Was  there  a  justicio  on  the  estate? 

Seiior  Rosario.  Yes,  sir. 


188  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  he  determine  whether  lands  should  have  two  crops  or  one? 

Senor  Rosario.  Yes,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Do  yon  know  whether  this  official  called  justicio  or  overseer 
had  the  power  to  prevent  any  of  the  tenants  from  cultivating  their  grounds  twice  if 
they  desired  to  do  so  and  if  they  had  the  requisite  conditions  to  cultivate  it  twice,  or 
whether  it  was  not  the  fact  that  the  only  attribute  of  this  official  was  the  withhold- 
ing or  granting  of  water. 

Senor  Rosario.  I  do  not  know. 

Senor  Luzuriaga.  What  powers  did  this  official  exercise? 

Senor  Rosario.  The  only  powers  he  exercised  were  those  connected  with  the  dis- 
tribution of  water  for  irrigation  purposes. 

Governor  Taft.  A  second  crop,  I  suppose,  would  be  impossible  if  he  withheld  the 
water,  would  it  not? 

Archbishop  Guidi.  This  official,  who  was  an  overseer  on  the  plantation,  had  sim- 
ply the  duty  of  looking  after  the  distribution  of  water  on  the  estate  for  irrigation 
purposes,  and  it  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  this  official  would  withhold  water  from  one 
tenant  in  order  to  favor  another,  because  that  would  neither  be  in  accordance  with 
equity  nor  justice.  This  was  a  custom  that  was  followed  not  only  in  the  Philippines 
but  also  in  Italy.  Wherever  they  have  irrigation  they  have  an  official  appointed 
whose  duty  it  is  to  see  that  the  water  is  equitably  distributed  among  the  agriculturists. 

Governor  Taft.  But  his  decision  as  to  the  amount  of  water  that  each  shall  have 
out  of  the  total  amount  necessarily  controls  whether  they  shall  have  a  second  crop 
or  not.     The  judge  of  the  water  decides  how  the  water  is  "to  be  distributed  fairly. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  That  is  where  we  are  in  error. 

Governor  Taft.  What  does  he  do,  then? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  It  is  unncessary  for  me  to  state  particularly  what  the  attributes 
or  powers  of  this  overseer  might  have  been  during  that  time.  He  was  simply  one  of 
a  great  many  municipal  officials  that  existed  at  that  time.  This  man  was  a  munici- 
pal official  and  not  an  official  of  the  estate,  and  his  duties  were  simply  to  settle  dis- 
putes between  tenants  with  regard  to  the  cultivation  of  land.  But  the  distribution 
of  water  for  irrigation  purposes  was  altogether  in  the  hands  of  the  administrator  of 
the  estate.  It  was  he  who  fixed  the  amount  which  could  be  irrigated,  and  it  was 
generally  done  in  turns,  one  tenant  having  a  turn  this  year  and  another  tenant  next 
year,  and  so  on. 

Governor  Taft.  Whether  it  was  the  overseer  or  not  the  man  who  distributed  the 
water — and  there  must  have  been  such  a  man  in  times  when  water  was  scarce — 
necessarily  regulated  whether  the  crop  was  to  be  doubled  for  one  and  not  for  another 
tenant.  You  say  a  man  has  the  right  to  raise  two  crops,  but  he  can  not  raise  two 
crops  unless  he  gets  the  water  for  a  second  crop.  If  there  is  not  enough  water  some- 
body has  got  to  lose. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  That  question  was  settled  in  an  equitable  manner  by  the 
administrator. 

Governor  Taft.  What,  in  your  opinion,  is  the  value  of  first-class  land  in  that  part 
of  the  estate  in  which  you  live? 

Senor  Rosario.  One  hundred  dollars  Mexican  per  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  land  that  produces  50  cavanes  a  year? 

Senor  Rosario.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  know  of  any  land  in  Cavite  that  will  produce  more  than 
50  cavanes  a  year? 

Senor  Rosario.  No,  sir. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Are  you  the  owner  of  any  lands? 

Senor  Rosario.  Yes,  sir;  I  have  land  in  Pampanga,  in  Cavite  Viejo,  and  in  my 
town. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Are  you  willing  to  sell  your  first-class  land  at  100  pesos? 

Senor  Rosario.  Yes,  sir. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  How  much  did  you  pay  for  that  land? 

Senor  Rosario.  In  Cavite  I  have  some  land  for  which  I  paid  25  pesos  a  hectare. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Is  that  land  irrigated  land? 

Senor  Rosario.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  raise  one  crop  a  year  from  it? 

Senor  Rosario.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  cavanes  do  you  get  from  that  land  in  Cavite  Viejo? 

Senor  Rosario:  From  30  to  34  cavanes  for  each  cavan  of  seed; 

TESTIMONY    OF   SENOR   SIRIAZO    NAZARINO. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name? 
Senor  Nazarino.  Siriazo  Nazarino. 
Governor  Taft.  Where  do  you  live? 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  189 

Seilor  Nazarino.  In  the  pueblo  of  Naic,  province  of  Cavite. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  you  presidente  of  Naic? 

Senor  Nazarino.  At  present  I  am  not. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  cultivate  land  in  Naic? 

Senor  Nazarino.  I  own  a  certain  piece  of  property  in  Naic. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much? 

Senor  Nazarino.  About  19  hectares. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  a  part  of  the  hacienda  of  Naic? 

Senor  Nazarino.  Formerly  it  was  called  the  hacienda  of  Naic. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  cultivate  it  at  that  time? 

Senor  Nazarino.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  did  you  pay  to  the  administrator  of  the  estate  in  for- 
mer times? 

Senor  Nazarino.  I  paid  10J  cavanes  for  each  cavan  of  seed  to  the  administrator. 
I  paid  1  cavan  extra  for  the  church,  and  I  paid  half  of  a  cavan  for  rats. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  they  collect  half  a  cavan  to  pay  for  the  loss  by  rats? 

Senor  Nazarino.  They  told  me  it  was  for  the  rats;  possibly  it  was  to  cover  that 
loss.     That  was  the  general  custom. 

Governor  Taft.  Was  your  land  first  or  second  class  land? 

Senor  Nazarino.  First-class  land. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  per  cavan  was  the  gross  product. 

Senor  Nazarino.  Generally  when  we  had  what  we  consider  a  good  crop  it  would 
amount  to  40  to  50  cavanes  per  cavan. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  crops  a  year  did  you  produce? 

Senor  Nazarino.  Every  two  years  we  would  get  three  crops. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  cavanes  would  be  produced  in  each  crop  of  those  three 
crops? 

Senor  Nazarino.  The  crop  to  which  I  first  referred  of  50  cavanes  was  what  we 
termed  a  principal  or  a  fine  crop.  What  we  termed  an  extra  crop  was  one  of  about 
30  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  That  would  make  130  cavanes  in  two  years  from  one  hectare,  or 
65  cavanes  a  year? 

Senor  Nazarino.  In  two  years  it  would  be  over  100  cavanes  of  seed.  Half  of  the 
land  was  left  uncultivated  for  half  of  the  time,  because  land  which  was  cultivated 
two  or  three  successive  crops  did  not  yield  as  much  as  if  it  had  been  allowed  to  be 
cultivated  for  a  certain  time. 

Governor  Taft.  What  was  land  worth  on  which  could  be  raised  three  crops  in  two 
years  of  over  100  cavanes? 

Seilor  Nazarino.  $100  to  $125  Mexican  per  hectare.  I  forgot  to  state  that  aside 
from  the  payments  which  we  had  to  make  on  the  gross  product  of  the  first  crop  we 
were  obliged  to  make  another  payment  on  the  second  crop,  one-half  of  the  value  of 
the  first  payment.  When  we  raised  two  crops,  on  the  first  crop  we  paid  about  11 
cavanes  for  each  cavan;  on  the  second  crop  we  would  have  to  pay  one-half  of  that. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  would  like  to  ask  the  witness  if  it  is  true  that  he  paid  for  each 
cavan  of  seed  11^  cavanes  of  palay,  besides  the  money  payment  that  he  made. 

Senor  Nazarino.  Yes,  sir. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  You  have  valued  these  lands  at  $100  to  $125  Mexican  a  hectare; 
on  what  grounds  have  you  placed  this  valuation?  Is  it  upon  sales  which  have  actually 
taken  place  at  Naic? 

Senor  Nazarino.  Yes;  upon  sales  that  have  taken  place  in  the  past. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  would  like  to  state  that  since  the  eighteenth,  or  at  the  most  the 
beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century,  no  sales  of  land  were  made  in  that  estate  of 
Naic  until  the  year  when  the  entire  estate  was  sold  to  the  present  company  that  now 
owns  it.  For  that  reason  the  testimony  of  the  witness  is  not  correct.  He  has  stated 
that  he  was  a  tenant  of  the  estate  up  to  a  certain  year,  but  now,  that  he  is  the  owner 
of  the  lands,  I  would  like  to  ask  him  of  whom  he  bought  those  lands. 

Senor  Nazarino.  I  have  not  said  that  I  was  ever  a  tenant;  what  I  did  say  was  that 
they  exacted  from  us  a  certain  rental  at  that  time. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  What  were  you  then  if  you  were  not  a  tenant. 

Senor  Nazarino.  The  friars  used  to  call  us  tenants  at  that  time  but  I  know  that 
those  lands  were  bought  by  my  forefathers. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  infer  from  your  answer  that  you  consider  yourself  the  owner 
of  those  lands  because  you  say  your  forefathers  were  owners  of  the  land,  and  if  they 
did  not  sell  the  land,  you,  as  their  heir,  would  be  the  present  owner  of  the  land. 

Senor  Nazarino.  Yes;  I  have  inherited  that  from  my  forefathers. 

Governor  Taft.  They  have  been  on  the  land  for  how  long? 

Senor  Nazarino.  My  father  has  told  me  that  he  and  my  grandfather  were  the  first 
to  cultivate  that  land. 


190  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Governor  Taft.  Was  it  the  habit  in  times  past  of  tenants  to  sell  to  other  tenants 
their  right  to  occupy  land? 

Sen  or  Nazarino.  I  remember  that  there  have  been  cases  where  tenants  have  sold 
their  rights  of  tenantry  to  others. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  know  what  prices  were  paid  in  those  times  for  those  ten- 
ants' rights? 

Senor  Nazarino.  In  cases  of  good  land  in  such  conveyances  the  price  paid  was 
100  pesos;  in  some  instances  it  was  less. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Was  not  that  simply  a  conveyance  of  the  usufruct  of  the  land? 

Senor  Nazarino.  It  was  a  conveyance  rather  of  the  possession  of  the  land  of  what- 
ever right  the  man  selling  the  property  had  in  that  property. 

Governor  Taft.  And  what  he  got  was  the  right  to  enjoy  the  gross  product  of  the 
land,  less  11  cavanes  which  he  had  to  pay  for  each  cavan  to  the  administrator? 

Senor  Nazarino.  Yes,  sir;  the  purchaser  of  whatever  right  was  transferred  had  to 
continue  making  the  payment  of  11  cavanes. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  get  the  witness  to  answer  my  ques- 
tion whether  he  is  the  owner  of  that  land  or  not. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  think  it  necessary  for  him  to  answer  that? 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Yes,  sir. 

Senor  Nazarino.  I  consider  myself  the  owner  of  that  property,  being  my  father's 
heir.  At  the  same  time  I  do  not  attempt  to  deny  the  fact  that  during  my  father's 
time  and  my  own  time  I  paid  that  rental  to  which  I  referred,  to  the  administrator  of 
the  estate. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Have  you  a  title  deed? 

Senor  Nazarino.  No,  sir. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Had  your  father  a  title  deed? 

Senor  Nazarino.  No;  not  that  I  know  of. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  How,  then,  can  you  consider  yourself  the  owner  of  that  prop- 
erty if  you  have  not  title  deeds  or  have  not  inherited  title  deeds?  What  your  father 
has  handed  down  to  you  is  the  usufruct  of  the  land  and  not  the  ownership  of  the 
land. 

Senor  Nazarino.  In  my  father's  time  I  might  make  so  bold  as  to  say  that  there 
were  great  obstacles  in  the  way  of  a  Filipino  acquiring  a  title  deed  to  land,  and  for 
that  reason  I  have  no  title  deed  to  the  land.  I  would  also  like  to  say  that  there  was 
also  an  assessment  made  on  the  lessees  of  the  ground  for  the  improvements  on  the 
estate,  construction  of  roads  and  dams,  etc. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  was  that  assessment? 

Senor  Nazarino.  During  my  time — since  the  time  that  I  arrived  at  the  age  of 
reason — I  remember  in  the  construction  of  one  bridge  on  that  estate  they  exacted 
from  6  gantas  for  each  cavan  of  seed  sown. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Where  is  that  bridge  and  for  what  purpose  was  it  constructed? 

Senor  Nazarino.  It  is  the  bridge  on  the  road  from  Naic  to  Santa  Cruz. 

Senor  Gutierrez.  Is  it  not  used  for  the  purpose  of  giving  an  outlet  for  their  crops 
on  the  estate? 

Senor  Nazarino.  Yes,  sir. 

Adjourned  until  March  20. 

Continued  from  March  18,  1903,  seventh  session. 

Malacanan  Palace,  Manila,  March  20, 1903. 
testimony  of  cayetano  topacio. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name? 
Senor  Topacio.  Cayetano  Topacio. 
Governor  Taft.  Where  do  you  live? 
Senor  Topacio.  In  the  pueblo  of  Imus. 
Governor  Taft.  Do  you  cultivate  land  there? 
Senor  Topacio.  Yes,  sir. 
Governor  Taft.  How  much? 
Senor  Topacio.  About  8  hectares. 
Governor  Taft.  How  long  have  you  cultivated  it? 

Senor  Topacio.  I  inherited  it  from  my  father.     Since  his  death  I  have  cultivated  it. 
I  do  not  remember  the  date. 
Governor  Taft.  Is  it  irrigated  rice  land? 
Senor  Topacio.  Yes,  sir. 
Governor  Taft.  Is  it  first,  second,  or  third  class  land? 


KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  191 

Senor  Topacio.  The  greater  part  of  these  8  hectares  is  considered  as  second-class 
land. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  there  any  first-class  land? 

Seiior  Topacio.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  canon  of  the  land? 

Seiior  Topacio.  Do  you  mean  lately?  Because  in  former  years  at  the  heginning  the 
canon  was  called  a  contribution  for  the  support  of  the  worship  of  Our  Lady  of  El 
Pilar,  who  was  the  patron  saint  of  the  estate. 

Governor  Taft.  Who  collected  that?  ' 

Seiior  Topacio.  The  curate  or  parish  priest. 

Governor  Taft.  Wasn't  there  an  administrator  of  the  hacienda? 

Seiior  Topacio.  Lately,  since  there  was  an  administrator  of  the  estate,  the  name  of 
which  was  changed  from  the  Del  Pilar  to  the  estate  of  San  Juan  there  was  an  admin- 
istrator. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  did  he  collect? 

Seiior  Topacio.  There  was  a  variation  in  what  he  collected.  In  the  beginning  it 
was  simply  a  contribution  which  we  made  for  the  maintenance  of  the  parish  priest 
and  for  the  worship  of  Our  Lady  of  Pilar.  This  I  got  from  hearsay  only.  After  that 
the  tribute  was  in  palay,  being  2  cavanes  of  palay,  which  was  equivalent  to  $1  Mexi- 
can, per  cavan  of  land,  which  I  understand  is  nearly  a  hectare  of  land. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Who  imposed  this  contribution? 

Sen  or  Topacio.  According  to  my  idea,  I  think  that  it  was  simply  an  agreement 
between  the  people  and  the~parish  priest. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  recollect  whether  there  had  been  anybody  there  but  an 
administrator  to  collect  from  the  people  who  occupied  land? 

Seiior  Topacio.  It  was  either  the  administrator  or  the  parish  priest- 
Governor  Taft.  What  did  you  pay  the  administrator,  whether  he  was  a  priest  or 
a  layman? 

Seiior  Topacio.  I  paid  8  cavanes  for  each  cavan  of  seed.  Every  three  or  four 
years  the  contracts  or  leases  would  be  renewed,  and  upon  such  renewals  the  amount 
of  canon  was  changed. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you,  in  addition  to  the  canon,  pay  something  to  the  curate? 

Seiior  Topacio.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  pay  anything  for  rats? 

Seiior  Topacio.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  will  that  second-class  land  that  you  are  now  cultivat- 
ing produce  in  a  year? 

Seiior  Topacio.  I  have  not  yet  explained  what  I  paid  for  a  canon  lately.  It  went 
up  as  high  as  15  and  20  canvanes  for  each  cavan  of  seed. 

Friar  Martin.  Can  you  show  a  receipt  showing  that  you  paid  that  amount  of 
canon,  or  can  you  show  a  contract  which  will  testify  that  that  amount  of  canon  was 
exacted  from  you? 

Seiior  Topacio.  I  could  not  because  I  lost  all  my  papers  during  the  insurrection. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  per  hectare  or  cavan  do  you  produce  on  those  8 
hectares? 

Seiior  Topacio.  From  50  to  60  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  On  second-class  land? 

Senor  Topacio.  Yes,  sir;  that  is  during  normal  times. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  plant  two  crops  or  one,  or  three  crops  in  two  years? 

Senor  Topacio.  One  crop  a  year. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  never  plant  two  crops? 

Seiior  Topacio.  No;  I  have  never  planted  two  crops,  because  experience  has 
demonstrated  to  us  that  if  we  plant  two  crops  there  is  not  only  an  additional 
expense,  but  the  first  crop  will  be  a  short  crop. 

Governor  Taft.  So  that  you  found  it  better  to  plant  only  one  crop.  What  is  that 
land  worth? 

Seiior  Topacio.  As  this  is  poor  land,  containing  a  good  deal  of  lime,  it  is  not  worth 
more  than  75  to  80  pesos  a  cavan  or  hectare. 

Mr.  McGregor.  In  declaring  your  land  for  taxation  purposes,  at  how  much  per 
hectare  did  you  value  it? 

Seiior  Topacio.  I  have  declared  the  land  at  an  excessive  price,  with  the  object  of 
covering  all  the  needs  of  our  municipal  government. 

Mr.  McGregor.     How  much  did  you  put  it  at? 

Seiior  Topacio.  For  the  entire  8  cavanes  of  land  it  is  between  two  and  three  thou- 
sand pesos;  that  is,  all  the  improvements — house  and  everything.  The  house  alone 
is  worth  1,500  to  2,000  pesos. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Why  did  you  declare  it  at  an  excessive  price? 


192  KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Senor  Topacio.  It  was  in  order  that  there  might  be  enough  taxes  collected  to 
maintain  the  municipality. 

Governor  Taft.  What  kind  of  a  house  is  on  the  land? 

Senor  Topacio.  It  is  a  house  the  foundations  of  which  are  of  masonry  and  the 
main  body  of  the  house  of  lumber.     It  has  a  nipa  roof. 

Mr.  McGregor.  At  what  do  you  value  the  land  without  the  house? 

Senor  Topacio.  I  have  declared  it  as  uncultivated  lands  at  10  pesos  a  kinon,  which 
is  a  little  over  2  hectares. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Why? 

Senor  Topacio.  Because  all  of  the  improvements  that  are  on  the  ground  I  consider 
my  own  property. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  do  not  think  he  is  right  in  valuing  that  as  uncultivated  land. 
Have  you  put  any  improvements  besides  your  house  on  that  land? 

Senior  Topacio.  What  I  call  improvements  is  the  work  that  I  have  done  in  level- 
ing off  the  land  and  marking  it  off  in  squares  for  rice  culture — diking  it. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Is  your  land  artificially  irrigated  from  water  system? 

Senor  Topacio.  It  is  irrigated  by  the  water  taken  from  the  dams  and  canals. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Were  you  on  the  municipal  board  of  assessors? 

Senor  Topacio.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  As  I  understand  it,  you  make  a  report  of  a  house  worth  1,500 
pesos.     You  have  not  declared  it  separately. 

Senor  Topacio.  I  made  my  declaration  in  this  manner.  I  declared  the  land  sepa- 
rately from  the  improvements,  the  land  at  so  much  and  the  improvements  at  so  much. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Do  you  know  the  value  of  first-class  irrigated  land  of  the  town  of 
Imus? 

Senor  Topacio.  First-class  land,  I  should  say,  might  be  worth  about  100  pesos  a 
hectare.  That  is  because  even  the  most  superior  land  in  that  neighborhood  is  not  of 
as  good  quality,  on  account  of  being  hard,  as  the  land  around  the  other  pueblos  of 
the  province;  but  still  I  think  that  perhaps  the  price  which  I  first  put  on  it,  from  75 
to  80  pesos  a  hectare  for  first-class  land,  would  be  a  better  price  for  it  per  hectare  on 
account  of  its  inferiority  to  similar  land  around  other  pueblos. 

Governor  Taft.  But  you  said  that  this  land  of  yours  was  worth  from  60  to  75  pesos, 
didn't  you? 

Senor  Topacio.  From  50  to  60. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  will  that  first-class  land  produce  per  hectare? 

Senor  Topacio.  From  55  up  to  as  high  as  60  and  75  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  I  do  not  see  much  difference  between  the  product  of  your  first- 
class  and  your  second-class  land. 

Sefior  Topacio.  That  is  because  in  that  neighborhood  the  first-class  land  is  really 
not  first-class  land;  it  is  a  very  inferior  first-class  land. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  In  speaking  of  first-class  land,  wTere  you  speaking  of  land  of 
your  own  that  you  cultivated? 

Senor  Topacio.  No;  I  was  speaking  of  other  people's  land  there. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Is  there  much  difference  in  the  productivity  of  the  first  and 
second  class  land? 

Senor  Topacio.  No;  the  difference  is  small. 

Mr.  McGregor.  How  is  it,  if  you  put  the  value  of  first-class  land  at  such  a  low 
price,  that  some  of  the  people  of  Imus,  in  giving  in  their  declarations  to  the  pro- 
vincial treasurer,  have  valued  their  land  at  $150  gold  a  hectare? 

Senor  Topacio.  This  is  explained  by  the  reason  that  the  residents  of  the  town  of 
Imus  have  agreed  to  put  an  exorbitant  valuation  on  their  lands  for  assessment  pur- 
poses in  order  to  raise  enough  money  to  run  the  municipality  properly. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Some  have  put  it  even  higher  than  $150  gold. 

Senor  Topacio.  I  do  not  know  that  any  residents  have  declared  their  lands  at  $150 
gold. 

Mr.  McGregor.  You  probably  know  E.  Bautista.  He  has  2, 157  meters  of  first- 
class  palay  land  which  he  has  valued  at  $150  gold. 

Senor  Topacio.  No;  I  do  not  recollect  him. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Do  you  know  Mr.  P.  Cordona? 

Senor  Topacia.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McGregor.  He  has  20,905  meters  of  land  valued  at  $300  gold. 

Senor  Topacio.  I  do  not  understand  this  exorbitant  declaration.  I  can  under- 
stand that  a  man's  patriotism  may  go  up  to  a  certain  extent,  but  I  can  not  imagine 
it  going  up  that  far. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  find  some  valuations  here  that  I  do  not  understand  at  all.  There 
is  one  man  has  3,340  meters  of  land  and  he  values  it  at  $200  gold.  The  people  in 
the  office  could  not  give  me  an  explanation  of  it,  but  I  think  he  has  a  dam  on  the 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  193 

property  and  controls  the  water  on  it.  '  Mr.  Tjig  has  3,340  meters  at  $200  gold. 
Another  man  960  meters  at  $150  gold. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  not  the  people  of  Imus  seize  the  opportunity  to  make  returns 
as  to  valuation  of  the  land  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  title? 

Senor  Topacio.  Perhaps  that  has  been  the  consideration— that  is,  that  they  would 
be  considered  as  owners  of  the  land;  but  what  the  landowners  of  Imus  did  do  was 
to  get  together  and  agree  to  put  a  high  valuation  on  their  lands  in  order  that  there 
might  be  enough  taxes  raised  to  run  the  municipality. 

31  r.  McGregor.  Is  it  a  fact  that  you,  Cayetano  Topacio,  were  the  administrator  of 
the.  water  works  in  the  old  days  of  the  hacienda? 

Senor  Topacio.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  was  always  told  that  he  was. 

Governor  Taft.  You  are  now  justice  of  the  peace? 

Senor  Topacio.  No,  sir;  I  had  charges  preferred  against  me,  but  I  was  acquitted 
of  the  charges. 

TESTIMONY   OF   GUILLERMO   TIRONA. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name? 

Senor  Tirona.  Guillermo  Tirona. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  you  related  to  the  secretary  of  the  province? 

Senor  Tirona.  Yes,  sir;  his  nephew. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  live  in  Imus? 

Senor  Tirona.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  occupy  any  land  there,  and  cultivate  it? 

Senor  Tirona.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much? 

Seiior  Tirona.  About  23  hectares  in  Imus,  besides  some  lands  at  Desmarines. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  at  Desmarines? 

Senor  Tirona.  About'7  or  8  hectares. 

Governor  Taft.  When  you  were  paying  canon  to  the  administrator,  how  much 
was  it  per  hectare  for  the  land  that  you  own  in  Imus? 

Seiior  Tirona.  I  will  begin  by  saying  that  the  canon  has  changed  a  great  deal.  At 
first  it  was  a  very  moderate  one  which  I  paid,  but  in  recent  years  I  paid  a  very 
excessive  canon  amounting  to  22  cavanes  per  hectare.  Aside  from  this  1  had  to  pay 
for  the  mango  trees  and  the  sugar  cane. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  did  you  pay  for  the  mango  trees? 

Senor  Tirona.  Twenty-five  cents  Mexican  for  each  tree. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  did  you  pay  for  the  sugar  cane? 

Senor  Tirona.  There  was  also  a  great  variation  in  the  amount  that  they  charged 
upon  sugar  cane,  but  on  sugar  cane  which  would  occupy  an  extent  of  territory  equal 
to  about  300  acres  they  charged  5  pesos.     Still,  in  the  year  1880  it  was  very  much  less. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  of  the  land  that  you  own  and  cultivate  is  rice  land? 

Senor  Tirona.  Nearly  all  of  the  land  is  rice  land;  but  along  the  edges  of  the  land 
are  planted  mango  trees  and  bamboos. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Have  you  any  receipts  showing  that  you  paid  22  cavanes  for  a 
hectare  of  land  as  canon,  or  can  you  show  any  document  stating  that  that  would  be 
the  amount  of  canon  exacted  from  you? 

Seiior  Tirona.  No,  sir;  I  have  no  receipt.  During  the  insurrection  all  those  docu- 
ments were  lost. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  cavanes  of  rice  per  hectare  will  the  land  that  you  own 
in  Imus  produce  a  year? 

Seiior  Tirona.  In  recent  years,  without  taking  into  consideration  the  years  when 
the  crop  was  a  total  failure,  the  land  would  produce  on  an  average  about  40  cavanes 
per  hectare,  but  formerly  it  used  to  produce  a  great  deal  more,  as  the  land  was  more 
fertile. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Explain  why  it  is  that  this  land  has  lost  .its  fertility  in  a  space 
of  five  years,  when  it  had  been  cultivated  for  over  two  centuries  and  had  produced 
good  crops. 

Senor  Tirona.  Perhaps  it  was  on  account  of  the  age  of  the  land  that  it  had  lost  its 
fertility. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  How  can  that  be,  if  for  two  centuries  it  produced  good  crops 
and  now  it  has  lost  its  fertility  in  five  years?  At  that  rate,  in  ten  years  it  will  lose 
it  altogether. 

Seiior  Tirona.  Perhaps  it  was  owing  to  other  circumstances  of  the  times. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Perhaps  you  do  not  work  it  properly. 

Governor  Taft.  You  say  that  in  later  times  you  paid  22  cavanes  a  hectare.  What 
was  the  normal  amount  that  you  paid  as  a  canon? 

war  1903— vol  5 13 


194  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Senor  Tirona.  About  thirty-five  years  ago  my  fathers  paid  from  8  to  12  or  15 
cavanes. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Explain  why  it  was  that  they  paid  such  a  very  small  canon  in 
former  years  when  the  land,  according  to  your  own  statement,  produced  a  great 
deal  more  than  at  the  present  time,  and  why  it  was  that  they  paid  such  a  much 
larger  canon  at  this  time,  when  the  land,  according  to  your  own  statement,  produced 
a  great  deal  less. 

Senor  Tirona.  It  was  because  they  simply  had  to  submit  to  orders.  The  man 
who  had  the  authority  simply  ordered  them  to  do  something  and  they  had  to  com- 
ply with  those  orders. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Have  you  a  receipt  or  any  sort  of  a  document  showing  that 
you  either  had  paid  that  money  or  that  canon  was  exacted  from  you? 

Senor  Tirona.  No.     During  the  insurrection  I  lost  all  my  papers  and  documents. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Were  all  the  houses  burned  during  the  insurrection? 

Senor  Tirona.  We  were  glad  to  get  away  with  our  own  lives. 

Friar  Martin.  Would  you  agree  that  the  lists  or  the  books  of  the  company  were 
correct  with  regard  to  the  amount  of  canon  that  was  paid?  Would  you  take  that  as 
proof? 

Senor  Tirona.  I  would,  but  these  books  or  lists  would  contain  the  canon  by  kinons 
and  balatas. 

Friar  Martin.  In  that  case,  if  you  agree  that  the  books  and  the  lists  kept  by  the 
company  were  correct,  then  you  would  also  have  to  agree  that  you  have  not  told  the 
truth  here  with  regard  to  the  amount  of  canon  that  was  paid,  and  the  governor  would 
be  satisfied  that  he  had  not  told  the  truth.  With  regard  to  this,  I  myself  am  not  a 
Recoleto  nor  am  I  interested  in  the  order,  but  I  know  that  I  can  produce  those  books 
of  the  company  and  show  them. 

Governor  Taft.  How  did  they  keep  the  books? 

Mr.  McGregor.  They  had  a  duplicate  receipt  book;  one  was  kept  and  the  other 
was  given  to  the  man  who  paid. 

Governor  Taft.  What  amount  of  money  did  it  cost  you  to  plant  the  seed  in  the 
ground,  to  gather  the  crop  and  garner  it — the  total  expenses,  including  everything? 

Senor  Tirona.  I  do  not  know.  Most  of  the  expenses  were  paid  by  the  lessee  of 
the  ground,  and  I  only  had  some  of  those  expenses  to  pay  myself,  so  I  could  not 
calculate  what  the  entire  expense  would  be  from  the  time  the  seed  was  planted  until 
the  time  the  crop  was  garnered. 

Friar  Martin.  Can  you  not  recollect  the  amount  of  expenses  that  it  cost  you  for 
cultivating  the  ground  and  gathering  the  crop? 

Senor  Tirona.  I  spent  4  pesos  a  hectare  for  the  seeding  of  the  ground  and  from  75 
cents  to  a  peso  for  the  harrowing  of  the  ground.  That  would  make  on  an  average, 
perhaps,  my  share  of  the  expenses  as  5  pesos  a  hectare;  but  I  do  not  count  in  this 
the  cartage  to  the  storehouse  in  the  pueblo,  and  I  have  not  been  able  to  say  yet  what 
that  will  cost  me.  These  expenses  were  divided  between  me  and  another  man  who 
was  my  partner  and  shared  the  profits,  who  worked  the  land.     I  am  the  lessee. 

Friar  Martin.  What  would  be  your  share  of  the  net  profits  when  you  had  a  crop 
of  40  cavanes  per  hectare? 

Senor  Tirona.  About  5  cavanes.  I  am  unable  to  fix  the  exact  value  of  the  profits 
that  would  accrue  to  me,  because  that  varied  with  the  variation  of  the  price  of  rice. 

Friar  Martin.  I  did  not  ask  about  the  money  that  you  got,  but  the  amount  of 
cavanes  that  you  got  when  the  crop  was  40  cavanes.  Is  it  not  true  that  you  had 
the  option  of  paying  your  canon  either  in  palay  or  in  money,  and  if  so,  how  much 
did  you  pay  or  how  much  were  you  expected  to  pay  in  money  during  the  last  year 
of  the  administration? 

Senor  Tirona.  That  varied.  The  amount  of  money  we  had  to  pay  was  according 
to  the  price  of  rice. 

Friar  Martin.  Could  you  not  remember  in  any  year  what  the  amount  of  money 
was  that  you  had  to  pay  if  you  should  prefer  to  pay  in  money  instead  of  rice? 

Senor  Tirona.  No;  I  do  not  remember. 

Friar  Martin.  It  never  went  beyond  9  reals  a  cavan  of  rice.  I  can  show  that  by 
the  books  of  the  company. 

Senor  Tirona.  I  remember  that  during  the  time  of  Balatino  Balanes  they  put  a 
very  excessive  price  on  the  canon  that  we  were  obliged  to  pay,  that  is  to  say,  a 
money  price  on  the  cavanes. 

•  Friar  Martin.  How  long  ago  was  that? 

Senor  Tirona.  A  little  over  twenty  years  ago. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  You  have  a  very  remarkable  memory,  in  that  you  remember 
an  incident  of  twenty  years  ago  and  are  unable  to  remember  what  happened  two  or 
three  years  ago. 

Senor  Tirona,  I  remember  it  because  it  wras  a  very  memorable  occasion. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  195 

Friar  Martin.  The  witness  has  stated  that  he  paid  as  a  canon  22  cavanes  of  rice. 
Now,  if  we  take  the  gross  product  of  a  cavan  of  ground  as  40  cavanes  of  rice  we  will 
have  left  18  cavanes.  The  witness  has  been  unable  to  state  the  cost  of  planting  and 
gathering  and  garnering  the  crop  of  palay;  but  in  Cavite  Province,  according  to  the 
facts  in  my  possession,  they  amount  to  the  equivalent  of  16  to  17  cavanes  of  rice  with 
rice  at  10  reals  a  cavan.  As  they  paid  in  rice  it  is  a  sign  that  the  rice  was  not  worth 
over  10  reals.  If  it  had  been  worth  more  than  10  reals  they  would  have  paid  in 
money.  If  we  make  a  calculation,  they  would  nave  netted,  at  the  most,  between 
him  and  his  profit  sharer  working  the  land,  3  cavanes  to  divide,  supposing  that  he 
has  told  the  truth.  But  he  has  stated  that  his  share  of  the  profits  was  5  cavanes; 
that  is,  his  own  share,  which  was  half  of  the  net  profits  for  both  of  them. 

Governor  Taft.  But  he  said  that  the  expenses  were  about  5  pesos,  didn't  he? 

Senor  Tieona.  The  subtenant  had  a  great  many  more  expenses,  because  he  had  to 
provide  the  plows  and  carabaos. 

Governor  Taft.  The  custom,  as  testified  here,  is  that  they  divided  the  expenses 
and  then  divided  the  crop. 

Friar  Maetin.  The  general  custom  is  that  they  used  to  subtract  the  expenses  from 
the  gross  product,  first  paying  the  canon,  then  subtracting  the  expenses,  and  then 
dividing  the  net  profits. 

Governor  Taft.  So  that  if  his  expenses  were  $5  that  would  make  $10  for  both  of 
them? 

Friar  Maetin.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  And  that  would  leave  8  pesos  to  divide,  according  to  the  witness. 

Friar  Maetin.  Then  you  state  that  you  can  cultivate  a  hectare  of  ground  at  an 
expense  of  10  pesos,  gathering  the  crop  and  all  expenses. 

Sen  or  Tieona  .  The  custom  was  a  little  bit  different  in  my  town.  The  tenant  there, 
not  the  subtenant,  paid  the  expense  of  seeding,  $4,  and  75  cents  to  a  peso  for  the 
working  of  the  ground  after  the  seed  was  in,  which  would  make,  say,  an  average  of  5 
pesos;  but  besides  that  he  had  to  pay  the  cartage.  The  cartage  is  hard  to  calculate; 
it  depends  on  the  distance  between  the  warehouse  and  the  place  where  the  rice  is 
grown. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  I  would  like  to  know  the  exact  cost  of  cultivating  1  hectare. 

Senor  Tieona.  I  am  unable  to  state,  because  it  varies  a  great  deal,  but  I  have  tried 
to  explain  the  expenses  that  I  had  to  pay  and  the  expenses  that  my  partner  had  to 
pay.  He  had  to  pay  the  expense  of  putting  in  the  seed,  then  the  expense  of  har- 
rowing, and  also  the  expense  of  hauling  the  grain  from  the  land  to  the  granary. 
This  partner  was  obliged  to  pay  all  other  incidental  expenses,  also  the  expense  of 
reaping  the  crop  and  gathering  it;  but  I  am  unable  to  state  what  those  expenses  of 
my  partner  amounted  to  in  money. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  hear  what  Friar  Martin  said  with  reference  to  the  time 
that  he  paid  22  cavanes  as  the  canon?  He  said  this:  The  total  product  was  40  cavanes; 
you  paid  22  as  the  canon,  and  the  total  expenses  would  be  16.  That  left  only  2 
cavanes  to  be  divided  between  you  and  your  partner.     Is  that  correct? 

Senor  Tieona.  My  expenses  amounted  to  about  5  pesos  on  an  average,  and  the 
other  expenses  which  were  borne  by  my  partner,  the  subtenant,  were  those  of  reap- 
ing and  other  incidental  expenses  which  he  bore. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  land  in  Imus  worth  a  hectare? 

Senor  Tirona.  Part  of  the  lands  I  inherited  from  my  father  and  part  of  the  lands, 
about  15  hectares,  I  bought  about  fifteen  years  ago  for  80  pesos  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  From  whom  did  you  buy  it? 

Senor  Tieona.  A  man  named  Bias  Heda,  now  dead. 

Governor  Taft.  Was  he  paying  a  canon  to  the  Recoletos?    * 

Senor  Tieona.  I  believe  so. 

Governor  Taft.  What  you  paid,  therefore,  was  80  pesos  for  the  right  to  occupy  the 
land? 

Senor  Tieona.  In  the  deed  of  conveyance  for  which  I  paid  the  possession  of  the 
land  was  also  given  to  me. 

Governor  Taft.  And  that  at  the  rate  of  80  pesos  a  hectare? 

Senor  Tieona.  Yes,  sir;  more  or  less. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Upon  the  payment  of  your  80  pesos  per  hectare  for  that  piece 
of  property  which  was  conveyed  to  you,  did  you  get  the  ownership  of  the  property, 
or  did  you  simply  get  possession  of  the  property? 

Senor  Tieona.  The  deed  of  conveyance  that  was  issued  to  me  states,  according  to 
my  idea — I  am  not  a  lawyer  nor  do  I  understand  anything  about  legal  terms — that 
it  gives  me  possession  of  the  land. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Can  you  dispose  of  this  land?  Can  you  sell  it  or  do  as  you 
please  with  it? 


196  KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Senor  Tirona.  It  has  been  the  custom  among  the  residents  of  that  town  having 
property  to  convey  possession  of  it  by  deeds. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  It  is  a  loss  of  time  to  examine  this  witness.  I  do  not  wish  to 
question  him  any  more. 

Governor  Tapt.  We  understand  what  he  means  and  what  he  does  not  want  to  say, 
but  that  is  a  question  we  are  not  trying  here.  The  question  is  one  of  value.  I  want 
to  ask  him  what  that  land  is  worth  now. 

Senor  Tirona.  I  have  not  tried  to  sell. 

Governor  Taft.  Suppose  you  were  to  buy  that  land  free  from  the  necessity  of  pay- 
ing any  canon? 

Senor  Tirona.  It  would  be  worth  somewhat  more  on  that  account. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much? 

Senor  Tirona.  I  can  not  calculate;  I  do  not  know. 

Governor  Taft.  Have  you  first  or  second  class  land? 

Senor  Tirona.  I  have  both  first  and  second  class  land. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  the  first-class  land  worth? 

Senor  Tirona.  It  depends  upon  circumstances,  what  the  land  is  worth.  Seven 
years  ago  it  was  worth  about  80  pesos  a  hectare,  but  lately  there  have  been  no  sales 
of  land.  Still,  I  would  think  it  might  be  worth  about  90  pesos.  It  depends  altogether 
on  the  necessity  of  the  seller  for  disposing  of  his  property.  Possibly  it  might  be 
worth  100  pesos  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  Have  you  made  a  tax  return  on  that  land? 

Senor  Tirona.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  did  you  return  the  land  as  worth? 

Senor  Tirona.  A  little  over  100  pesos  a  hectare. 

Governor  Taft.  That  was  your  declaration  as  proprietor,  was  it? 

Senor  Tirona.  Yes,  sir.  The  board  of  municipal  assessors  afterwards  changed  it 
and  converted  my  valuation  into  gold. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  they  make  it  $100  gold? 

Senor  Tirona.  They  converted  my  declaration  into  gold  because  the  board  saw 
that  the  valuation  which  I  had  placed  upon  it  would  not  enable  the  municipality  to 
collect  enough  taxes  to  keep  up  expenses. 

TESTIMONY    OF    FELIZ    CUENTA. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Feliz  Cuenta. 

Governor  Taft.  Where  do  you  live? 

Senor  Cuenta.  In  Bacoor. 

Governor  Taft.  Bacoor  is  in  the  hacienda  of  San  Juan? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Yes,  sir;  but  the  pueblo  itself  is  in  the  San  Nicolas  estate. 

Governor  Taft.  Have  you  any  land  there? 

Senor  Cuenta.  I  am  the  presidente  of  the  town  and  I  am  not  a  tenant  of  the  town 
now,  but  I  have  some  land  of  my  own. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much? 

Senor  Cuenta.  About  30  cavanes  of  land. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  rice  land? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  long  have  you  held  it? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Some  of  the  land  I  inherited  from  my  father  and  some  I  have 
bought. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  your  father  pay  a  canon  on  the  land? 

Senor  Cuenta.  No,  sir;  the  land  to  which  I  refer  is  land  which  belongs  to  the 
municipality. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  it  first-class  or  second-class  rice  land? 

Senor  Cuenta.  They  are  not  first-class  lands  because  they  are  subject  to  rainfall, 
and  when  the  rain  does  not  fall  there  is  no  crop. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  do  they  produce  in  a  good  year? 

Senor  Cuenta.  From  25  to  30  cavanes.  They  are  not  first-class  lands;  they  are 
lands  that  are  near  the  center  of  the  town;  they  are  not  irrigated  lands. 

Governor  Taft.  And  you  raise  from  them  in  normal  years  from  25  to  30  cavanes? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Are  you  familiar  with  first-class  lands  in  that  part?  Do  you  know 
first-class  lands? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Yes,  sir;  more  or  less. 

Governor  Taft.  What  do  you  consider  your  land  worth? 

Senor  Cuenta.  As  these  lands  of  mine  have  no  burden  on  them  whatever  except 
the  land  tax,  I  consider  them  to  be  worth  about  100  pesos  Mexican  a  hectare,  and  I 
place  this  valuation  upon  them  because  they  are  near  town. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  197 

Governor  Taft.  How  does  that  compare  in  value  with  the  first-class  lands  on  the 
estates,  assuming  that  there  is  no  canon  to  pay  and  no  burden  of  any  sort  except  the 
land  tax? 

Senor  Ouenta.  It  would  be  about  the  same. 

Governor  Taft.  But  is  not  first-class  land  on  the  estate  worth  more  than  your  land 
that  is  not  irrigated? 

Senor  Cuenta.  They  are  worth  100  pesos  a  hectare  for  the  reason  that  the  lands  in 
the  estate  are  farther  away  from  the  town.  You  have  to  take  that  fact  into  con- 
sideration. You  must  also  remember  that  those  classifications  of  first  class,  second 
class,  and  third  class  were  made  by  the  administrators  of  the  estates  themselves. 

Governor  Taft.  Isn't  there  first-class  land  in  the  estate  just  as  near  the  town  as 
your  land? 

Senor  Cuenta.  No,  sir;  as  all  my  lands  are  within  the  populated  limits  of  the  town. 

Governor  Taft.  Isn't  there  first-class  land  up  near  Imus? 

Senor  Cuenta.  At  the  barrio  of  Mambo,  where  there  is  plenty  of  water,  there  are 
good  first-class  lands. 

Governor  Taft.  Isn't  that  near  Imus? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Right  adjacent  to  Imus. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  that  land  worth? 

Senor  Cuenta.  About  150  pesos;  I  do  not  know  for  certain. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  will  first-class  land  produce? 

Senor  Cuenta.  From  40  to  50  cavanes. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  How  much  do  yours  produce? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Twenty-five  to  thirty. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Without  irrigation? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  How  many  crops,  on  that  first-class  land,  do  they  produce  in  two 
years? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Each  year,  one. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Have  they  never  gathered  two  crops  in  one  year? 

Senor  Cuenta.  In  my  town,  so  far  as  I  know,  I  have  never  seen  two  crops.  I  have 
never  heard  of  two  crops  in  Imus. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Your  pariente,  Juan  Cuenta,  who  used  to  be  the  presidente,  has 
land  that  is  irrigated  from  this  large  dam  called  the  Place  de  Malina.  Does  that 
only  produce  40  to  50  cavanes?    They  have  as  much  water  as  they  require,  of  course. 

Senor  Cuenta.  Perhaps  they  produce  about  that  much.  There  are  some  years 
when  they  might  have  produced  more  and  some  less. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  more? 

Senor  Cuenta.  I  suppose  that  that  is  about  as  high  as  they  reach.  I  do  not  know. 
I  have  heard  from  others  who  possessed  land  around  there  that  they  would  produce 
from  40  to  50. 

Governor  Taft.  Has  not  your  cousin  produced  three  crops  in  two  years? 

Seiior  Cuenta.  No,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  own  first-class  land? 

Seiior  Cuenta.  I  do  not  know  whether  they  are  first-class  lands  or  not;  they  are  at 
the  barrio  of  Ligas  and  the  water  from  the  dam  reaches  the  land. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Then  you  put  a  value  of  about  $100  Mexican  on  the  first-class  land 
there? 

Senor  Cuenta.  I  have  not  said  so. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  What  is  the  value  of  first-class  land? 

Seiior  Cuenta.  Perhaps  it  may  be  worth  over  100  pesos. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  you  not  say  it  was  worth  150  pesos?   > 

Senor  Cuenta.  Yes;  if  they  are  well  irrigated. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Do  you  consider  your  land,  under  the  usual  way  of  classifying 
land,  third-class  land? 

Senor  Cuenta.  You  can  not  classify  these  lands,  as  they  are  not  irrigated  lands, 
and  when  it  does  not  rain  they  have  very  little  value. 

Mr.  McGregor.  We  look  upon  that  as  third  class.  Do  you  know  a  man  named 
A.  Tolentino?  He  has  lands  in  the  district  of  San  Nicolas.  The  reason  I  ask  this 
question  is  that  there  is  a  man  named  Tolentino  who  has  14,707  meters  of  land  and 
he  values  it  at  8325  gold. 

Seiior  Cuenta.  I  do  not  know  him;  there  are  a  great  many  Tolentinos. 

Mr.  McGregor.  That  is  a  price  that  I  got  from  the  book  in  Cavite;  I  do  not  quite 
understand  it.  They  call  it  improved  palay  land.  Perhaps  the  man  has  got  a  dam 
on  it  or  something  of  that  sort. 

Governor  Taft.  What  did  you  return  your  land  at? 

Senor  Cuenta.  I,  together  with  several  other  prominent  citizens  of  the  town  of 
Bacoor,  had  agreed  to  fix  a  high  valuation  upon  our  real  estate  there  in  order  to  help 


198  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

out  the  municipality  in  its  running  expenses  for  schools,  general  improvements,  etc. , 
and  for  that  reason  I  put  a  value  of  200  pesos  a  hectare  on  my  land.  It  was,  how- 
ever, with  the  understanding  that  this  high  valuation  would  be  reduced  when  the 
necessities  of  the  municipality  would  not  be  as  great  as  they  are  at  present. 

Governor  Taft.  Was  it  $100  gold  that  you  put  on  it? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Two  hundred  dollars  Mexican. 

Governor  Taft.  And  they  reduced  it  to  gold? 

Senor  Cuenta.  No,  sir;  they  have  not  reduced  it  to  gold. 

Governor  Taft.  Haven't  they  been  ordered  to  reduce  everything  to  gold? 

Senor  Cuenta.  The  tax  board  has  not  changed  the  valuation  put  upon  the  land 
by  the  property  owners  in  their  declarations,  though  it  has  converted  them  to  gold 
at  the  rate  of  exchange.     We  increased  it,  in  other  words. 

Governor  Taft.  Did  they  not  transfer  it  to  gold  at  the  rate  of  two  to  one? 

Senor  Cuenta.  This  conversion  was  made  by  the  treasurer;  the  boards  did  not  do 
it  at  all.     It  is  done  in  Cavite  itself. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Have  you  any  salt  lands? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  McGregor.  How  much? 

Senor  Cuenta.  Perhaps  each  salt  pit  may  be  less  than  a  hectare.  I  nave  12  of 
these  salt  pits,  about  12  hectares. 

Mr.  McGregor.  What  do  you  value  your  salt  lands  per  hectare  at? 

Senor  Cuenta.  That  is  according  to  the  condition  of  the  salt  pit.  Some  land  is 
better  than  other. 

Mr.  McGregor.  But  taking  average  land? 

Senor  Cuenta.  From  250  to  300  pesos  for  each  salt  pit,  more  or  less. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  wanted  to  get  at  his  price,  because  we  have  some  salt  lands. 

TESTIMONY    OF   GREGORIO   BAUTISTA. 

Governor  Taft.  What  is  your  name? 
'  Senor  Bautista.  Gregorio  Bautista. 

Governor  Taft.  Where  do  you  live? 

Senor  Bautista.  Dasmarihas. 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  hold  any  lands  in  Dasmarinas? 

Senor  Bautista.  Yes;  I  am  in  possession  of  lands  at  Dasmarinas. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much? 

Senor  Bautista.  I  have  two  classes  of  land — one  irrigated  and  the  other  not  irri- 
gated. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  irrigated? 

Senor  Bautista.  Two  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  unirrigated? 

Senor  Bautista.  About  3  cavanes,  I  should  calculate. 

Governor  Taft.  Is  that  irrigated  land  first-class  land? 

Senor  Bautista.  I  can  not  state  with  regard  to  the  classification  of  the  land. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  will  it  produce? 

Senor  Bautista.  In  the  good  times,  50  cavanes. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  does  the  unirrigated  land  produce? 

Senor  Bautista.  I  have  not  cultivated  it  to  palay  at  all.  I  cultivate  it  to  corn. 
Before  the  revolution  I  also  planted  some  sugar  cane,  but  not  since  then. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Did  you  in  the  best  of  times,  or  at  any  time,  get  more  than  50 
cavanes  per  hectare  from  your  land? 

Senor  Bautista.  Never. 

Archbishop  Guidi.  Did  you  ever  get  two  crops  from  that  land? 

Senor  Bautista.  No;  never. 

Governor  Taft.  Have  you  returned  your  land  for  taxation? 

Senor  Bautista.  Yes,  sir. 

Governor  Taft.  At  what  price  did  you  return  it? 

Senor  Bautista.  Some  at  75  and  some  80  pesos  Mexican  a  cavan.  • 

Governor  Taft.  Do  you  think  that  is  about  the  right  value? 

Senor  Bautista.  To  the  best  of  my  knowledge  and  understanding  that  is  the  right 
price. 

Governor  Taft.  How  much  did  you  declare  the  unirrigated  land  at? 

Senor  Bautista.  I  returned  it  at  5  pesos,  because  the  land  has  not  been  cultivated 
for  a  number  of  years  and  it  is  now  overgrown  with  vegetation. 

Mr.  McGregor.  Is  there  much  sugar  land  in  the  vicinity  of  Dasmarinas? 

Senor  Bautista.  There  are  two  or  three  landowners  at  the  present  time  who  are 
cultivating  sugar  cane. 

Mr.  McGregor.  I  think  that  Senor  Villegas  said  that  there  was  none. 

Adjourned. 


EXHIBIT  G. 


DETAILED  AND  SUMMARIZED  STATEMENTS  OF  THE  VALUATIONS 
OF  THE  FRIARS'  ESTATES  BY  SENOR  VILLEGAS. 

Tlie  friar  lands  as  surveyed  by  the  expert  appointed  by  the  Philippine  Commission. 

ESTATES   OF   THE   DOMINICANS. 

Binan  (3,739  hectares  10  ares  15  centares): 

Kice  lands  of  the  first  class,  2,039  hectares  10  ares  15  Mexican  currency. 

centares,  at  $150  a  hectare $305,  865.  22 

Sugar  lands  of  the  first  class,  1,700  hectares,  at  $100 

a  hectare 170,  000.  00 

Dams  and  dikes,  according  to  present  condition 12,  000.  00 

Farmhouse,  according  to  present  condition 10,  000.  00 

$497,  865.  22 

Calamba  (16,424  hectares  14  ares): 

Rice  lands  of  the  first  class,  3,991  hectares,  at  $150 

a  hectare 598,650.00 

Rice  lands  of  the  second  class,  883  hectares,  at  $125 

a  hectare 110,  375. 00 

Rice  lands  of  the  third  class,  883  hectares,  at  $80  a 

hectare 70,  640.  00 

Sugar  lands,  4, 626  hectares,  at  $60  a  hectare 277,  200.  00 

Uncultivated  lands,  6,036  hectares,  at  $5  a  hectare. . .      30, 181.  20 

Farmhouse,  as  per  present  condition 15,  000.  00 

1,102,046.20 

Lolomboy,  Polo,  Bulacan  (106  hectares  53  ares): 

Rice  lands  and  building  lots  (improved  lots)  of  the 

first  class,  at  $150 15,979.50 

Lolomboy, «  Bocaue,  Bulacan  (4,158 — 9 — 66  hectares): 
Rice  lands  of  the  first  class,  3,326  hectares  69  ares  46 

centares,  at  $200 665,  338.  92 

Building  lots,  164—45—67  hectares,  at  $125 20, 557.  09 

Fisheries,  19—40—70  hectares,  at  $250 4,  851.  75 

Uncultivated  lands,   647 — 53 — 83  hectares,  at  $5  a 

hectare 3,  237.  69 

Improvements,  farmhouse,  and  warehouses  for  rice. .      40,  000.  00 

733,  985.  45 

Naic  (7,922  hectares  and  29  ares) : 

Rice  lands  of  the  first  class,  3,119  hectares  28  ares,  at 

$200  a  hectare 623,856.00 

Building  lots  in  the  town,  40  hectares  1  are,  at  $200 

a  hectare 8,  020.  00 

Uncultivated  woodlands,  4,763  hectares,  at  $5  a  hec- 
tare        23,  81 5.  00 

Improvements  of  dams,  dikes,  and  tunnels,  accord- 
ing to  present  condition 90,  305.  76 

Farmhouse  and  warehouses  for  the  storing  of  rice. .      25,  000.  00 

770,  996.  76 

a  Lolomboy,  Polo,  Bulacan  (second)  (65—19—50  hectares):  Rice  lands  and  build- 
ing lots  of  the  first  class,  at  $150,  $9,779.28.  Omitted  in  error  and  added  to  the 
grand  total. 

199 


200  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Orion  (2,109 — 57 — 24  hectares):  Mexican  currency. 

Rice  lands  of  the  second  class,  375  hectares,  at  $100  a 
hectare $37,  500.  00 

Sugar  lands,  278  hectares,  at  $120  a  hectare 33,  360.  00 

Improved  lots  (building  lots)  in  the  town,  260  hec- 
tares, at  $125  a  hectare 32,500.00 

Uncultivated  waste  lands,  1,196  hectares  57  ares  and 

24  centares,  at  $5 5,982.00 

$109,  342.  00 

Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon  (8,902—37—50  hectares): 

Rice  lands  of  the  first  class,  4,001  hectares,  at  $150  a 
hectare 600, 150.  00 

Improved  lots  in  the  town,  40  hectares,  at  $200  a 
hectare 8,  000.  00 

Uncultivated  lands,  4,861 — 37 — 50  hectares,  at  $5  a 
hectare 24,  306.  87 

Improvements,  dams,  and  dikes 50,  000.  00 

682,  456.  87 

Santa  Maria  de  Pandi  (12,069—57—2  hectares): 

Rice  lands,  class  1,  1,016  hectares,  at  $200  a  hectare.  203,  200.  00 

Rice  lands,  class  2,  1,503  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare.  225,  450.  00 

Rice  lands,  class  3,  675  hectares,  at  $100  a  hectare . .  67,  500.  00 

Rice  lands,  class  4,  1,400  hectares,  at  $75  a  hectare. .  105, 000.  00 

Rice  lands,  class  5,  1,450  hectares,  at  $50  a  hectare. .  72,  500.  00 
Uncultivated  mountain  lands,  fields,  and  woodlands, 
6,025  hectares  57  ares  and  26  centares,  at  $25  a 

hectare 150,639.00 

824,  289.  00 

Santa  Rosa  (4,750—14—24  hectares): 

Rice  lands,  first  class,  1,000 — 14 — 24  hectares,  at  $175 
a  hectare 175,024.90 

Rice  lands,  second  class,  1,310  hectares,  at  $150  a 

hectare 193,  500.  00 

Rice  lands,  third  class,  130  hectares,  at  $100  a  hec- 
tare        13,000.00 

Sugar  lands,  first  class,  1,010  hectares,  at  $150  a  hec- 
tare       151, 500.  00 

Sugar  lands,  second  class,  1,300  hectares,  at  $100  a 
hectare 130,000.00 

Farmhouse,  in  present  condition 25, 000.  00 

Dams  and  dikes,  in  present  condition 12,  000.  00 

700,  024.  90 

San  Juan  del  Monte  (156 — 49 — 35  hectares) : 

Rice  lands  of  the  second  class,  106  hectares,  at  $125 

a  hectare 13,  250. 00 

Improved  lots,  inside  and  outside  the  town,  50 — 49 — 

35  hectares,  at  $100  a  hectare 5,049.00 

io  299  00 

Toro  (58—23—30  hectares): 

Rice  lands  and  sugar  lands,  58  hectares  23  ares  and  30  centares, 
at  $150  a  hectare 8,734.95 

ESTATES   OP   THE    AUGUSTINIANS. 

Banilad  or  Talamban  (1,538 — 43  hectares): 

Rice  lands,  "aventureras,"  of  the  first  class,  319  hec- 
tares, at$300 95,700.00 

Rice  lands  of  the  second  class,  345  hectares,  at  $200  a 

hectare 69,  000.  00 

Improved  lots  in  the  town,  with  cocals,  96  hectares, 

$200  a  hectare 19,  200.  00 

Uncultivated  lands,  778  hectares  and  43  ares,  at  $15 

a  hectare 11,  676.  45 

195,  576.  45 

Dampol,  Quincua  (962  hectares): 

Rice  lands  and  sugar  lands  of  the  first  class,  902 — 74 — 

46  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare 135,  411 .  69 

Improved  lots,  60  hectares,  at  $125  a  hectare 7,  500.  00 

142,911.69 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  201 

Mandalova  (4,033  hectares):  Mexican  currency. 
Eice 'lands,  class  1,  570  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare. . .  $85,  500.  00 
Eice  lands,  class  2,  720  hectares,  at  $125  a  hectare. . .  90,  000.  00 
Eice  lands,  class  three,  1,080  hectares,  at  $100  a  hec- 
tare    108,  000.  00 

Uncultivated  lands,  quarries,  and  lands  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  brick,  1,663  hectares,  at  $25  a  hec- 
tare    41,575.00 

Farmhouse  of  Mandalova 50,000.00 

$375,  075. 00 

Muntinlupa  (5,397  hectares  and  84  ares): 

Eice  lands,  class  2,  "aventureras,"  800  hectares,  at 

$100  a  hectare 80,  000.  00 

Eice  lands  of  the  third  class,  "a venture ras,"  700  hec- 
tares and  84  ares,  at  $75  a  hectare 52,  500.  00 

Eice  lands  of  the  fourth  class,   ' '  aventureras, ' '  500 

hectares,  at  $50  a  hectare 25,000.00 

Uncultivated  lands,  3,397  hectares,  at  $5  a  hectare..  16,  985.  00 

■ 174, 485.  00 

Malinta  (3,432  hectares): 

Eice  lands,  class  1,  650  hectares,  at  $200  a  hectare. . .  130,  000.  00 

Eice  lands,  class  2,  1,620  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare.  243,  000.  00 

Eice  lands,  class  3,  182  hectares,  at  $100  a  hectare. ,  18,  200.  00 
Mountain  lands,  uncultivated,  980  hectares,  at  $5  a 

hectare 4,900.00 

Improvements 5,  000.  00 

401, 100.  00 

Tala  (5,197  hectares): 

Eice  lands,  class  1,  884  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare. . .  132,  600.  00 

Eice  lands,  class  2,  209  hectares,  at  $125  a  hectare. . .  26, 125.  00 

Eice  lands,  class  3,  209  hectares,  at  $100  a  hectare. . .  20,  900.  00 
Uncultivated  mountain  lands,  3,895  hectares,  at  $5  a 

hectare 19,  475.  00 

Improvements 5,  000.  00 

204, 100.  00 

Piedad  (3,604  hectares): 

Eice  lands,  class  1,  568  hectares,  at  $200 113,  600.  00 

Eice  lands,  class  2,  1,069  hectares,  at  $150 160,  350.  00 

Eice  lands,  class  3,  127  hectares,  at  $100 12,  700.  00 

Uncultivated  mountain  lands,  1,840  hectares,  at  $5  a 

hectare 9,200.00 

Improvements 5,  000.  00 

300,  850.  00 

San  Francisco  de  Malabon  (13,000  hectares): 

Eice  lands  of  the  first  class,  6,500  hectares,  at  $150 

a  hectare 975,000.00 

Improved  lots,  50  hectares,  at  $200  a  hectare 10,  000.  00 

Uncultivated  lands,  6,450  hectares,  at  $5  a  hectare. .  32,  250.  00 
Improvements,  dams,  dikes,  tunnels,  in  their  present 

condition 100,  000.  00 

1,117,250.00 

Binagbag  (294  hectares):  x 
Eice  lands  and  sugar  lands,  260  hectares,  at  $125  a 

hectare 32,  500.  00 

Uncultivated  lands,  34  hectares,  at  $5  a  hectare 170.  00 

32, 670.  00 

Talisay  and  Minglanilla  (7,362—90  hectares) : 

Cultivated  lands  of  the  first  class,  in  cane,  for  sugar 

and  maize,  1,820  hectares,  at  $300  a  hectare 546,  000.  00 

Cultivated  lands  of  the  second  class,  rice  and  cocal, 

886  hectares,  at  S200  a  hectare 177,  200.  00 

Cultivated  lands  of  the  third  class,  in  improved  lots, 

with  cecals,  930  hectares,  at  8150  a  hectare 139,  500.  00 

Uncultivated  lands,  with  cocals,  3,726  hectares  and 

90  ares,  at  $25  a  hectare 93, 182.  50 

Two  warehouses,  with  a  steam  engine  for  sugar 47,  000.  00 

One  house  of  solid  construction 6,  000.  00 

1 .  008,  882.  50 


202 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Quingua  (10—21—33  hectares)  :  Mexican  currency. 

Rice  lands  and  sugar  lands,  10 — 21 — 33  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare. .  $1,  531.  99 

Calumpit  (74—82 — 95  hectares) : 

Rice  and  sugar  lands,  74—82—95  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare 11,  224.  42 

Barascoain  (54 — 29 — 57  hectares): 

Rice  and  sugar  lands,  54 — 29 — 57  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare 8, 144.  35 

Santa  Isabel  (38—83—49  hectares): 

Rice  and  sugar  lands,  38 — 83 — 49  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare 5,  825.  23 

Santa  Isabel  (Anibon) — (65 — 33 — 52  hectares): 

Rice  and  sugar  lands,  65—33—52  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare 9,  800.  28 

Guiguinto  (241 — 42 — 94  hectares): 

Rice  and  sugar  lands,  241—42—94  hectares,  at  $200  a  hectare 48, 285.  88 

Guiguinto  (Malapat)  (7— -20 — 8  hectares): 

Rice  and  sugar  lands,  7 — 20—8  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare 1,080.12 

Guiguinto  (Recoleto)  (456 — 95 — 16  hectares): 

Rice  and  sugar  lands,  456 — 95 — 16  hectares,  at  $150  a  hectare 68,  542.  74 

In  the  province  of  Isabela  (23,000  hectares) : 

This  estate  is  wholly  uncultivated,  but  is  worth,  according  to  the 
evidence  of  Mr.  Weber,  manager  of  the  Tabacalera  Company, 
who  is  very  familiar  with  prices  in  Isabela  and  this  particular 
estate 300,000.00 


ESTATES   OF   THE   RECOLETOS. 

San  Juan  and  San  Nicolas  (18,419 — 56 — 12  hectares): 
Rice  lands  of  the  first  class,  4,480  hectares,  98  ares, 

and  29  centares,  at  $150  a  hectare $672, 147.  43 

Rice  lands  of  the  second  class,  4,480  hectares,  99  ares, 

and  9  centares,  at  $100  a  hectare 448,  099. 09 

Rice  lands  of  the  third  class,  4,482  hectares,  1  are, 

and  10  centares,  at  $75  a  hectare 336, 150.  82 

Improved  lots  in  the  town,  109 — 50  hectares,  at  $58.90 

a  hectare 6,  450.  00 

Ditto  outside  the  town,  109—38  hectares,  at  $125  a 

hectare 13, 672.  50 

Uncultivated  mountain  lands,  4,756 — 69 — 64  hectares, 

at  $5  a  hectare 23,  783.  48 

Dams,  dikes,  and  tunnels  in  their  present  condition.       80,  000.  00 
Farmhouse  and  warehouses  for  the  storing  of  rice. . .       25,  000.  00 

1,605,303.33 

San  Juan,  Mindoro  (23,266  hectares) : 

The  price  fixed  by  the  agent  of  the  Recoletos  and  an  actual  offer 

made  for  sale  to  a  syndicate  of  business  men  in  Manila  and  not 

accepted  was  $700,000  Mexican 600, 000.  00 

Total 12,076,658.83 

Lolomboy  (see  footnote,  page  1) 9,  779.  28 

Grand  total 12,  086, 438. 11 

Summarized  statement  of  the  extent  and  value  of  the  friar  lands  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 


Hectares. 

Mexican  cur- 
rency. 

ESTATES  OF  THE  DOMINICANS. 

Binan,  Laguna  Province 

3, 739. 10. 15 
16, 424. 14. 00 

106.  53. 00 

65. 19. 50 

4, 158. 09. 66 

7, 922,  29.  00 

2, 109. 57. 24 

8, 902.  37. 50 

12, 069.  57. 02 

4, 750. 14. 24 

156. 49.  35 

58. 23. 30 

$497, 865. 22 

Calamba,  Laguna  Province 

1, 102,  046.  20 

Lolomboy: 

Malandav,  Polo.  Bulacan 

15, 979. 50 

Pasolo,  Polo,  Bulacan 

9,  779.  28 

Bocaue,  Bulacan,  Province 

733, 985. 45 

770, 996.  76 

Orion,  Bataan  Province 

109,  342.  00 

Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon,  Cavite  Province 

682, 456. 87 

Santa  Maria  de  Pandi,  Bulacan  Province 

824,289.00 

Santa  Rosa,  Laguna  Province 

700, 024.  90 

San  Juan  del  Monte,  Rizal  Province 

18, 299. 00 

8, 734. 95 

Total 

60,461.73.96 

5, 473,  799. 13 

REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


203 


Hectares. 


Mexican  cur- 
rency. 


ESTATES  OF  THE  AUGUSTINIANS 

Banilad  or  Talamban.  province  of  Cebu 

Dampol,  Quincua,  Bulacan  Province 

Mandaloya,  Bizal  Province 

Muntinlupa.  Rizal  Province 

Malinta,  Bulacan  Province 

Tala.  Rizal  Province 

Piedad,  Rizal  Province 

San  Francisco  de  Malabon,  Cavite 

Binagbag,  Bulacan  Province 

Talisay  and  Minganilla,  Cebu 

Quingua,  Bulacan  Province 

Calumpit,  Bulacan  Province 

Barascoain,  Bulacan  Province 

Santa  Isabel: 

Daquila,  Bulacan 

Anibon,  Bulacan 

Guiguinto: 

Alang-ilang.  Bulacan 

Malapat,  Bulacan 

Recoleto,  Bulacan 

Estate  in  the  province  of  Isabela 

Total 

ESTATES  OF  THE  RECOLETOS. 

San  Juan  and  San  Nicolas,  Cavite 

San  Juan,  Mindoro  Province 

Total 

Grand  total: 

Estates  of  the  Dominicans 

Estates  of  the  Augustinians 

Estates  of  the  Recoletos , 

Final  total 


1, 538. 

962. 

4, 033. 

5, 397. 

3,432. 

5, 197. 

3, 604. 

13, 000. 

294. 

7, 362. 

10. 

74. 

54. 


43.00 
00.00 
00.00 
84.00 
00.00 
00.00 
00.00 
00.00 
00.00 
90.00 
21.33 
82. 95 
29.57 


38.83.49 
65.33.52 

241. 42. 94 

7. 20. 08 

456.  95. 16 

23, 000.  00. 00 


770. 26. 04 


18, 419. 56. 12 
23, 266. 00. 00 


41,  685. 56. 12 


60, 461.  73. 96 
68,770.26.04 
41,  685. 56. 12 


170,917.56.12 


$195, 

142, 

375, 

174, 

401, 

204, 

300, 

1,117, 

32, 

1,008, 

1, 

11, 


576. 45 
911. 69 
075. 00 
485.  00 
100. 00 
100.  00 
850. 00 
250.  00 
670.  00 
882. 50 
531.99 
224. 42 
144.35 


5, 825. 23 
9,800.28 

48,285.88 

1,080.12 

68, 542. 74 

300, 000.  00 


4,407,335.65 


1,605.303.33 
600, 000. 00 


2, 205, 303.  33 


5, 473, 799. 13 
4,407,335.65 
2,205,303.33 


12,086,438.11 


In  acres,  422,337.29;  1  hectare  equals  2.471  acres. 


EXHIBIT  H. 


AGREEMENTS  TO  CONVEY  THE  FRIARS'  LANDS  TO  THE  GOVERN- 
MENT OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS. 


AGREEMENT  OF  THE  BRITISH-MANILA  ESTATES  COMPANY,  LIMITED,  TO  CONVEY 
TO  THE  GOVERNMENT  OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS  THE  ESTATES  OF  SAN 
JUAN  AND  SAN  NICOLAS,  PROVINCE  OF  CAVITE. 

Manila,  December  22,  1903. 

The  British-Manila  Estates  Company,  Limited,  a  corporation  duly  organized  under 
the  laws  of ,  hereby  agrees  to  sell  and  convey  to  the  government  of  the  Phil- 
ippine Islands  the  two  haciendas  of  San  Juan  and  San  Nicolas,  in  the  town  of  Imus, 
known  usually  as  the  Imus  estate,  in  the  province  of  Cavite,  consisting  of  eighteen 
thousand  four  hundred  and  nineteen  (18,419)  hectares,  fifty-six  (56)  ares,  and  twelve 
(12)  centares,  formerly  the  property  of  the  Recoleto  order  in  the  Philippines. 

This  sale  and  conveyance  shall  include  all  the  dwelling  houses,  farmhouses,  ware- 
houses, camarines,  and  other  buildings,  including  sugar  and  rice  mills  and  machin- 
ery, irrigation  work,  dams,  tunnels,  ditches,  and  all  other  improvements,  together 
wTith  all  water  and  other  rights,  and  all  hereditaments  belonging  to  the  British-Manila 
Estates  Company,  Limited,  on  every  part  of  the  estates  hereby  agreed  to  be  con- 
veyed; and  the  British-Manila  Estates  Company,  Limited,  agrees  that  it  has  a  good 
and  merchantable  title  to  all  the  lands  and  buildings  hereby  conveyed,  duly  regis- 
tered according  to  the  laws  of  the  Philippine  Islands;  that  it  will  produce  its  title 
deeds  for  examination  by  the  counsel  for  the  Philippine  government  as  soon  as  prac- 
ticable after  the  signing  of  this  contract,  and  that  it  will  convey  such  lands  and  build- 
ings absolutely  and  in  fee  simple,  in  accordance  with  this  contract,  by  giving  a 
sufficient  deed  of  general  warranty  of  title  to  the  Philippine  government. 

The  British-Manila  Estates  Company,  Limited,  further  agrees  to  furnish  to  the 
Philippine  government  all  its  books,  papers,  and  other  documents  which  it  has 
either  in  its  possession  or  under  its  control  bearing  upon  its  ownership  or  the  owner- 
ship of  its  predecessors  in  title  to  the  lands  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed,  which 
shall,  in  the  opinion  of  the  counsel  for  the  Philippine  government,  be  useful  to  such 
government  in  determining  who  are  the  rightful  tenants  on  the  property,  and  in 
showing,  in  case  of  litigation,  the  lawful  and  peaceable  possession  of  the  British- 
Manila  Estates  Company,  Limited,  or  its  predecessors  in  title,  and  especially  in  show- 
ing the  lawful  and  peaceable  possession  of  the  Kecoleto  order  in  the  Philippines 
during  the  sovereignty  of  Spain. 

The  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  further  agrees  to  aid  the  Philippine 
government  in  every  way  by  procuring  oral  or  documentary  evidence  needed  in  con- 
firming the  title  hereby  conveyed  or  by  showing  where  such  evidence  can  be  procured. 

The  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  hereby  further  agrees  that  the 
government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  may  at  its  own  expense  make  such  surveys  of 
the  hacienda  or  haciendas  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  as  it  sees  fit  in  order  to 
determine  whether  the  superficial  area  of  the  hacienda  or  haciendas  according  to  the 
description  thereof  in  the  title  deeds  is  the  same  as  that  stated  above. 

The  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  also  hereby  agrees  to  assign  and 
transfer  to  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  all  claims  for  rents  for  use  of 
land  or  buildings  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  due  to  the  British-Manila  Estates 
Company  (Limited),  from  tenants  which  are  now  uncollected,  together  with  all  claims 
for  rents  accruing  between  the  date  hereof  and  the  consummation  of  the  sale  herein 
agreed  to  be  made,  except  such  rents  as  may  be  owing  by  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment to  the  said  company  for  the  occupation  of  its  houses  by  United  States  troops; 
nor  shall  this  agreement  affect  the  alleged  claim  which  the  British-Manila  Estates 
Company  (Limited),  has  against  the  civil  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  or  the 
province  of  Cavite  for  material  used  upon  roads  constructed  in  the  province  of  Cavite 
and  taken  from  a  building  owned  by  the  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited), 
in  the  town  of  Imus. 

20-4 


KEPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  205 

It  is  understood  that  this  contract  is  based  upon  a  series  of  surveys  made  by  a  sur- 
veyor named  Juan  Villegas  during  the  years  nineteen  hundred  and  one  and  nineteen 
hundred  and  two,  at  the  instance'of  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  in 
which  he  classifies  and  appraises  the  lands  of  the  British-Manila  Estates  Company 
(Limited),  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed;  that  on  the  basis  of  this  survey,  classifica- 
tion, and  appraisement  thecivil  governor,  on  behalf  of  the  governmentof  the  Philippine 
Islands,  by  letter  to  Monsignor  Jean  Baptiste  Guidi,  archbishop  of  Stauropoli  and 
apostolic  delegate  to  the  Philippine  Islands,  dated  July  5,  1903,  made  an  offer  to  pur- 
chase the  lands  above  described  at  the  price  fixed  by  Villegas,  in  Mexican  currency 
reduced  to  gold  at  the  ratio  of  two  to  one,  and  this  letter  of  the  civil  governor, 
together  with  the  list  of  the  estates  of  the  Kecoletos,  so  called,  which  accompanied 
the  letter,  and  the  surveys  of  Villegas  of  said  estates,  is  hereby,  for  the  better  under- 
standing of  this  contract,  made  part  hereof  as  an  exhibit  by  reference. 

In  consideration  of  the  sale  and  conveyance  of  the  lands  and  buildings  and  of  the 
assignment  of  the  claims  for  rent,  all  as  above  described,  the  government  of  the 
Philippine  Islands  agrees  to  pay  to  the  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited), 
the  sum  of  one  million  and  forty-five  thousand  dollars  ($1,045,000),  in  mone3r  of  the 
United  States,  subject  to  this  proviso:  That  if  the  Philippine  government  shall  notify 
the  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  that  the  area  of  either  hacienda  as 
described  in  the  title  deed  thereof  falls  short  of  the  superficial  area  thereof  as  shown 
by  Villegas's  survey  of  the  same,  then  the  parties  hereto  shall  cause  a  joint  survey 
of  the  same  to  be  made  by  an  agent  of  each,  and  if  the  true  survey  shall  show  the 
area  of  either  hacienda  to  be  less  than  as  stated  by  Villegas  and  in  the  description 
thereof  hereinbefore  given,  then  the  price  herein  agreed  to  be  paid  shall  be  abated 
by  an  amount  to  be  ascertained  by  multiplying  the  number  of  hectares  short  into  the 
average  value  of  an  hectare  in  the  hacienda  in  question,  as  shown  by  dividing  Ville- 
gas's total  valuation  of  such  hacienda  by  the  total  number  of  hectares  contained 
therein  according  to  his  survey,  plus  twenty-five  per  cent  thereof;  and  if,  on  the  other 
hand,  the  true  survey  shall  show  an  excess  of  hectares  over  the  amount  reported  by 
Villegas,  then  the  price  to  be  paid  shall  be  increased  by  an  amount  to  be  ascertained 
in  a  similar  manner. 

The  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  as  a  further  consideration,  hereby 
agrees  to  reimburse  the  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  in  the  sum  of  six 
hundred  and  forty- three  dollars  and  fifty-eight  cents  ($643.58),  paid  by  Marcus 
McGregor,  the  agent  of  the  British- Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  to  the 
treasurer  of  the  province  of  Cavite  as  taxes  on  the  haciendas  herein  agreed  to  be 
conveyed;  and  hereby  further  agrees  to  hold  said  British-Manila  Estates  Company 
(Limited) ,  harmless  from  liability  for  the  payment  of  all  land  taxes  uncollected  on  the 
haciendas  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  and  due  to  the  province  of  Cavite  or  the 
municipality  in  which  situate. 

It  is  understood  that  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  in  order  to  pay 
the  purchase  price  hereof,  is  obliged  to  sell  its  bonds  under  and  by  virtue  of  the 
authority  of  section  sixty-four  of  an  act  of  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  approved 
July  one,  nineteen  hundred  and  two,  entitled  "An  act  temporarily  to  provide  for 
the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  civil  government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and 
for  other  purposes."  The  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  agrees  to  make 
every  effort  to  sell  the  bonds  and  obtain  the  proceeds  as  soon  as  practicable,  and  the 
time  for  the  consummation  of  this  contract  by  the  conveyance  of  a  good  and  market- 
able title  by  the  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  and  the  payment  of  the 
purchase  price  by  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  is  fixed  as  of  the  end  of 
a  period  within  which  such  bonds  may  be  engraved,  advertised,  sold,  and  the 
proceeds  thereof  realized,  and  the  necessary  surveys  and  necessary  investigation 
of  the  title  be  made,  by  prompt  action  of  the  Philippine  ^government:  Provided, 
That  such  period  shall  not  exceed  six  months  from  the  date  of  this  contract. 

In  witness  whereof  the  two  parties  to  this  agreement  hereunto  affix  their  signa- 
tures: The  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited),  acting  by  Marcus  McGregor, 
the  attorney  in  fact  of  said  company,  as  shown  by  the  attached  power  of  attorney; 
and  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  by  William  H.  Taft,  civil  governor, 
whose  authority  is  shown  by  a  certified  copy  of  a  resolution  of  the  Philippine  Com- 
mission also  hereto  attached. 

The  British-Manila  Estates  Company  (Limited), 
By  M.  McGregor. 

The  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 
By  Wm.  H.  Taft,  Civil  Governor. 

In  the  presence  of 

Jean  Baptiste  Guidi, 

Archbishop  of  Stauropoli. 
A.  W.  Fergusson. 


206  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

AGREEMENT  OF  LA  SOCIEDAD  AGRLCOLA  DE  ULTRAMAR  TO  CONVEY  TO  THE 
GOVERNMENT  OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS  CERTAIN  ESTATES,  FORMERLY 
THE  PROPERTY  OF  THE  AUGUSTINIAN  ORDER  IN  THE  PHILIPPINES. 

Manila,  December  22,  1903. 
La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar,  a  corporation  duly  and  lawfully  organized 
under  the  Spanish  sovereignty,  hereby  agrees  to  sell  and  convey  to  the  government 
of  the  Philippine  Islands  the  following  haciendas  and  parcels  of  land,  formerly  the 
property  of  the  Augustinian  order  in  the  Philippines,  as  follows: 

(1)  The  hacienda  of  Banildad  or  Talamban,  containing  1,538  hectares  and  43  ares, 
in  the  province  of  Cebu. 

(2)  The  hacienda  of  Dampol,  in  the  town  of  Quingua,  in  the  province  of  Bulacan, 
containing  962  hectares,  74  ares,  and  46  centares. 

(3)  The  hacienda  of  Muntinlupa,  containing  5,397  hectares  and  84  ares,  formerly 
in  the  province  of  Rizal  and  now  in  the  province  of  La  Laguna. 

(4)  The  hacienda  of  Malinta,  containing  3,432  hectares,  in  the  town  of  Polo,  in  the 
province  of  Bulacan. 

(5)  The  hacienda  of  Tala,  containing  5,187  hectares,  in  the  towns  of  Novaliches 
and  Caloocan,  in  the  province  of  Rizal. 

(6)  The  hacienda  of  Piedad,  containing  3,604  hectares,  in  the  towns  of  Novaliches 
and  Caloocan,  in  the  province  of  Rizal. 

(7)  The  hacienda  of  San  Francisco  de  Malabon,  containing  13,000  hectares,  in  the 
province  of  Cavite. 

(8)  The  hacienda  of  Binagbag,  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  pueblo  of  Angat,  in 
the  province  of  Bulacan,  containing  294  hectares. 

(9)  The  hacienda  of  Talisay  and  Minglanilla,  containing  7,362  hectares  and  90  ares, 
in  the  province  of  Cebu. 

(10)  A  parcel  of  land  in  Matamo,  in  the  pueblo  of  Quingua,  province  of  Bulacan, 
containing  10  hectares,  21  ares,  and  33  centares. 

(11)  A  parcel  of  land  in  the  barrio  of  San  Marcos,  town  of  Calumpit,  province  of 
Bulacan,  containing  74  hectares,  82  ares,  and  95  centares. 

(12)  A  parcel  of  land  in  Barihan,  in  the  town  of  Barasoain,  province  of  Bulacan, 
containing  54  hectares,  29  ares,  and  57  centares. 

(13)  A  parcel  of  land  in  the  barrio  of  Daquila,  in  the  town  of  Santa  Isabel,  in  the 
province  of  Bulacan,  containing  38  hectares  83  ares  and  49  centares. 

(14)  A  parcel  of  land  in  the  barrios  of  Calay-Layan  or  Anibon,  of  the  pueblo  of 
Santa  Isabel,  in  the  province  of  Bulacan,  containing  65  hectares  33  ares  and  52 
centares. 

(15)  A  parcel  of  land  in  Alang-Ilang,  in  the  town  of  Guiguinto,  province  of  Bula- 
can, containing  241  hectares  42  ares  and  94  centares. 

(16)  A  parcel  of  land  in  the  barrio  of  Malapad,  of  the  town  of  Guiguinto,  province 
of  Bulacan,  containing  7  hectares  20  ares  and  8  centares. 

(17)  A  parcel  of  land  in  the  barrio  of  New  and  Old  Recoleto,  of  the  town  of  Gui- 
guinto, province  of  Bulacan,  containing  456  hectares  95  ares  and  16  centares. 

(18)  An  estate  in  the  province  of  Isabela,  containing  20,419  hectares,  patented  by 
the  Spanish  Government  to  the  Augustinian  Order  of  the  Philippines. 

This  sale  and  conveyance  shall  include  all  the  dwelling  houses,  farmhouses,  ware- 
houses, camarines,  and  other  buildings,  including  sugar  and  rice  mills  and  machinery, 
irrigation  work,  dams,  tunnels,  ditches,  and  all  other  improvements,  together  with 
all  water  and  other  rights,  and  all  hereditaments  belonging  to  La  Sociedad  Agricola 
de  Ultramar  on  the  estates  and  parcels  of  land  hereby  agreed  to  be  conveyed;  and 
La  Sociedad  Agrfcola  de  Ultramar  agrees  that  it  has  a  good  and  merchantable  title 
to  all  the  lands  and  buildings  hereby  conveyed,  duly  registered  according  to  the  laws 
of  the  Philippine  Islands;  that  it  will  produce  its  registered  title  deeds  for  examina- 
tion by  the  counsel  for  the  Philippine  government,  and  that  it  will  convey  such 
lands  and  buildings  absolutely  and  in  fee  simple  in  accordance  with  this  contract  by 
giving  a  sufficient  deed  of  general  warranty  of  title  to  the  Philippine  government. 

La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  further  agrees  to  furnish  to  the  Philippine  gov- 
ernment all  its  books,  papers,  and  other  documents  which  it  has  either  in  its  pos- 
session or  under  its  control  bearing  upon  its  ownership  or  the  ownership  of  its  pred- 
ecessors in  title  to  the  lands  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  which  shall,  in  the  opinion 
of  the  counsel  for  the  Philippine  government,  be  useful  to  such  government  in  deter- 
mining who  are  the  rightful  tenants  on  the  property,  and  in  showing,  in  case  of 
litigation,  the  lawful  and  peaceable  possession  of  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar 
or  its  predecessors  in  title,  and  especially  in  showing  the  lawful  and  peaceable  pos- 
session of  the  Augustinian  Order  in  the  Philippines  during  the  sovereignty  of  Spain. 

La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  further  agrees  to  aid  the  Philippine  government 


KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  207 

in  every  way  by  procuring  oral  or  documentary  evidence  needed  in  confirming  the 
title  hereby  conveyed  or  by  showing  where  such  evidence  can  be  procured. 

La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  hereby  further  agrees  that  the  Philippine  gov- 
ernment may,  at  its  own  expense,  make  such  surveys  of  any  of  the  haciendas  or 
parcels  herein  conveyed  as  it  sees  fit  in  order  to  determine  whether  the  superficial 
area  of  any  estate  or  parcel  according  to  the  description  thereof  in  the  title  deeds  is 
the  same  as  that  stated  in  the  above-mentioned  list  of  haciendas  and  parcels. 

La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  also  hereby  agrees  to  assign  and  transfer  to  the 
government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  all  claims  for  rents  for  use  of  land  or  build- 
ings herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  due  to  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  from 
tenants  thereon  which  are  now  uncollected,  together  with  claims  for  rents  accruing 
between  the  date  hereof  and  the  consummation  of  the  sale  herein  agreed  to  be  made, 
except  such  rents  as  may  be  owing  by  the  United  States  Government  to  the  said 
society  for  the  occupation  of  its  houses  by  United  States  troops. 

It  is  understood  that  this  contract  is  based  upon  a  series  of  surveys  made  by  a  sur- 
veyor named  Juan  Yillegas  during  the  years  nineteen  hundred  and  one  and  nineteen 
hundred  and  two  at  the  instance  of  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  in 
which  he  classifies  and  appraises  the  lands  of  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar, 
except  an  estate  of  twenty-three  thousand  hectares  in  the  province  of  Isabela,  above 
mentioned;  that  on  the  basis  of  this  survey,  classification,  and  appraisement  the  civil 
governor,  on  behalf  of  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  by  letter  to 
Monsignor  Jean  Baptiste  Guidi,  archbishop  of  Stauropoli  and  apostolic  delegate  to 
the  Philippine  Islands,  dated  July  5, 1903,  made  an  offer  to  purchase  the  lands  above 
described  at  the  price  fixed  by  Villegas  in  Mexican  currency  reduced  to  gold  at  the 
ratio  of  two  to  one,  and  this  letter  of  the  civil  governor,  together  with  the  list  of  the 
estates  of  the  Augustinians,  so  called,  which  accompanied  the  letter,  and  the  surveys 
of  Yillegas  of  said  estates,  is  hereby  for  the  better  understanding  of  this  contract  made 
part  hereof  as  an  exhibit  by  reference,  it  being  understood  that  the  estate  of  Mandaloya, 
mentioned  in  the  list  as  belonging  to  the  Augustinians  and  now  the  property  of  La 
Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar,  is  not  intended  to  be  included  in  this  contract  and 
ageement  to  sell. 

In  consideration  of  the  sale  and  conveyance  of  the  lands  and  buildings,  and  of  the 
assignment  of  the  claims  for  rent,  all  as  above  described,  the  government  of  the 
Philippine  Islands  agrees  to  pay  to  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  the  sum  of  two 
million  two  hundred  and  thirteen  thousand  seven  hundred  and  seventy-nine  dollars 
($2,213,779),  in  money  of  the  United  States,  subject  to  this  proviso:  That  if  the  Philip- 
pine government  shall  notify  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  that  the  area  of  any 
hacienda  or  parcel  as  described  in  the  title  deed  thereof  falls  short  of  the  superficial 
area  thereof  as  shown  by  Yillegas'  survey  of  the  same,  then  the  parties  hereto  shall 
cause  a  joint  survey  of  the  same  to  be  made  by  an  agent  of  each;  and  if  the  true  sur- 
vey shall  show  the  area  of  the  hacienda  or  parcel  to  be  less  than  as  stated  by  Villegas 
and  in  the  list  as  hereinbefore  set  forth,  the  price  herein  to  be  paid  shall  be  abated 
by  an  amount  to  be  ascertained  by  multiplying  the  number  of  hectares  short  into  the 
average  value  of  an  hectare  in  the  hacienda  or  parcel  in  question  as  shown  by  divid- 
ing Yillegas'  total  valuation  of  such  hacienda  or  parcel  by  the  total  number  of  hec- 
tares contained  therein  according  to  his  survey  plus  twenty-five  per  cent  thereof;  and 
if,  on  the  other  hand,  the  true  survey  shall  show  an  excess  of  hectares  over  the  amount 
reported  by  Yillegas,  then  the  price  to  be  paid  shall  be  increased  by  an  amount  to  be 
ascertained  in  a  similar  manner.  If  either  party  desires  a  survey  of  the  Isabela 
estate,  which  was  not  surveyed  by  Yillegas,  it  shall  be  made  as  above  provided,  and 
the  price  herein  agreed  to  be  paid  shall  be  reduced  or  increased  by  the  number  of 
hectares  found  to  be  short  or  in  excess  of  twenty  thousand  four  hundred  and  nineteen 
hectares  at  the  rate  of  nine  dollars  and  eighteen  cents  ($9.18)  gold  per  hectare.  The 
survey  above  mentioned  shall  be  begun  as  soon  after  the  signing  of  this  contract  as 
is  practicable. 

In  addition  to  the  other  considerations  herein  stated  the  government  of  the  Philip- 
pine Islands  will  save  harmless  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  from  the  payment 
of  any  land  taxes  due  upon  the  haciendas  or  parcels  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  to 
the  province  or  municipality  in  which  such  haciendas  or  parcels  are  respectively 

situate,  and  will  reimburse  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  in  the  amount  of 

dollars  ($ )  for  taxes  already  paid  by  it  on  such  haciendas  or  parcels  of  land. 

It  is  understood  that  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  in  order  to  pay  the 
purchase  price  hereof,  is  obliged  to  sell  its  bonds  under  and  by  virtue  of  the  authority 
of  section  sixty-four  of  an  act  of  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  approved  July 
one,  nineteen  hundred  and  two,  entitled  "An  act  temporarily  to  provide  for  the 
administration  of  the  affairs  of  civil  government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for 
other  purposes."     The  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  agrees  to  make  every 


208  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

effort  to  sell  the  bonds  and  obtain  the  proceeds  as  soon  as  practicable,  and  the  time 
for  the  consummation  of  this  contract  by  the  conveyance  of  a  good  and  marketable 
title  by  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  and  the  payment  of  the  purchase  price  by 
the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  is  fixed  as  of  the  end  of  a  period  within 
which  such  bonds  may  be  engraved,  advertised,  sold^  and  the  proceeds  thereof  real- 
ized, and  the  necessary  surveys  and  necessary  investigation  of  the  title  be  made  by 
prompt  action  of  the  Philippine  government:  Provided,  That  such  period  shall  not 
exceed  six  months  from  the  date  of  this  contract. 

In  witness  whereof,  the  two  parties  to  this  agreement  hereunto  affix  their  signa- 
tures: La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar,  acting  by  Padre  Juan  Martin,  the  attorney 
in  fact  of  said  society,  as  shown  by  the  attached  power  of  attorney,  and  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Philippine  Islands,  by  William  H.  Taft,  civil  governor,  whose  authority 
is  shown  by  a  certified  copy  of  a  resolution  of  the  Philippine  Commission,  also  hereto 
attached. 

La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar, 
By  W.  Juan  M.  Ybanez. 

The  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 
By  Wm.  H.  Taft, 

Civil  Governor. 

In  the  presence  of — 

Jean  Baptiste  Guidi, 

Archbishop  of  Stauropoli,  Apostolic  Delegate. 
A.  W.  Fergusson. 

Addendum. 

In  now  appearing  that  La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar  has  sold  about  eleven  hec- 
tares of  the  hacienda  of  Banildad  or  Talamban  to  the  consuls  for  China  and  Germany 
and  to  the  Spanish  Casino,  it  is  hereby  further  agreed  that  the  same  are  omitted 
from  the  land  hereinabove  agreed  to  be  conveyed,  and  the  price  shall  be  abated  one 
thousand  three  hundred  and  seventy-five  dollars  ($1,375)  in  money  of  the  United 
States. 

La  Sociedad  Agricola  de  Ultramar, 
By  W.  Juan  M.  Ybanez,. 

The  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 
By  Wm.  H.  Taft, 

Civil  Governor. 
In  the  presence  of — 

Jean  Baptiste  Guidi, 

Archbishop  of  Stauropoli,  Apostolic  Delegate. 
A.  W.  Fergusson. 


AGREEMENT  OF  THE  RECOLETO  ORDER  OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS  TO  CON- 
VEY TO  THE  GOVERNMENT  OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  ISLANDS  THE  ESTATE  OF 
SAN  J0SE\  PROVINCE  OF  MINDORO. 

Manila,  December  22,  1903. 

The  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  an  ecclesiastical  corporation,  hereby 
agrees  to  sell  and  convey  to  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  the  estate  of 
San  Jose  in  the  island  and  province  of  Mindoro,  containing  twenty -three  thousand 
two  hundred  and  sixty-six  (23,266)  hectares. 

This  sale  and  conveyance  shall  include  all  the  dwelling  houses,  farmhouses,  ware- 
houses, camarines,  and  other  buildings,  including  sugar  and  rice  mills  and  machinery, 
irrigation  work,  dams,  tunnels,  ditches,  and  all  other  improvements,  together  with 
all  water  and  other  rights  and  all  hereditaments  belonging  to  the  Recoleto  Order  of 
the  Philippines  on  the  estate  hereby  agreed  to  be  conveyed;  and  the  Recoleto  Order 
of  the  Philippines  agrees  that  it  has  a  good  and  merchantable  title  to  all  the  lands 
and  buildings  hereby  conveyed,  duly  registered  according  to  the  laws  of  the  Philip- 
pinelslands;  that  it  will  produce  its  title  deeds  for  examination  by  the  counsel  for  the 
Philippine  government  as  soon  as  practicable  after  the  signing  of  this  contract;  and 
that  it  will  convey  such  lands  and  buildings  absolutely  and  in  fee  simple  in  accord- 
ance with  this  contract  by  giving  a  sufficient  deed  of  general  warranty  of  title  to  the 
Philippine  government. 

The  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  hereby  further  agrees  to  furnish  to  the 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION".  209 

Philippine  government  all  its  books,  papers,  and  other  documents,  which  it  has  in 
its  possession  or  under  its  control,  bearing  upon  its  ownership  or  the  ownership  of 
its  predecessors  in  title  to  the  lands  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed,  which  shall,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  counsel  for  the  Philippine  government,  be  useful  to  such  government 
in  determining  who  are  the  rightful  tenants  on  such  property,  and  in  showing,  in 
case  of  litigation,  the  lawful  and  peaceable  possession  of  the  Recoleto  Order  of  the 
Philippines  or  its  predecessors  in  title. 

The  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  further  agrees  to  aid  the  Philippine  govern- 
ment in  every  way  by  procuring  oral  or  documentary  evidence  needed  in  confirming 
the  title  hereby  conveyed  or  by  showing  where  such  evidence  can  be  procured. 

The  Eecoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  also  hereby  agrees  to  assign  and  transfer  to 
the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  all  claims  for  rents  for  use  of  land  or  build- 
ings herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  due  to  the  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  or 
its  predecessors  in  title  from  tenants  thereon  which  are  now  uncollected,  together 
with  claims  for  rents  accruing  between  the  date  hereof  and  the  consummation  of  the 
sale  herein  agreed  to  be  made. 

The  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  hereby  further  agrees  that  the  Philippine 
government  may,  at  its  own  expense,  make  such  surveys  of  the  hacienda  herein  con- 
veyed as  it  sees  fit,  in  order  to  determine  whether  its  superficial  area  according  to  the 
description  thereof  in  the  title  deeds  contains  twenty-three  thousand  two  hundred 
and  sixty-six  (23,266)  hectares,  as  hereinbefore  set  forth. 

In  consideration  of  the  conveyance  of  the  lands  and  buildings  and  of  the  assignment 
of  the  claims  for  rent,  all  as  above  described,  the  government  of  the  Philippine 
Islands  agrees  to  pay  to  the  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  the  sum  of  three  hun- 
dred and  six  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty-nine  dollars  ($306,759)  in  money  of 
the  United  States,  subject  to  this  proviso:  That  if  the  Philippine  government  shall 
notify  the  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  that  the  area  of  the  hacienda  of  San 
Jose,  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed,  as  described  in  the  title  deeds  thereof  falls  short 
of  the  superficial  area  thereof  as  hereinbefore  set  forth,  then  the  parties  hereto  shall 
cause  a  joint  survey  of  the  same  to  be  made  by  an  agent  of  each,  and  if  the  true 
survey  shows  a  less  area  of  land  in  this  estate  than  twenty-three  thousand  two  hun- 
dred and  sixty-six  hectares  the  price  herein  agreed  to  be  paid  shall  be  reduced  in 
the  proportion  which  the  shortage  bears  to  twenty-three  thousand  two  hundred  and 
sixty-six  hectares;  and  if  the  estate  shall  be  found  to  exceed  the  amount  above 
stated,  then  the  price  shall  be  increased  in  a  similar  proportion. 

As  an  additional  consideration,  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  hereby 
agrees  to  hold  the  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  harmless  from  liability  to  pay 
land  taxes  on  the  hacienda  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed,  whether  such  taxes  have 
already  accrued  or  shall  accrue  between  the  date  of  this  contract  and  the  date  of  the 
conveyance  herein  agreed  to  be  made. 

It  is  understood  that  upon  the  hacienda  of  San  Jose,  Mindoro,  there  are  about  two 
thousand  head  of  cattle,  the  property  of  the  Recoleto  Order.  It  is  agreed  as  part  of 
the  above  contract  of  sale  that  the  Recoleto  Order  may  pasture  these  cattle  on  said 
estate  for  one  year  after  the  above  contract  is  consummated  by  the  delivery  of  the 
deed  of  conveyance  and  the  payment  of  the  purchase  price  without  the  payment  of 
rent,  subject,  however,  to  the  conditions  that,  should  the  Philippine  government 
succeed  in  selling  the  San  Jose  estate  hereinabove  agreed  to  be  conveyed,  or  a  sub- 
stantial part  thereof,  the  said  government  may  require  the  removal  of  such  cattle  on 
three  months'  notice. 

It  is  understood  that  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  in  order  to  pay  the 
purchase  price  hereof,  is  obliged  to  sell  its  bonds  under  and  by  virtue  of  the  authority 
of  section  sixty -four  of  an  act  of  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  approved  July  one, 
nineteen  hundred  and  two,  entitled  "An  act  temporarily  to  provide  for  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  affairs  of  civil  government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  other  pur- 
poses." The  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  agrees  to  make  every  effort  to 
sell  the  bonds  and  obtain  the  proceeds  as  soon  as  practicable,  and  time  for  the  con- 
summation of  this  contract  by  the  conveyance  of  a  good  and  marketable  title  by  the 
Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines  and  the  payment  of  the  purchase  price  by  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  Philippine  Islands  is  fixed  as  of  the  end  of  a  period  within  which 
such  bonds  may  be  engraved,  advertised,  sold,  and  the  proceeds  thereof  realized,  and 
the  necessary  surveys  and  necessary  investigation  of  the  title  be  made,  by  prompt 
action  of  the  Philippine  government:  Provided,  That  such  period  shall  not  exceed  six 
months  from  the  date  of  this  contract. 

In  witness  wmereof  the  two  parties  to  this  agreement  hereunto  affix  their  signa- 
tures, the  Recoleto  Order  of  the  Philippines,  acting  by  Fr.  Valentin  Utande,  pro- 
curator of  said  order,  duly  authorized  thereunto  by  power  of  attorney,  a  copy  of 
which  is  hereto  attached,  and  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  by  William 

war  1903— vol  5 14 


210  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

H.  Taft,  civil  governor,  whose  authority  is  shown  by  a  certified  copy  of  a  resolution 
of  the  Philippine  Commission,  also  hereto  attached. 

The  Recoleto  Order  op  the  Philippines, 
By  Valentin  Utande,  F.  Procurator. 

The  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 
By  Wm.  H.  Tapt,  Civil  Governor. 
In  the  presence  of — 

Jean  Baptiste  Guidi, 

Archbishop  of  Stauropoli,  Apostolic  Delegate. 


Manila,  December  22,  1903. 
The  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company  (Limited),  purporting  to  be  a 
corporation  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  duly  and  lawfully  organized,  hereby  agrees  to 
sell  and  convey  to  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  eight  (8)  haciendas, 
formerly  the  property  of  the  Dominican  Order  in  the  Philippines,  as  follows: 

(1)  The  hacienda  of  Bman,  in  the  province  of  Laguna,  said  to  contain,  by  the  sur- 
vey of  Villegas,  a  surveyor,  3,739  hectares  10  ares  and  15  centares; 

(2)  The  hacienda  of  Calamba,  in  the  province  of  Laguna,  said  to  contain  16,424 
hectares  and  14  ares; 

(3)  The  hacienda  of  Lolomboy,  in  the  province  of  Bulacan,  divided  into  three 
parts,  the  first  and  second  parts  at  Polo,  one  containing  106  hectares  and  53  ares,  and 
the  other  containing  65  hectares  19  ares  and  50  centares,  and  the  third  part  in  the 
pueblo  of  Bocaue,  containing  4,158  hectares  9  ares  and  66  centares; 

(4)  The  hacienda  of  Naic,  in  the  province  of  Cavite,  said  to  contain  7,922  hectares 
and  29  ares;  and  24  centares; 

(5)  The  hacienda  of  Orion,  in  the  province  of  Bataan,  said  to  contain  2,109  hect- 
ares 57  ares  and  24  centares; 

(6)  The  hacienda  of  Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon,  in  the  province  of  Cavite,  said  to  con- 
tain 8,902  hectares  37  ares  and  50  centares; 

(7)  The  hacienda  of  Santa  Maria  de  Pandi,  in  the  province  of  Bulacan,  said  to  con- 
tain 12,069  hectares  57  ares  and  2  centares; 

(8)  The  hacienda  of  Santa  Rosa,  in  the  province  of  Laguna,  said  to  contain  4,750 
hectares  14  ares  and  24  centares;  and, 

In  addition,  a  parcel  of  land  in  Toro,  in  the  province  of  Bulacan,  said  to  contain  58 
hectares  23  ares  and  30  centares,  which  is  really  part  of  either  the  hacienda  of 
Lolomboy  or  that  of  Santa  Maria  de  Pandi; 

Reserving  therefrom  the  casa  hacienda  and  camarine  in  the  hacienda  and  pueblo  of 
Santa  Rosa  in  the  province  of  Laguna,  including  the  land  enclosed  within  the  walls 
surrounding  said  casa  and  camarine  and  two  hundred  hectares  of  first-class  agricul- 
tural land  therein  to  be  selected  by  the  agent  of  the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Devel- 
opment Company  (Limited),  in  reasonably  compact  form  near  the  casa  hacienda,  and 
selected  so  as  to  interfere  with  the  use  of  the  rest  of  the  estate  by  the  Philippine 
Government  as  little  as  possible  and  so  as  not  to  include  any  part  of  the  poblacion 
but  only  agricultural  land;  reserving  also  the  casa  Majala  on  the  mountain  side  of 
the  Calamba  estate,  together  with  eight  hundred  hectares  of  cultivated  sugar  lands 
extending  from  the  casa  Majala  toward  the  town  of  Calamba,  to  be  selected,  by  the 
company's  agent  in  as  near  a  compact  tract  as  practicable  and  so  as  not  to  inter- 
fere with  the  use  of  the  remainder  of  the  estate  by  the  Philippine  Government.  The 
reservation  of  neither  of  these  tracts  is  to  include  the  source  of  water  supply  for  the 
estate  from  which  reserved,  and  is  not  to  be  used  by  the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates 
Development  Company  (Limited),  or  any  successor  in  title,  to  the  prejudice  of  the 
government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  or  any  successor  in  title  to  the  lands  hereby 
conveyed  so  far  as  the  use  of  water  thereon  and  the  present  system  of  irrigation  is 
concerned,  which  shall  be  continued  for  the  benefit  of  both  parties  herein  in  accord- 
ance with  the  law  and  customs  of  the  Philippines  in  the  year  1898. 

This  sale  and  conveyance  shall  include  all  the  dwelling  houses,  farmhouses,  ware- 
houses, camarines  and  other  buildings,  irrigation  work,  dams,  tunnels,  ditches  and 
all  other  improvements,  together  with  all  water  and  other  rights  and  all  heredita- 
ments belonging  to  the  company  on  every  part  of  the  estates  hereby  agreed  to  be  con- 
veyed, except  the  two  houses  expressly  reserved  above,  and  also  excepting  a  camarine 
in  the  poblacion  of  Orion  in  the  province  of  Bataan,  and  a  camarine  in  the  poblacion 
of  Calamba,  which  belonged  to  the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company, 
Limited,  but  were  not  valued  by  Villegas,  the  surveyor,  in  the  survey  hereinafter 
referred  to,  from  ignorance  that  they  belonged  to  the  company.  The  land  upon 
which  the  camarines  of  Orion  and  Calamba  stand  is  not  included  in  this  conveyance. 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  211 

It  is  understood  that  the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited, 
has  sold  upward  of  four  hundred  hectares  of  sugar  land  in  the  Calamba  estate,  which 
is  to  be  included  in  the  eight  hundred  hectares  herein  reserved  to  the  company  and 
to  be  satisfied  out  of  the  same.  It  is  also  understood  that  the  company  has  sold  ten 
hectares,  more  or  less,  with  a  rice  mill  thereon,  in  Binan,  and  town  lots  in  Binan, 
Calamba,  and  Santa  Cruz.  To  make  up  for  this  amount  and  for  -the  two  lots  in 
Orion  and  Calamba,  upon  which  stand  the  camarines  mentioned  above,  the  said  com- 
pany agrees  to  reduce  the  reservation  of  two  hundred  hectares  in  Santa  Rosa  by  the 
amount  thus  sold  in  Binan,  Calamba,  and  Santa  Cruz,  and  by  the  amount  retained 
in  Orion  and  Calamba. 

The  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  agrees  that  it  has 
good  and  merchantable  titles  to  all  the  lands  and  buildings  hereby  conveyed,  duly 
registered  according  to  the  laws  of  the  Philippine  Islands;  that  it  will  produce  evi- 
dence of  the  same  for  examination  by  counsel  for  the  Philippine  government  as  soon 
as  practicable  after  the  signing  of  this  contract,  and  that  it  will  convey  such  lands 
and  buildings  absolutely  and  in  fee  simple  in  accordance  with  this  contract  by  a 
good  and  sufficient  deed  of  general  warranty  of  title  to  the  Philippine  government. 
The  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  further  agrees  to 
furnish  to  the  Philippine  government  all  its  books,  papers,  and  other  documents 
which  it  has,  either  in  possession  or  under  its  control,  bearing  upon  its  ownership,  or 
the  ownership  of  its  predecessors  in  title,  of  the  lands  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed, 
which  shall,  in  the  opinion  of  the  counsel  for  the  Philippine  government,  be  useful 
to  such  government  in  determining  who  are  the  rightful  tenants  on  the  property,  and 
in  showing,  in  cases  of  litigation,  the  lawful  and  peaceable  possession  of  the  Philip- 
pine Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  or  its  predecessors  in  title,  and 
especially  in  showing  the  lawful  and  peaceable  possession  of  the  Dominican  Order  of 
the  Philippines  during  the  sovereignty  of  Spain.  The  Philippine  Sugar  Estates 
Development  Company,  -Limited,  further  agrees  to  aid  the  Philippine  government  in 
every  way  by  procuring  oral  or  documentary  evidence  needed  in  confirming  the  title 
hereby  conveyed,  or  by  showing  where  such  evidence  can  be  procured.  The  Philip- 
pine Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  further  agrees  that  the  Philippine 
government  may,  at  its  own  expense,  make  such  surveys  of  any  of  the  haciendas  as 
it  sees  fit  in  order  to  determine  whether  the  superficial  area  of  any  hacienda  accord- 
ing to  the  description  thereof  in  the  title  deeds  is  the  same  as  that  stated  in  the  above- 
mentioned  list  of  haciendas  and  parcels. 

The  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  also  hereby  agrees 
to  assign  and  transfer  to  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  all  claims  for  rents 
for  use  of  land  or  buildings  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  due  to  the  Philippine  Sugar 
Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  or  its  predecessors  in  title,  from  tenants 
thereof  which  are  now  uncollected,  together  with  all  claims  for  rents  accruing  between 
the  date  hereof  and  the  consummation  of  the  sale  herein  agreed  to  be  made,  except 
such  rents  as  may  be  owing  by  the  United  States  Government  to  the  said  company 
for  occupation  of  its  houses  by  United  States  troops. 

It  is  understood  that  this  contract  is  based  upon  a  series  of  surveys  made  by  a 
surveyor  named  Juan  Villegas  during  the  years  1901  and  1902  at  the  instance  of  the 
government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  in  which  he  classified  and  appraised  the  lands 
of  the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  herein  agreed  to 
be  conveyed;  that  on  the  basis  of  this  survey,  classification,  and  appraisement,  the 
civil  governor,  on  behalf  of  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  by  letter  to 
Monsignor  Jean  Baptiste  Guidi,  Archbishop  of  Stauropoli  and  apostolic  delegate  to 
the  Philippine  Islands,  dated  July  5,  1903,  made  an  offer  to  purchase  the  lands 
above  described  at  the  prices  fixed  by  Villegas  in  Mexican  currency  reduced  to  gold 
at  the  ratio  of  two  to  one,  and  this  letter  of  the  civil  governor,  together  with  the 
list  of  estates  of  the  Dominicans  so  called,  which  accompanied  the  letter  and  the 
surveys  of  Villegas  of  said  estates,  is  hereby,  for  the  better  understanding  of  this 
contract,  made  part  hereof  as  an  exhibit  by  reference,  it  being  understood  that  the 
estate  of  San  Juan  del  Monte  mentioned  in  the  list  as  belonging  to  the  Dominicans 
was  never  conveyed  to  the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Lim- 
ited, and  is  not  owned  by  the  said  company  and  is  not  included  in  this  agreement 
to  sell. 

In  consideration  of  the  sale  and  conveyance  of  the  lands  and  buildings  and  the 
assignment  of  the  claims  for  rent,  all  as  above  described,  the  government  of  the 
Philippine  Islands  agrees  to  pay  to  the  Philippines  Sugar  Estates  Development 
Company,  Limited,  the  sum  of  three  million  six  hundred  seventy-one  thousand  six 
hundred* and  fifty-seven  dollars  ($3,671,657),  in  money  of  the  United  States,  subject 
to  this  proviso:  That  if  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  shall  notify  the 
Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  that  the  area  of  any 
hacienda  that  is  described  in  the  title  deed  thereof  falls  short  of  the  superficial  area 


212  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

thereof,  as  shown  by  Villegas's  survey  of  the  same,  then  the  parties  hereto  shall  cause 
a  joint  survey  of  the  same  to  be  made  by  an  agent  of  each;  and  if  the  true  survey 
shall  show  the  area  of  the  hacienda  to  be  less  than  that  as  stated  by  Villegas  in  the 
list  hereinbefore  set  forth,  then  the  price  herein  agreed  to  be  paid  shall  be  abated 
by  an  amount  to  be  ascertained  by  multiplying  the  number  of  hectares  short  into 
the  average  value  of  a  hectare  in  the  hacienda  in  question  as  shown  by  dividing 
Villegas's  total  valuation  of  such  hacienda  by  the  total  number  of  hectares  contained 
therein  according  to  his  survey,  plus  twenty-five  per  cent  thereof;  and  if,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  true  survey  shall  show  an  access  of  hectares  over  the  amount 
reported  by  Villegas,  then  the  price  to  be  paid  shall  be  increased  by  an  amount 
ascertained  in  a  similar  manner. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing  considerations  the  Philippine  government  also  stipu- 
lates that  the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  shall  be 
acquitted  of  the  obligation  to  pay  all  the  uncollected  land  taxes  on  the  lands,  build- 
ings, and  other  improvements  herein  agreed  to  be  conveyed  to  the  Philippine  govern- 
ment which  are  due  to  the  provinces  or  the  municipalities  in  which  the  same  are 
respectively  situate. 

It  is  understood  that  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  in  order  to  pay  the 
purchase  price  hereof,  is  obliged  to  sell  its  bonds  under  and  by  virtue  of  the 
authority  of  section  64  of  the  act  of  Congress  of  the  United  States,  approved  July  1, 
1902,  entitled  "An  act  temporarily  to  provide  for  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of 
civil  government  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  and  for  other  purposes." 

The  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  agrees  to  make  every  effort  to  sell  the 
bonds  and  obtain  the  proceeds  as  soon  as  is  practicable,  and  the  time  for  the  con- 
summation of  this  contract  by  the  conveyance  of  a  good  and  marketable  title  by  the 
Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  and  the  payment  of  the 
purchase  price  by  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  is  fixed  as  of  the  end  of 
the  period  within  which  such  bonds  may  be  engraved,  advertised,  sold,  and  the  pro- 
ceeds thereof  realized,  and  the  necessary  surveys  and  necessary  investigation  of  the 
title  be  made  by  prompt  action  of  the  Philippine  government,  not  exceeding  six 
months  from  the  date  of  this  contract. 

In  witness  whereof,  the  two  parties  to  this  agreement  hereunto  affix  their  signa- 
tures, the  Philippine  Sugar  Estates  Development  Company,  Limited,  acting  by 
Francisco  Gutierrez,  the  attorney  in  fact  of  said  company,  as  shown  by  the  attached 
powrer  of  attorney,  and  the  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  by  Win.  H.  Taft, 
civil  governor,  whose  authority  is  shown  by  a  certified  copy  of  a  resolution  of  the 
Philippine  Commission,  also  hereto  attached. 

(Sgd.)  The  Philippine  Sugar  Estates 

Development  Company,  Limited, 
By  Franco.  Gutierrez,  Attorney  in  Fact. 

The  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands, 
By  Wm.  H.  Taft,  Civil  Governor. 

In  presence  of — 

Jean  Baptist  Guidi, 

Archbishop  of  Stauropoli,  Apostolic  Delegate. 
A.  W.  Fergusson. 


EXHIBIT  I. 

REPORT  ON  RELIGIOUS  CONTROVERSIES. 

[Cases  numbered  from  1  to  108,  inclusive.    Exhibits  numbered  from  1  to  48,  inclusive.  ] 


A  SYNOPSIS  OF  THE  CASES  OF  RELIGIOUS  CONTROVERSY  AND  QUESTIONS  IN 
WHICH  THE  MATTER  OF  RELIGION  IS  INVOLVED,  ARISING  IN  THE  PHILIP- 
PINE ISLANDS,  CALLING  FOR  ACTION  BY  THE  EXECUTIVE  DEPARTMENT  OF 
THE  CIVIL  GOVERNMENT  OF  THE  ISLANDS,  AND  STATEMENT  OF  THE  ACTION 
TAKEN  THEREON. 

1.  Iloilo,  Iliolo. — No  date. — Bishop  of  Jaro  presents  in  person  to  the  civil  gov- 
ernor a  petition  to  the  Commission  asking  that  the  seminary  of  Jaro  be  vacated  by 
the  American  troops  and  returned  to  him  as  the  representative  of  the  Catholic  Church. 

May  25,  1901. — Referred  to  the  military  governor  of  the  islands,  with  request  that 
investigation  be  made  by  the  military  authorities  as  to  the  title  to  the  said  seminary. 

August  30,  1901. — Returned  to  the  civil  governor,  with  reports  of  various  military 
officers. 

September  4,  1901. — Referred  to  the  attorney-general  for  opinion  as  to  whether  the 
facts  shown  do  not  seem  to  entitle  the  Catholic  Church  to  possession  of  the  property. 

September  7,  1901. — Solicitor-general  renders  opinion  that  the  claim  of  the  Catholic 
Church  to  title  is  not  clearly  shown.  The  record  in  this  case  is  copied  in  full  and 
attached  hereto  and  marked  "''Exhibit  No.  1."     (No.  936.) 

2.  Iloilo,  Iloilo. — January  24,  1902. — The  presbyter  of  the  congregation  of  San 
Vicente  de  Paul  reports  that  seditious  cries  and  jeers  were  uttered  against  himself 
and  fellow  priests  in  Iloilo  and  Jaro.  States  that  he  was  refused  protection  by  the 
military. 

January  29,  1902. — Acting  civil  governor,  in  a  letter  to  the  provincial  governor, 
urges  the  use  of  all  possible  means  for  the  keeping  of  the  peace,  and  outlines  the  princi- 
ples underlying  the  American  policy  of  separation  of  church  and  state.  This  letter 
is  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  2." 

February  10,  1902. — A  copy  of  this  letter  was  furnished  to  the  chief  of  the  Philip- 
pines constabulary,  with  the  request  that  all  constabulary  officers  be  advised  of  the 
status  of  affairs  between  the  church  and  the  state,  in  order  that  there  might  be  no  con- 
fusion in  that  regard.  Copy  also  furnished  to  the  presbyter  of  the  congregation  of 
San  Vicente  de  Paul  for  his  information. 

March  7,  1902. — Provincial  governor  transmits  testimony  and  report  of  investiga- 
tion, and  states  that  the  complaint  put  the  matter  in  a  light , which  did  injustice  to 
the  accused  persons,  as  the  assembly  was  an  entirely  peaceable  one  and  offered  no 
violence.  Cites  other  instances  to  show  that  the  municipal  authorities  are  using 
every  effort  to  prevent  such  lawlessness  as  that  complained  of.  (No.  6598-A1  to  A3, 
inclusive.) 

3.  Sax  Pedro,  Axtique. — February  IS,  1903. — Municipal  president  forwards  for 
the  information  of  the  civil  governor  a  report  of  the  conditions  existing  in  his 
municipality  with  reference  to  the  question  of  religion,  his  letter  leaving  the  infer- 
ence that  he  is  having  or  expects  to  have  trouble  along  that  line. 

Ajrrtt  IS,  1903. — Civil  governor  in  reply  states  briefly  the  duties  of  the  municipal 
president,  and  refers  him  to  former  instructions.  This  letter  is  copied  in  full  and 
attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  3."     (No.  22107). 

4.  Lambunao,  Iloilo.— July  17,  1902.—  Parish  priest  complains  of  persecution  by 
three  councilors  of  his  town,  stating  that  they  have  prevented  children  from  attend- 
ing the  parish  school,  fined  him  twice  wrongfully,  and  prohibited  the  admitting  of 
corpses  into  the  church. 

213 


214  EEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

August  18,  1902. — Referred  to  the  provincial  governor  for  investigation  and  report, 
and  for  proper  action  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  such  wrongs  if  it  should  be  found 
that  the  same  had  been  committed. 

September  9,  1902. — Municipal  president  reports  that  no  abuses  against  the  person 
of  the  priest  or  any  other  Catholic  have  been  noted;  that,  when  the  public  school 
was  opened  the  muncipal  police  were  instructed  to  see  that  all  children  attended 
same;  and  that  the  priest  was  fined  for  an  infraction  of  the  law. 

January  16,  1903. — Referred  by  the  executive  secretary  to  the  provincial  board  of 
Iloilo,  with  statement  that  the  action  of  the  municipal  council  compelling  children 
to  attend  the  public  school,  and  thus  indirectly  preventing  their  attendance  at  the 
parochial  school,  was  contrary  to  law;  that  the  ordinance  prohibiting  the  introduc- 
tion of  corpses  into  the  church,  etc.,  was  legal  only  if  drafted  and  recommended  by 
the  municipal  board  of  health;  and  that  the  municipal  council  was  not  empowered 
to  collect  fees  or  taxes  on  religious  ceremonies,  and  that  such  ordinance  was  illegal. 
The  provincial  board  was  instructed  to  make  necessary  representations  to  the  muni- 
cipal council.  This  letter  is  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  ' '  Exhibit 
No.  4." 

July  2,  1903. — Provincial  secretary  forwards  copy  of  the  withdrawal  of  the  charges 
by  A.  P.  Cotton,  attorney  for  the  parish  priest,  and  favors  the  dismissal  of  the  case. 
Accordingly  dismissed.     (No.  12544  to  Al.) 

5.  Janiuay,  Iloilo. — April  6,1903. — The  apostolic  delegate  forwards  to  the  civil 
governor  a  letter  from  the  parish  priest  of  Valladolid,  Iloilo,  stating  that  Aglipay 
has  used  threats  and  other  undue  and  unlawful  influence  to  get  the  parish  priest  of 
Janiuay  to  join  his  movement. 

April  9,  1903. — Civil  governor  replies  that,  while  the  conduct  of  Senor  Aglipay 
may  be  subject  to  severe  criticism  on  the  ground  of  taste  and  morality,  the  facts  as 
set  forth  in  the  statement  of  the  priest  do  not  warrant  executive  action.  The  letter 
of  the  parish  priest  and  the  civil  governor's  reply  to  the  letter  of  the  apostolic  dele- 
gate are  written  in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  5."  (No. 
24132. ) 

6.  -San  Jose  de  Buenavista,  Antique. — January  17, 1902. — Provincial  governor  for- 
wards petition,  signed  by  numerous  residents  of  San  Jose,  asking  for  the  expulsion  of 
Friar  Josac  Giraldez,  also  his  reply  to  the  petitioners.  The  reply  was  in  substance 
the  same  as  the  instructions  sent  out  by  the  civil  governor. 

January  30,  1902. — Executive  secretary,  by  direction  of  the  civil  governor,  com- 
mends provincial  governor's  reply. 

January  24,  1902. — Provincial  governor  transmits  petitions  from  citizens  of  San 
Josac  counter  to  the  former  petition. 

February  6,  1902. — Acting  civil  governor,  in  a  letter  to  the  provincial  governor, 
commends  the  latter' s  clear  and  forcible  expression  of  the  attitude  of  the  government 
toward  the  religious  question.  The  letter  of  the  provincial  governor  and  the  com- 
mendatory letter  of  the  acting  civil  governor  are  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto 
and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  6."     (No.  6764- Al  to  A3,  inclusive.) 

7.  Bugason,  Antique. — June  18,  1902. — Provincial  supervisor  forwards  to  the  act- 
ing civil  governor  copy  of  a  letter  from  the  municipal  president  of  Bugason  to  the 
parish  priest,  dated  June  11,  ordering  the  latter  to  leave  the  town,  and  stating  that 
if  he  did  not  he  would  be  removed  by  force.  The  records  show  nothing  further  with 
regard  to  this  case,  but  it  is  evident  that  the  threat  of  the  municipal  president  was 
not  carried  into  effect.  This  and  similar  cases  are  treated  of  in  the  civil  governor' s 
public  letter  to  the  provincial  governor  of  Tarlac,  dated  July  31, 1901,  and  in  circular 
letters  to  provincial  governors.     (No.  10909.) 

8.  Province  op  Capiz. — January  29, 1903. — Eight  petitions  from  residents  of  various 
municipalities  in  the  province,  containing  in  all  496  signatures  and  requesting  the 
expulsion  of  the  friars  from  the  Philippines,  were  received. 

March  7,  1903. — Petition  received,  dated  Ibajay,  Capiz,  January  1, 1903,  protesting 
against  the  return  of  the  friars  to  the  pueblo  and  requesting  that  all  religious  cor- 
porations be  expelled  from  the  islands.  These  papers  were  referred  to  the  apostolic 
delegate  for  his  information.     (No.  20520-A1  and  A2. ) 

9.  Romblon,  Romblon. — August  16,  1901. — Provincial  governor  states  that  the 
bishop  of  Jaro  is  using  his  position  in  the  Catholic  Church  to  influence  the  action  of 
the  municipal  authorities  of  Romblon,  who  are  Catholics,  by  threats  of  severe  eccle- 
siastical penalties  in  case  of  failure  to  comply  with  his  wishes.  Incloses  letter  from 
the  bishop  to  the  municipal  authorities;  also  their  reply.  The  letter  of  the  bishop 
of  Jaro  is  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  7."    (No.  1968. ) 

10.  Romblon,  Romblon. — February  16, 1903. — Provincial  governor  states  conditions 
in  his  province  between  municipalities  and  church,  and  asks  for  advice  in  case  of 
future  disagreement. 

March  7,  1903. — Informed  that  the  policy  of  the  executive  branch  of  the  govern- 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  215 

ment  is  to  recognize  the  right  of  the  last  peaceable  possessor  and  to  protect  him  in 
his  possession.  The  letter  of  instruction  herein  referred  to  is  copied  in  full  and 
attached  hereto  and  marked  "  Exhibit  No.  8."     (No.  22204. ) 

11.  Ilagan,  Isabela. — December  30,  1901. — Provincial  governor,  in  a  circular  to 
all  municipal  presidents,  requests  them  to  pass  ordinances  with  a  view  to  keeping 
cemeteries  in  an  improved  and  sanitary  condition. 

February  15,  1902. — Provincial  governor  calls  the  attention  of  the  municipal  presi- 
dent of  Ilagan  to  former  circular,  and  instructs  him  to  have  the  cemetery  in  his  town 
cleaned,  and  to  present  the  bill  therefor  to  the  parish  priest. 

February  17,  1902. — Provincial  governor  writes  to  the  archbishop  of  the  Philippine 
Islands,  not,  however,  as  governor,  but  as  a  private  citizen,  relative  to  abuses  by 
parish  priests  in  the  way  of  excessive  charges,  etc.,  and  suggests  a  remedy.  The  let- 
ters in  this  case  are  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto,  and  marked  ''Exhibit  No.  9." 
(No.  6287  to  Al,  and  7747. ) 

12.  Cebu,  Cebu. — September  13,  1901. — Provincial  governor  forwards  copy  of  reso- 
lutions of  the  provincial  board,  which  request,  among  other  things,  the  expulsion  of 
the  friars  from  the  islands.     (No.  2964-A1  to  A3,  inclusive.) 

13.  Cebu,  Cebu. — July  2,  1902. — L.  J.  Carlock,  judge  of  the  court  of  first  instance, 
orders  that  the  bells  of  the  Catholic  church  adjoining  the  court  room  be  not  tolled 
during  office  hours  of  the  court,  and  threatens  to  proceed  against  the  director  for 
contempt  if  order  is  not  obeyed. 

July  9,  1902.—  Rev.  W.  D.  McKinnon  forwards  to  the  civil  governor  a  copy  of  the 
order,  stating  that  he  believes  it  to  be  an  unwarrantable  interference  on  the  part  of 
the  court,  as  the  bells  are  not  large,  and  therefore  can  hardly  be  a  nuisance. 

August  12,  1902. — The  secretary  of  finance  and  justice,  in  a  letter  to  the  judge  of  the 
court,  states  that  the  facts  as  set  forth  by  Father  McKinnon  seem  to  justify  the  com- 
plaint, and  asks  that  more  conciliatory  measures  be  used  in  the  future  in  dealing 
with  such  matters.     (No.  12342  to  Al.) 

14.  Cebu,  Talamban,  Talisay,  and  Minglanilla,  in  the  Province  op  Cebu. — 
November  17,  1902. — Eighty-two  residents  of  the  four  towns  petition  that,  in  case  of 
accession  by  the  government  of  friar  properties  in  Cebu,  they  be  given  an  opportu- 
nity to  present  their  claim  for  adjudication  in  the  courts.  Also  present  protest 
formerly  prepared  against  the  alleged  title  of  the  friars  to  said  lands. 

February  20, 1903. — Eighteen  residents  of  the  same  towns  refer  to  former  petition, 
and  present  a  new  one  covering  practically  the  same  ground.     (No.  18903  to  Al.) 

15.  Cebu,  Cebu. — July  18, 1903. — Procurator  of  the  Recoletos  in  Manila  requests  the 
return  of  $908.25  gold,  which  was  imposed  for  municipal  taxes  on  the  convent  in 
Cebu  while  same  was  occupied  by  the  military.  The  civil  governor  recommended  to 
to  the  provincial  treasurer  of  Cebu  that  the  collection  of  the  taxes  in  question  be 
deferred  until  after  the  payment  of  rent  by  the  military  for  the  use  of  the  convent. 
(No.  28034.) 

16.  San  Nicolas,  Cebu. — March  18,  1903. — Acting  provincial  governor  forwards 
copy  of  protest  against  the  action  of  the  municipality  of  San  Nicolas  in  imposing  an 
exorbitant  and  illegal  tax  upon  the  cemetery  of  the  town  belonging  to  the  church. 

March  26,  1903. — Referred  to  the  attorney-general  for  opinion. 

April  3,  1903. — Opinion  rendered  that  the  municipality  has  the  right  to  impose 
such  tax.  On  June  1,  1903,  however,  in  the  case  of  the  Catholic  cemetery  at  Vigan, 
Ilocos  Sur,  which  is  similar  to  the  above,  an  opinion  was  rendered  by  the  acting 
secretary  of  finance  and  justice,  and  concurred  in  by  the  secretary  of  the  interior  and 
the  civil  governor,  declaring  such  privilege  rental  or  tax  illegal.  (See  Case  No.  48; 
Exhibit  No.  28.) 

17.  Zamboanga,  Mindanao. — September  2,  1902. — Division  superintendent  of 
schools,  in  a  letter  to  the  secretary  of  public  instruction,  My.  Bernard  Moses,  states 
that  the  Jesuit  priests  are  engaged  in  seditious  practices  and  machinations  against  the 
plans  of  the  government  and  seriously  interfering  with  the  progress  of  school  work 
in  his  district. 

September  17,  1902. — Referred  to  the  civil  governor,  who  in  an  indorsement  stated 
that  he  believed  there  was  no  ground  for  the  fears  of  a  conspiracy  entertained  by 
the  district  superintendent.  Letter  of  the  secretary  of  public  instruction,  quoting 
this  indorsement,  is  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "  Exhibit  No.  10." 

September  24,  1902. — District  superintendent  notified  of  the  civil  governor's  indorse- 
ment and  instructed  to  comport  himself  accordingly.     (No.  147187) 

18.  Boac,  Marinduque. — June  25,  1902. — Provincial  board  wires  that  provincial 
government  is  occupying  convent,  which  action  is  opposed  by  Bishop  Martin;  asks 
if  same  should  be  given  up  without  investigation  of  title. 

June  26,  1902. — Executive  secretary  by  telegram  directs  that  the  convent  be 
returned  to  the  church  authorities,  and  that  if  the  province  claims  title  it  should 
present  its  claim  in  court. 


216  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

June  27,  1902. — Hartigan,  Marple  &  Solignac  state  that  order  to  provincial  authori- 
ties seems  not  to  have  been  carried  out. 

June  28,  1903. — Executive  secretary  wires  provincial  board  asking  if  property  has 
been  turned  over  as  previously  directed. 

June  28,  1903. — Provincial  board  wires  that  convent  was  delivered  over  immediately 
upon  receipt  of  former  order.     (No.  10781.) 

19.  Nueva  Caceres,  Ambos  Camarines. — January  18,  1902. — Provincial  governor 
telegraphs  executive  secretary,  for  his  information,  a  true  account  of  the  trial  and 
sentence  of  Praxido  Penosa,  a  native  priest,  to  imprisonment  for  three  months  and  a 
fine  of  $500  under  the  sedition  law,  stating  that  the  local  papers  have  the  account 
badly  mixed.     The  text  of  the  telegram  is  as  follows: 

"Nueva  Caceres,  Camarines  Sur,  January,  18,  1902. 
1 '  Fergusson,  Executive  Secretary,  Manila. 

"  In  court  of  first  instance  yesterday,  Judge  Carson  sentenced  Praxido  Penosa,  a 
native  priest,  to  three  months  imprisonment  and  fine  of  $500  under  sedition  law. 
Sentence  was  based  on  finding  by  the  court  that  accused,  in  a  sermon  delivered 
from  his  pulpit  at  Libmanan,  Sunday,  December  1,  1901,  advised  his  hearers,  among 
other  things,  not  to  obey  the  constituted  authorities,  as  they  only  desired  to  exploit 
them  and  to  destroy  their  morals,  and  because  they  only  wanted  to  be  little  kings  and 
to  call  themselves  'ilustrados'  and  wise.  A  large  number  of  witnesses  were  called 
and  a  strong  and  able  defense  made  by  Mr.  Robert  Manly,  American  attorney  from 
Manila,  who  has  entered  appeal.  This  for  your  information  and  publication,  if  you 
deem  proper,  as  local  newspapers  have  gotten  things  mixed  up. 

"Ross,  Governor." 

(No.  6543  to  Al.) 

20.  Nueva  Caceres,  Ambos  Camarines. — December  1,  1902. — Parish  priest  com- 
plains of  refusal  of  military  authorities  to  vacate  the  "Episcopal  palace"  at  that 
place.  Upon  suggestion  by  the  civil  governor,  General  Davis  ordered  the  building 
vacated,  which  was  done  on  February  11,  1903.     (No.  18628.) 

21.  Nueva  Caceres,  Ambos  Camarines. — March  3,  1903. — Provincial  governor 
informs  executive  secretary  that  military  are  intending  to  vacate  the  so-called  "  Bish- 
op's palace  "  at  that  place  upon  request  of  the  apostolic  delegate,  but  that  the  prop- 
erty is  claimed  by  the  province,  and  suggests  that  it  be  not  turned  over  to  the  church 
authorities. 

March  10,  1903.  —Referred  to  the  chief  of  the  bureau  of  archives,  who,  on  March 
14,  1903,  reported  that  the  archives  showed  that  the  property  belonged  to  the  Span- 
ish Government  and  not  to  the  Church. 

March  14,  1903. — Referred  to  the  military  authorities. 

May  22,  1903. — The  commanding  general  of  the  division  of  the  Philippines  ordered 
the  property  turned  over  to  the  representative  of  the  Catholic  Church  in  accordance 
with  the  statement  of  the  civil  governor  that  it  was  to  be  delivered  to  the  last  peace- 
able possessor. 

June  20,  1903. — Building  was  vacated  by  the  military  and  turned  over  to  the  Cath- 
olic priest.  The  letter  of  the  civil  governor  to  the  commanding  general  of  the  division 
of  the  Philippines  is  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No. 
11."     (No.  22370.) 

22.  Nabua,  Ambos  Camarines. — April  7,  1903. — The  apostolic  delegate  filed  a  com- 
plaint charging  the  municipal  president  with  "adopting  low  means  to  combat  the 
Church  and  with  violating  the  free  exercise  of  the  Catholic  cult." 

April  11, 1903.—  Thecase  was  referred  to  the  provincial  governor  for  investigation. 
A  full  investigation  disclosed  the  fact  that  the  charges  were  without  foundation, 
and  on 

June  1,  1903. — The  complainant  was  so  informed.  The  record  of  this  case  is  copied 
in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "  Exhibit  No.  12."     (No.  24156.) 

23.  Palanog,  Masbate. — July  2,  1902. — Municipal  president  forwards  copy  of 
petition  of  parish  priest,  favorably  recommended  by  the  municipal  council,  request- 
ing the  return  to  the  priest  of  the  parish  house  now  occupied  by  the  United  States 
troops. 

July  10,  1902. — Referred  to  the  major-general  commanding  division  of  the  Philip- 
pines for  proper  action.     (No.  11197. ) 

July  14,  1902.— The  commanding  general  of  the  Department  of  North  Philippines 
was  directed  to  vacate  the  convent  at  once,  and  on  July  15,  1902,  he  reported  that 
the  necessary  orders  had  been  issued  to  have  the  building  vacated  immediately. 
(No.  11197.) 

24.  Rosario,  Batangas. — July  8,  1903. — Parish  priest  complains  that  municipality 
has  taken  possession  of  real  estate  belonging  to  the  Church. 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION".  217 

July  10,  1903. — Referred  to  the  provincial  governor  ''for  prompt  investigation  and 
report." 

August  5,  1903. — Provincial  governor  reports  that  the  property  in  question  does  not 
belong  to  the  Church,  and  that  it  is  and  always  has  been  in  the  peaceful  possession 
of  the  village  of  Rosario. 

August  15, 1903. — Hartigan,  Marple,  Solignac,  McCabe,  and  Gutierrez  were  notified 
of  the  provincial  governor's  report,  and  told  that  the  Church  might  resort  to  the 
courts  to  show  its  right  to  the  property.     (No.  28778.) 

25.  Tablac,  Taelac. — July  31,  1901. — The  parish  priest  of  Tarlac  complains  ver- 
bally to  the  civil  governor  that  the  municipal  council  of  his  town  has  attempted  to 
regulate  by  ordinance  the  fees  which  he  should  charge  for  the  performance  of  religious 
functions.  The  civil  governor  takes  this  occasion  to  point  out,  in  a  public  letter  to 
the  provincial  governor  of  Tarlac,  the  fundamental  error  of  the  municipal  council 
in  the  matter  above  referred  to,  and  to  give  such  general  information  on  the  matter 
of  the  attitude  of  the  government  in  religious  controversies  as  will  guide  provincial 
and  municipal  officers  in  the  future  conduct  of  such  matters.  This  letter  is  copied 
in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "  Exhibit  No.  13." 

August  8,  1901. — The  municipal  council  protests  against  the  placing  of  the  matter 
in  the  light  in  which  it  was  placed  by  the  parish  priest,  stating  that  it  had  simply 
called  the  attention  of  the  priest  to  the  advisability  of  charging  a  smaller  fee.  The 
record  also  shows  a  letter  of  the  parish  priest  justifying  his  complaint.  (No.  1103-A1 
to  A9,  inclusive. ) 

26.  Taelac,  Tarlac. — April  24,  1902. — The  municipal  council  of  Victoria,  Tarlac, 
passed  a  resolution  ordering  the  closing  of  the  Catholic  cemetery  and  forbidding 
interments  therein.     Parish  priest  protests  against  enforcement  of  this  order. 

April  28,  1902. — Provincial  fiscal  renders  an  opinion  that  the  municipal  council  is 
empowered  to  establish  a  municipal  cemetery,  but  not  to  override  the  rights  of  the 
Catholic  church  by  such  unjust  legislation. 

July  7,  1902. — Thomas  L.  Hartigan,  attorney,  submits  to  the  civil  governor  copies 
of  the  papers  in  the  above  matter  and  asks  that  the  action  of  the  municipal  council 
be  disapproved. 

July  8,  1902. — Acting  civil  governor  confirms  opinion  of  the  provincial  fiscal,  and 
requests  the  provincial  governor  to  notify  the  municipal  council  that  its  action  was 
evidently  unjust  and  in  excess  of  its  authority.  Refers  to  letter  of  civil  governor  to 
Capt.  Wallis  O.  Clark,  former  governor  of  Tarlac,  which  is  mentioned  in  the  preced- 
ing case  as  "Exhibit  No.  13,"  and  states  that  a  repetition  by  the  municipal  council 
of  such  action  as  that  complained  of  will  furnish  proper  grounds  for  suspending  them 
from  office.     (No.  11013-A1  to  A3,  inclusive.) 

27.  Victoria,  Tarlac — August  27, 1902. — The  president,  vice-president,  one  coun- 
cilor, the  justice  of  the  peace,  and  the  auxiliary  justice  of  the  peace  were  charged 
with  taking  advantage  of  their  respective  official  positions  to  insult  a  minister  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church. 

September  22,  1902. — The  accused  officers  were  dismissed  from  office.  The  record 
of  this  case  is  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  14."  (No. 
14578. ) 

28.  Victoria,  Tarlac. — November  7,  1902. — Civil  governor  telegraphs  to  provincial 
governor  that  he  has  been  advised  that  an  attempt  will  be  made  to  dispossess  the 
parish  priest  of  Victoria  of  the  church  and  convento  by  force  and  put  into  possession 
a  representative  of  the  National  Filipino  Church,  and  requests  his  cooperation  in 
order  to  prevent  any  such  unlawful  proceeding.  States  that  the  representatives  of 
the  civil  government  are  not  to  interfere  unless  one  or  other  of  the  parties  violates 
the  law  or  disturbs  the  peace;  and  that,  if  the  parish  priest  in  the  town  is  in  peaceful 
possession  representing  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  the  claim  of  the  Filipino  Church 
or  its  representatives  may  be  presented  in  court. 

November  10,  1902. — Provincial  governor  states  everything  quiet;  that  people  being 
Ilocanos,  prefer  an  Ilocano  priest,  but  that  there  seems  to  be  no  likelihood  that  they 
will  attempt  to  oust  the  Roman  Catholic  priest.     (No.  17095  to  Al. ) 

29.  Baguio,  Benguet. — June  5, 1903. — Rev.  Josae  Algue,  by  direction  of  the  superior 
of  the  Jesuit  mission,  applies  for  concession  of  a  tract  of  land  in  and  around  Baguio, 
known  as  "El  Mirador,"  to  be  used  as  a  site  for  a  sanitarium  for  the  order. 

June  10,  1903. — Referred  to  the  Commission  and  Father  Algue  notified  thereof  by 
the  civil  governor.  Latter  also  states  that  he  believes  the  Commission  would  grant 
the  concession  if  it  had  the  power.     (No.  27397. ) 

30.  Daraga,  Albay. — June  29,  1902. — Municipal  vice-president,  treasurer,  secre- 
tary, and  councilors  of  Daraga,  and  others,  protest  against  the  designation  of  a  friar 
as  parish  priest  and  request  intervention  by  the  civil  authorities. 

August  29,  1902.—  Referred  to  Thomas  L.  Hartigan,  counsel  for  the  bishop-admin- 
istrator of  the  archdiocese  of  Manila. 


218  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

September  26,  1902. — The  same  officials  and  other  persons  request  governmental 
action  against  the  retention  of  the  friars  in  the  pueblo. 
September  30,  1902.—  Referred  to  T.  L.  Hartigan.     (No.  11663-A1  to  A3,  inclusive.) 

31.  Lucena,  Tayabas. — June  26,  1903. — Provincial  governor  states  that  a  priest  in 
the  province  refuses  to  give  to  the  municipal  secretary  a  list  of  marriages,  births,  and 
deaths,  and  asks  what  course  is  to  be  pursued  to  secure  same. 

June  27,  1903. — Informed  that  it  is  the  duty  of  the  municipal  secretary  to  keep  a 
record,  which  if  properly  kept  would  furnish  him  the  material  for  such  a  list  without 
reference  to  the  parish  priest.  Copy  of  this  letter  is  attached  hereto  and  marked 
"Exhibit  No.  15."     (No.  28177.) 

32.  Bocaue,  Bulacan. — November  8,  1902. — Catholic  Truth  Society,  of  San  Fran- 
cisco, Cal.,  calls  attention  of  the  civil  governor  to  a  letter  published  in  the  Gazette, 
of  Galena,  111.,  under  date  of  October  23, 1902,  and  signed  by  G.  M.  Palmer,  a  teacher 
in  the  public  school  department  of  the  Philippines,  and  protests  against  his  using  his 
official  position  to  engage  in  the  proselytizing  business. 

December  24,  1902. — Referred  to  the  general  superintendent  of  education  for  action. 

January  13,  1903. — Returned  to  the  secretary  of  public  instruction,  with  statement 
of  action  taken,  and  the  further  statement  that  Mr.  Palmer  seems  to  think  his  con- 
duct justifiable. 

January  19,  1903. — Returned  to  the  civil  governor,  with  indorsement  by  the  sec- 
retary of  public  instruction. 

February  13,  1903. — Returned  to  the  secretary  of  public  instruction,  with  indorse- 
ment by  the  civil  governor.  The  record  of  this  case  is  copied  in  full  and  attached 
hereto  and  marked  " Exhibit  No.  16."     (No.  18782. ) 

February  17,  1903. — Referred  to  the  general  superintendent  of  education,  inviting 
attention  to  the  two  preceding  indorsements. 

February  20,  1903. — Papers  returned  with  the  report  that  Mr.  Palmer  has  been 
reprimanded  and  transferred  to  another  post,  and  that  a  circular  on  the  subject  has 
been  sent  to  all  the  teachers  in  the  islands.     (No.  18782. ) 

33.  Pitpitan,  Bulacan. — February  11,  1903. — Parish  priest  states  that  it  is  persist- 
ently rumored  that  the  priest  of  the  Independent  Filipino  Church  proposes  to  con- 
duct services  in  the  chapel  at  Pitpitan. 

February  17,  1903. — Advised  by  acting  executive  secretary  that  if  he  wishes  to 
retain  the  chapel  he  should  put  some  person  in  possession  of  it.     (No.  21511. ) 

34.  Polo,  Bulacan. — March  16,  1903. — Complaint  submitted  to  the  civil  governor 
against  certain  municipal  officials  of  Polo  for  violation  of  the  Catholic  cemetery  of 
the  town. 

March  20, 1903. — Civil  governor  transmits  complaint  to  the  provincial  governor  for 
investigation  and  report,  and  recommends  that,  if  the  facts  are  found  to  be  as  stated 
in  the  complaint,  the  officials  involved  be  removed  from  office  and  the  provincial 
fiscal  directed  to  prosecute  them. 

March  30, 1903. — Executive  secretary  telegraphs  provincial  governor  that  no  report 
has  been  received  and  urges  that  action  be  expedited.  Provincial  governor  in  reply 
states  absolutely  impossible  to  hurry  more  than  he  is  doing. 

May  1,  1903. — Provincial  governor  states  that  results  of  investigation  will  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  provincial  board  for  judgment  at  its  meeting  of  the  11th  instant. 

May  11,  1903. — Provincial  board  recommends  the  removal  from  office  of  the  vice- 
president,  who  was  acting  president  at  the  time  of  the  violation  complained  of. 

May  14, 1903. — Provincial  governor  formally  removes  the  vice-president  from  office, 
and  this  action  was  concurred  in  by  the  civil  governor.  Part  of  the  record  in  this 
case  is  copied  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  17,"  (No.  23279-A1 
to  A8,  inclusive. ) 

35.  San  Rafael,  Bulacan. — March  8,  1903. — Parish  priest  complains  that  the 
municipal  president  has  caused  to  be  buried  in  the  Catholic  cemetery  the  body  of  a 
Protestant,  and  that  he  made  an  undue  show  of  force  in  doing  so.  Requests  that  the 
body  be  taken  out  at  the  president's  expense  and  that  the  latter  give  public  satis- 
faction.    The  above  complaint  was  presented  to  the  justice  of  the  peace. 

March  8,  1903. — Justice  of  the  peace  states  that,  on  account  of  the  gravity  of  the 
case,  he  refuses  to  take  action  thereon,  thereby  furnishing  means  for  speedy  appeal 
to  higher  authority. 

March  11,  1903. — Submitted  to  the  civil  governor. 

March  14,  1903. — Referred  to  the  provincial  governor,  with  the  statement  that,  if 
the  facts  are  as  set  forth  in  the  complaint,  the  municipal  president  should  be  removed, 
and  with  request  for  investigation  and  report. 

April  11,  1903. — Provincial  governor  reports  that  investigation  shows  that  the 
ground  in  which  the  corpse  of  the  Protestant  was  buried  is  not  a  part  of  the  Catholic 
cemetery.     Further  statements  were  put  forth  by  the  complainant,  and  the  papers 


REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  219 

were  again  referred  to  the  provincial  governor  for  investigation  and  report.     Eeport 
was  made  substantiating  the  former  one,  and  the  papers  were,  on 

June  13,  1903,  referred  to  Hartigan,  Marple,  Solignac,  McCabe,  and  Gutierrez, 
with  the  statement  that  the  cemetery  in  which  the  corpse  was  buried  seems  to  have 
been  in  the  possession  of  the  municipality,  and  that  the  Eoman  Catholic  Church, 
therefore,  if  it  claims  title,  may  present  such  claim  in  the  courts.  The  record  of  this 
case  is  copied  and  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  18."     (No.  22926.) 

36.  Lilio,  La  Laguxa. — July  9,  1902. — T.  L.  Hartigan  transmits  copy  of  a  resolu- 
tion of  the  municipal  council  imposing  a  tax  on  the  ringing  of  church  bells  for  private 
parties. 

July  14,  1902. — Acting  civil  governor  refers  papers  to  provincial  governor,  saying 
that  if  the  facts  are  as  stated  the  municipal  council  has  exceeded  its  authority,  and 
requesting  him  to  see  that  the  ordinance  is  repealed.  Copy  of  this  letter  is  attached 
hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  19."     (No.  11259.) 

37.  Cavite,  Cavite. — October  24,  1901. — Provincial  secretary  transmits,  for  the 
information  of  the  Commission,  a  resolution  adopted  by  the  municipal  presidentes  of 
the  province  at  their  quarterly  meeting  in  Cavite,  expressing  their  opinion  that  the 
question  of  the  friars  should  be  promptly  and  effectively  settled.  Copy  of  this  reso- 
lution is  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  20." 

May  3,  1901. — Florentin  Eallosand  17  others  of  Cavite  province  petitioned  the  civil 
governor  for  the  expulsion  of  6  Augustinian  and  2  Eecoleto  friars  recently  arrived 
there.  State  that  they  have  received  civil  governor's  information  that  he  can  not 
expel  the  friars,  and  set  forth  what  seem  to  them  urgent  reasons  why  the  friars 
should  not  be  allowed  to  remain.     (No.  2y64-Al  to  A3,  inclusive.) 

38.  Imus,  Cavite. — October  11,  1901. — Municipal  president  forwards  a  communi- 
cation from  the  committee  having  in  charge  the  conduct  of  a  lawsuit  against  the 
Eecoleto  friars,  stating  that  an  American  surveyor  has  been  going  over  the  ground 
with  two  soldiers,  and  that  his  action  affects  the  outcome  of  the  suit.  Protest  against 
militarv  escort  being  allowed.  Copy  of  the  record  of  this  case  is  attached  hereto  and 
marked  "Exhibit  No.  21." 

October  15,  1901:— Rei erred  to  the  military  governor. 

Xovember  14,  1901. — Eeturned  with  the  statement  that  there  seems  to  be  no  ground 
for  the  complaint.     (No.  3751.) 

39.  La  Caeidad,  Cavite. — February  9,  1902. — Civil  governor  wires  provincial  gov- 
ernor that  he  has  been  informed  forcible  possession  has  been  taken  of  a  church  in 
La  Caridad  which  was  formerly  in  possession  of  a  priest  of  the  Eoman  Catholic 
Church.  States  that  such  dispossession  is  unlawful  and  that  municipality  should 
present  its  claim  to  title  in  court,  and  that  the  provincial  governor  must  see  that  law 
and  order  is  preserved. 

Xovember  10,  1902. — Provincial  governor  states  church  is  uncompleted  and  has 
never  been  used  for  any  religious  purpose.  Copy  of  the  record  in  this  case  is  attached 
hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  22."     (No.  17083  to  Al.) 

40.  Cavite,  Sax  Eoque,  and  La  Caeidad,  Peovince  of  Cavite. — June  10,  1902. — 
Eesidents  of  the  three  towns  petition  for  the  reopening  of  the  Catholic  cemetery, 
which  was  closed  by  order  of  the  municipality  of  La  Caridad. 

June  3,  1902. — Hartigan,  Marple,  Solignac,  McCabe,  and  Gutierrez  complain  of  the 
action  of  the  municipal  board  of  La  Caridad  in  the  matter  above  referred  to. 

June  28,  1902. — Civil  governor,  in  a  letter  to  the  provincial  governor,  states  that  if 
the  facts  are  as  set  out  in  the  complaints,  the  municipal  board  has  usurped  rights  not 
properly  belonging  to  it,  and  directs  investigation  and  report  at  the  earliest  prac- 
ticable moment. 

August  27,  1902. — Executive  secretary  calls  for  report. 

September  3,  1902. — Provincial  governor  reports  that  the  cemetery  was  closed  as  a 
health  measure,  as  it  was  in  an  unhealthy  location  and  condition,  and  because  it  was 
necessary  during  the  cholera  epidemic  to  bury  in  a  cemetery  set  aside  for  that  special 
purpose.  The  letters  in  this  case  are  copied  in  full  and  attached  hereto  and  marked 
"Exhibit  No.  23."     (No.  10850-A1  to  A4,  inclusive.) 

41.  Silax,  Cavite. — October  7,  1902. — Hartigan,  Marple,  Solignac,  McCabe,  and 
Gutierrez  submit  to  the  civil  governor  communication  from  the  parish  priest  of  Silan 
to  the  archbishop,  complaining  of  the  occupation  of  the  convento  by  the  constabu- 
lary, and  request  that  the  constabulary  be  directed  to  return  the  convento  to  the 
priest. 

October  8, 1002. — Eeferred  to  the  chief  of  Philippines  constabulary  for  early  investi- 
gation and  report.  After  several  indorsements  by  constabulary  officers,  the  papers 
were,  on 

February  20,  1903,  returned  to  the  executive  secretary  with  reports  by  constab- 
ulary officers.  The  reports  were  to  the  effect  that  the  constabulary  had  been  occu- 
pying the  convento  with  the  apparent  good  will  of  the  priest,  as  he  had  never  asked 


220  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

that  it  be  vacated,  but  that,  upon  receipt  of  the  intimation  that  he  desired  the  build- 
ing vacated,  the  constabulary  moved  out  on  November  7,  1902. 

February  24, 1903. — Hartigan,  Marple,  Solignac,  McCabe,  and  Gutierrez  notified. 
Copy  of  the  record  in  this  case  is  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  24." 
(No.  15442.) 

42.  Bacoor,  Cavite.—  December  17, 1902. — Civil  governor  telegraphs  provincial  gov- 
ernor that  the  bishop  of  Cebu  informs  him  that  the  parish  priest  heretofore  in  charge 
of  the  church  at  Bacoor  has  left  the  Roman  Catholic  faith;  that  the  bishop  has  ordered 
him  to  turn  over  the  church  to  another  Roman  Catholic  priest;  that  the  former  priest 
has  left  the  church,  and  that  the  municipal  authorities  are  in  control  of  same.  States 
that  he  believes  the  property  rightfully  belongs  to  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and 
requests  the  provincial  governor  to  be  governed  accordingly  in  dealing  with  the 
matter. 

December  20, 1902. — Civil  governor  wires  provincial  governor  that  Aglipay  has  asked 
to  be  allowed  to  submit  testimony  in  the  case,  and  directs  that  the  status  quo  be 
preserved  until  further  orders. 

December  29, 1902. — Hartigan,  Marple,  Solignac,  McCabe,  and  Gutierrez  transmit 
to  the  civil  governor  certified  copy  of  an  affidavit  made  by  the  former  parish  priest, 
declaring  that  it  destroys  his  claim  to  the  church,  and  ask  that  the  order  of  Decem- 
ber 20  be  revoked. 

January  7,  1903. — Acting  executive  secretary  calls  for  full  report  from  the  munici- 
pal president. 

February  2, 1903. — Municipal  president  states  that  he  never  took  possession  of  the 
church,  but  simply  stationed  guards  there  to  prevent  disturbance,  and  that  the  same 
condition  of  affairs  still  continues. 

February  9,  1903. — Provincial  governor  directed  to  advise  municipal  president  to 
let  the  matter  stand  exactly  as  it  is  at  present,  as  the  right  of  possession  will  have 
to  be  established  in  the  courts.  Copies  of  the  letters  in  this  case  are  attached  hereto 
and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  25."     (No.  18625-A1  to  A3,  inclusive.) 

43.  Ternate  (near  Mara gondon),  Cavite. — February  13, 1903. — Hartigan,  Marple, 
Solignac,  McCabe,  and  Gutierrez  forward,  in  accordance  with  verbal  instructions  of 
the  civil  governor,  (1)  certified  copy  of  the  records  of  the  office  of  the  justice  of 
the  peace  of  Ternate,  dated  January  31 ,  1903,  which  shows  that  the  municipal  presi- 
dent required  the  justice  of  the  peace  to  approve  the  delivery  of  the  key  to  the  church 
to  the  president  in  order  that  the  latter  might  deliver  same  to  the  representative  of 
Senor  Aglipay  when  said  representative  should  arrive  in  the  pueblo;  (2)  copy  of  a 
letter  from  the  parish  priest,  dated  January  31,  to  the  municipal  president,  asking 
to  be  reinstated  in  the  possession  of  the  church,  and  reply  of  the  president  refusing 
to  do  so;  and  (3)  copy  of  a  telegram  from  the  provincial  secretary  to  the  municipal 
president  that  he  should  have  respected  the  right  of  the  priest  to  peaceable  posses- 
sion of  the  property. 

February  13,  1903. — Civil  governor  suspends  justice  of  the  peace  by  telegram. 

February  14,  1903. — Civil  governor  orders  provincial  governor  to  suspend  the 
municipal  president  until  the  latter  returns  the  keys  of  the  church  to  the  Roman 
Catholic  priest,  and  states  that  thereafter  the  municipality  may  present  its  claim  to 
title  in  the  courts. 

February  15,  1903. — Provincial  governor  reports  municipal  president  and  justice 
of  the  peace  suspended. 

February  20,  1903. — Acting  executive  secretary  telegraphs  civil  governor  at  Cebu, 
Cebu,  stating  that  he  and  the  solicitor-general  went  to  Ternate  on  the  19th  and  inter- 
viewed the  suspended  president  and  justice  of  the  peace  and  several  principales,  and 
that  he  is  awaiting  the  return  of  the  sacristan  of  the  church  to  complete  the  testimony. 

February  21,  1903. — Acting  executive  secretary,  in  a  letter  to  T.  L.  Hartigan, 
urgently  requests  that  the  sacristan  be  found  if  possible,  as  he  wishes  to  settle  the 
matter  promptly  and  before  the  return  of  the  civil  governor. 

February  24,  1903. — Provincial  governor  submits  report,  with  exhibits,  and  gives 
a  history  of  the  town  and  the  church. 

February  28,  1903. — Acting  executive  secretary  informs  provincial  board  of  the  sus- 
pension of  the  justice  of  the  peace  and  the  charge  against  him,  and  directs  the  board 
to  take  action  in  accordance  with  act  No.  314,  which  act  prescribes  the  method  of 
procedure  in  such  cases. 

March  7,  1903. — Civil  governor,  in  a  letter  to  the  solicitor-general,  requests  him  to 
notify  the  president  and  justice  of  the  peace  that  if  they  will  turn  over  the  keys  of 
the  church  to  the  priest  he  will  forgive  them,  but  that  otherwise  he  will  have  them 
prosecuted  to  the  full  extent  of  the  law. 

March  10,  1903. — Provincial  secretary  wires  that  investigation  against  justice  of  the 
peace  will  take  place  on  March  13.     Acting  executive  secretary  wires  provincial 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  221 

board  that,  unless  there  are  difficulties  preventing,  the  charges  against  the  president 
should  also  be  heard  on  the  13th. 

March  9,  1903. — Papers  referred  by  the  civil  governor  to  the  solicitor-general. 

March — ,  1903. — Provincial  secretary  forwards  resolutions  of  the  provincial  board, 
adopted  March  13,  1903,  and  the  recommendation  of  the  board  that  the  municipal 
president  and  justice  of  the  peace  be  removed  from  office. 

March  18,  1903. — Solicitor-general  directs  the  provincial  fiscal  to  prosecute  the  ex- 
municipal  president  and  ex-justice  of  the  peace  in  the  court  of  first  instance,  and 
gives  detailed  instructions  for  the  conduct  of  the  prosecution. 

May  27,  1903. — Solicitor-general  wires  provincial  fiscal  to  find  out  if  the  keys 
have  yet  been  delivered  to  the  priest. 

July  17,  1903. — Provincial  fiscal  reports  that,  on  account  of  the  promises  of  the 
ex-officials  that  they  would  deliver  to  him  the  keys  of  the  church,  he  had  deferred 
action,  but  that  on  June  13,  the  promise  not  having  been  carried  out,  he  filed  indict- 
ment against  them  in  the  court  of  first  instance;  that  on  July  3,  1903,  the  two 
accused  appeared  before  the  court,  but  that  the  parish  priest,  though  summoned,  did 
not  appear;  that,  by  order  of  the  court,  the  keys  of  the  church  were  delivered  to  the 
clerk  of  the  court  for  the  province,  and  v  priest,  Father  Villafranca,  notified  that 
he  could  obtain  the  keys  from  said  cle-A  of  the  court.  Father  Villafranca  had  not 
called  for  the  keys  to  date. 

July  23,  1903.— Solicitor-general  returns  papers  to  the  civil  governor,  with  state- 
ment of  action  taken  by  the  office  of  the  attorney-general,  as  indicated  above.  Copy 
of  the  record  of  this  case  is  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  26."  (No. 
21362-A1  to  A18,  inclusive. ) 

44.  Balanga,  Bataan. — July  25,  1901. — Provincial  governor  forwards  request  of 
Catholic  priest  that  the  convento  now  occupied  by  American  troops  be  turned  over 
to  him  for  his  use. 

August  1,  1901. — Eeferred  to  the  major-general  commanding  Division  of  the 
Philippines,  the  civil  governor  expressing  the  hope  that  the  request  would  be  com- 
plied with  if  possible.     (No  926  to  Al. ) 

45.  Dinalupijan,  Bataan. — August  4,  1902. — Justice  of  the  peace  asks  how  parish 
priest  may  be  compelled  to  furnish  original  certificates  of  marriage,  the  priest 
refusing  to  furnish  same,  stating  that  church  and  state  are  now  separate.  Informed 
that  the  priest  may  not  be  compelled  to  do  so.     (No.  12740.) 

46.  Laoag,  Ilocos  Norte. — October  4,  1901. — Provincial  governor  forwards  docu- 
ments in  the  matter  of  the  proposal  made  by  one  of  the  members  of  the  municipal 
council,  that  the  cemetery  claimed  by  and  now  in  possession  of  the  municipality  be 
turned  over  to  the  church. 

October  17,  1901. — Civil  governor  replies  that  the  municipal  council  has  no  power 
to  cede  propertv  of  the  municipality.  Copy  of  the  record  of  this  case  is  attached 
hereto  and  marked  "  Exhibit  No.  27."     (No.  3802. ) 

47.  Santa  Maria,  Ilocos  Sur. — August  12,  1901. — Municipal  president  forwards 
copy  of  resolutions  of  the  municipal  council  in  which  it  was  resolved,  among  other 
things,  that  the  friars  should  be  expelled  from  the  islands.  With  regard  to  this  and 
similar  petitions,  see  letters  of  the  civil  governor  and  acting  civil  governor  to 
provincial  governors.     (No.  4359.) 

48.  Vigan,  Ilocos  Sur. — January  15,  1903. — Hartigan,  Marple,  Solignac,  McCabe, 
and  Gutierrez  state  that  the  municipal  authorities  have  forbidden  the  authorities  of 
the  Catholic  Church  at  Vigan  to  open  a  cemetery  without  first  paying  a  tax  or 
license  for  the  privilege  of  doing  so,  and  protest  against  such  an  interpretation  of  the 
municipal  code  as  would  declare  such  a  tax  legal.  After  reference  to  the  secretary 
of  finance  and  justice,  to  the  attorney-general,  and  to  the  solicitor-general,  on 

June  1,  1903,  the  acting  secretary  of  finance  and  justice  rendered  an  opinion,  which 
was  concurred  in  by  the  secretary  of  the  interior,  and  the  civil  governor,  that  such 
privilege  rental  or  tax  was  illegal.  This  is  the  opinion  referred  to  in  case  No.  16. 
Copy  thereof  is  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  28."     (No.  21220.) 

49.  Gapan,  Nueva  Ecua. — February  15,  1902.—  Bishop  Martin  complains  that  the 
municipal  council  of  Gapan  has  created  a  tax  to  be  collected  from  the  church  on 
the  biers  used  for  the  funerals  of  persons  too  poor  to  have  their  own  coffins.  States 
that  the  church  collects  nothing  for  the  use  of  biers  from  very  poor  people  and  can 
not  afford  to  pay  the  tax. 

_  February  18,  1902. — Referred  to  the  provincial  governor  with  the  statement  by  the 
civil  governor  that  if  the  allegations  are  true  the  municipal  council  has  exceeded  its 
authority  and  should  rescind  the  ordinance. 

May  8,  1902. — Papers  returned  with  the  statement  that  the  ordinance  had  been 
passed  in  accordance  with  the  Spanish  text  of  the  municipal  code,  in  which  there  is 
found  a  mistake  in  the  translation,  and  that  the  ordinance  has  been  repealed.  (No. 
7086.) 


222  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

50.  Penaranda,  Nueva  Ecija. — February  18,  1902.  —Thomas  L.  Hartigan  submits 
telegram  from  parish  priest  of  Penaranda  stating  that  the  municipal  authorities  say- 
he  shall  cease  to  administer  the  church  cemetery,  which  the  priest  states  has  been 
church  property  for  fifteen  years  and  still  is.     Attorney  requests  action. 

February  19,  1902. — Referred  to  the  provincial  governor  with  request  for  investiga- 
tion, the  civil  governor  stating  that  if  the  allegations  are  correct  the  municipal  authori- 
ties have  exceeded  their  powers  and  should  be  so  informed.     Calls  for  report. 

June  6,  1902. — Provincial  governor  returns  papers  with  report  that  the  cemetery, 
and  all  the  funds  collected  thereon  while  administered  by  the  municipality,  have 
been  returned  to  the  church.     (No.  7130. ) 

51.  Zaragoza,  Nueva  Ecija. — May  21,  1903. — There  was  submitted  to  the  civil 
governor  a  letter  from  the  parish  priest  of  Zaragoza  complaining  that  the  municipal 
president  refused  to  restrain  an  intruding  priest  from  using  the  church  in  that 
pueblo. 

May  23,  1903. — Referred  to  the  provincial  governor  for  investigation,  report,  and 
recommendation. 

June  4, 1903. — Provincial  governor  reports  that,  as  there  was  no  breach  of  the  peace 
involved  in  the  contention  of  the  two  priests,  he  could  not  intervene  officially  in 
the  matter.  Copy  of  the  provincial  governor's  report  is  attached  hereto  and  marked 
"  Exhibit  No.  29."     (No.  26088. ) 

52.  Tuguegarao,  Cagayan. — October  28, 1901. — Provincial  supervisor,  in  a  letter  to 
the  civil  governor,  states  that  the  sentiment  of  the  people  of  the  province  is  strongly 
against  turning  over  to  the  friars  the  property  claimed  by  them.     (No.  5351. ) 

53.  Tuguegarao,  Cagayan. — November  24,  1901. — Dionisio  Cosas,  abbot  of  the 
Dominican  Friars  of  Tuguegarao,  requests  that  the  large  building  now  occupied  by 
the  military  be  returned" to  the  use  of  the  order  for  school  purposes. 

March  29,  1902. — After  reference  to  the  military  authorities  and  a  number  of 
indorsements  by  them,  the  papers  were  returned  to  the  acting  civil  governor  Avith 
the  information  that  the  buildings  would  be  turned  over  to  the  religious  order  as 
soon  as  those  in  course  of  construction  for  the  use  of  the  military  should  be  completed, 
which  would  be  within  a  few  weeks. 

April  5,  1902. — Papers  returned  to  the  abbot  of  the  Dominican  order  at  Tuguega- 
rao with  the  information  that  the  civil  governor  has  no  jurisdiction  in  the  matter, 
and  that  future  communications  with  regard  thereto  should  be  directed  to  the 
military  authorities. 

January  14,  1902. — An  attorney  representing  the  Dominican  order,  with  reference 
to  the  same  property,  requests  that  the  said  property  be  vacated  by  the  military, 
and  that  rent,  compensation  for  repairs,  etc. ,  be  paid  for  the  time  it  was  occupied  by 
the  military.  These  papers  went  through  the  same  course  as  the  ones  just  above 
referred  to  and  were  returned  to  the  acting  civil  governor  at  the  same  time. 

May  28, 1902. — Executive  secretary  forwards  to  the  provincial  treasurer  of  Cagayan 
an  excerpt  from  the  minutes  of  the  Commission  of  May  20,  1903,  with  regard  to  the 
suspension  of  taxes  on  property  of  the  Dominican  Friars  during  the  time  same  was 
occupied  by  the  military  and  requests  statement  from  provincial  treasurer  of  Cagayan 
with  a  view  to  determining  if  such  a  resolution  should  be  passed  with  regard  to  the 
property  at  Tuguegarao.     (No.  5507-A1  to  A4,  inclusive.) 

54.  Tuguegarao,  Cagayan. — May  18,  1902. — Parish  priest  complains  of  certain 
arbitrary  quarantine  and  sanitary  regulations  of  the  provincial  board  of  health 
affecting  the  church  and  of  the  brutal  enforcement  of  the  same  by  the  municipal 
police. 

June  23,  1902. — Referred  to  the  commissioner  of  public  health  with  directions  to 
ascertain  the  facts. 

June  24,  1902. — Returned  to  the  executive  secretary  with  the  statement  that  the 
quarantine  has  been  raised. 

June  23,  1902. — Acting  civil  governor  wires  provincial  governor  for  information  in 
regard  to  the  matter. 

June  24,  1902. — Parish  priest  wires  withdrawal  of  complaint. 

August  2,  1902. — Acting  provincial  governor  reports  that  the  three  municipal 
policemen  have  been  punished  for  their  misconduct  in  the  enforcement  of  the  health 
ordinance.  Copy  of  this  report  is  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  30." 
(No.  10346-A1  to  A4,  inclusive.) 

55.  Tuguegarao,  Cagayan. — February  23,  1903. — Parish  priest  states  that  law  for- 
bidding burials  in  the  Catholic  cemetery  is  still  in  force,  even  though  death  may  not 
have  been  due  to  a  contagious  disease,  and  asks  that  it  be  repealed. 

March  26, 1903. — Referred  to  the  provincial  board  of  Cagayan  for  investigation  and 
proper  action.     (No.  22998.) 

56.  Tuguegarao,  Cagayan. — February  25,  1903. — Parish  priest  states  that  he  needs 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  223 

for  parish  purposes  certain  buildings  now  occupied  by  the  volunteer  soldiers  and  by- 
telegraph  and  municipal  officials,  and  asks  that  they  be  vacated. 

March  18,  1903. — Acting  executive  secretary  asks  that  the  names  of  the  particular 
buildings  desired  be  furnished.     (No.  22997.) 

57.  Cagayan  de  Misamis,  Mindanao. — August  5,  1901. — Jesuit  missionaries  in 
the  district  complain  that  the  presidents  of  many  pueblos  are  collecting  burial  fees 
which  rightfully  belong  to  the  church. 

August  9,  1901. — Civil  governor  sends  to  the  provincial  governor  of  Misamis  a  copy 
of  his  letter  to  Capt.  Wallis  O.  Clark,  governor  of  the  province  of  Tarlac,  on  this 
question,  for  the  information  both  of  the  provincial  and  municipal  government  offi- 
cials and  of  the  Jesuit  priests  complaining.  This  is  the  letter  referred  to  in  case  No. 
25,  marked  "Exhibit  No.  13."     (No.  1135  to  Al. ) 

58.  Jimenez,  Cagayan  de  Misamis,  Mindanao. — November  12,  1901. — Provincial 
governor  transmits  petition,  signed  by  leading  officers  and  residents  of  the  pueblo, 
against  the  continued  residence  therein  of  two  friars  recently  settled  there.  Informed 
by  the  civil  governer  that  the  friars  have  the  same  rights  in  the  matter  of  traveling 
or  living  where  they  choose  as  any  other  persons,  and  that  they  must  be  protected 
in  those  rights.  Copv  of  this  letter  is  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No. 
31."     (No.  5237  to  Ai.) 

59.  Cagayan  de  Misamis,  Mindanao. — June  11, 1902. — Provincial  governor  trans- 
mits, for  the  consideration  of  the  Commission,  the  resolutions  adopted  by  the  assembly 
of  municipal  presidents  at  their  meeting  of  October  21,  1901,  in  which  it  was 
resolved,  among  other  things,  that  the  religious  corporations  should  be  expelled 
from  the  province.     (No.  4394  to  Al. ) 

60.  Aeayat,  Pampanga. — May  8, 1902. — President  of  the  provincial  board  of  health 
wires  civil  governor  asking  if  municipality  has  authority  to  close  cemetery  against 
the  wishes  of  local  priest.  States  cemetery  at  Arayat  is  full,  but  priest  insists  that 
burials  should  still  take  place  there. 

May  8,  1902. — Civil  governor  wires  that  the  municipality  has  such  right,  if  the 
cemeterv  is  a  menace  to  the  public  health.  Copy  of  the  record  in  this  case  is  attached 
hereto  and  marked  "  Exhibit  No.  32."     (No.  9199. ) 

61.  San  Luis,  Pampanga. — June  17,  1901. — Provincial  governor,  in  a  letter  to  the 
parish  priest  of  San  Luis,  acknowledges  receipt  of  a  communication  from  the  latter, 
dated  June  16,  relative  to  an  order  which  the  municipal  president  of  San  Luis  alleged 
was  issued  by  the  provincial  governor  relative  to  the  Catholic  cemetery  at  San  Luis, 
and  states  that  he  knows  nothing  about  such  an  order.  The  records  do  not  show 
definitely  what  this  order  was. 

July  13,  1901. — Parish  priest  requests  municipal  council  to  rescind  a  resolution 
recently  passed  by  it  to  the  effect  that  the  municipality  should  take  possession  of  the 
Catholic  cemetery.     Petition  was  refused  on  same  date. 

August  9, 1901.— Civil  governor,  in  a  letter  to  the  provincial  governor  of  Pampanga, 
states  that  he  is  in  receipt  of  a  complaint  from  the  parish  priest  of  San  Luis  against 
the  seizure  by  the  municipality  of  the  Catholic  cemetery.  Sends  the  provincial  gov- 
ernor a  copy  of  his  letter  to  Capt.  AVallis  O.  Clark,  governor  of  Tarlac,  and  suggests 
that  he  send  copies  to  all  municipal  presidents  in  his  province.  (No.  1132-A1  to 
A4,  inclusive.) 

62.  San  Luis,  Pampanga. — November  12,  1901. — Parish  priest  writes  to  the  bishop 
of  Cebu,  administrator  of  the  archdiocese  of  Manila,  that  he  has  presented  for  assess- 
ment the  property  of  the  church  in  the  pueblo,  and  that  the  municipal  council 
resolved  to  take  possession  of  the  church  property,  and  refused  to  allow  same  to  be 
assessed  as  the  property  of  the  church. 

November  20, 1901. — Acting  civil  governor  addresses  the  provincial  governor  about 
this  and  kindred  matters.  A  copy  of  this  communication  is  attached  hereto  and 
marked  "Exhibit  No.  33."     (No.  4932 -Al.) 

63.  San  Luis,  Pampanga. — September  23,  1902. — Pablo  Leuterio,  "representing  the 
citizens  of  the  town  of  San  Luis,"  forwards  to  the  civil  governor  copy  of  a  petition, 
dated  May  12,  1902,  asking  the  municipal  council  to  set  aside  its  ordinance  for  the 
closing  of  the  Catholic  cemetery,  and  requests  that  the  civil  governor  intervene  in 
the  matter. 

_  October  13,  1902. — Civil  governor  returns  petition,  calling  the  attention  of  the  peti- 
tioner to  the  recent  passage  of  a  law  providing  a  method  of  procedure  in  such  cases. 
Copy  of  this  letter  and  of  part  of  the  law  referred  to  are  attached  hereto  and  marked 
"Exhibit  No.  34."     (No.  15008.) 

64.  Bacolor,  Pampanga. — March  12,  1902. — The  provincial  vicar  of  the  province 
of  Pampanga  forwards  to  the  bishop  of  Cebu,  administrator  of  the  archdiocese  of 
Manila,  copy  of  an  order  of  the  provincial  board  of  health  of  Pampanga  prescribing 
the  hours  during  which  church  ceremonies  may  be  carried  on,  stating  that  in  his 
opinion  the  order  is  unjust,  and  asking  for  advice. 


224:  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

April  15,  1902. — Referred  by  Hartigan,  Marple,  and  Solignac  to  the  civil  governor. 
April  22,  1902. — Referred  to  the  commissioner  of  public  health.     No  action  taken 
by  him.     (No.  8779.) 

65.  Lubao,  Pampanga. — May  23,  1902  —  Provincial  governor  forwards,  with  his 
favorable  comment,  a  copy  of  the  expression  of  the  municipal  council  that  the  pres- 
ence of  a  friar  recently  arrived  in  the  town  was  dangerous  to  the  tranquility  of  the 
same,  and  asking  that  he  be  removed. 

May  SO,  1902. — Acting  civil  governor  states  that  he  will  present  the  matter  to  the 
church  authorities  with  a  view  to  having  the  friar  withdrawn,  but  that  in  the  mean- 
time he  must  be  protected  from  insult  or  violence.     Requests  report  as  to  conditions. 

June  20,  1902. — Executive  secretary,  in  a  letter  to  the  provincial  governor,  requests 
that  the  information  asked  for  in  the  letter  of  the  acting  civil  governor  of  May  30  be 
furnished  without  delay. 

June  25,  1902. — Provincial  governor  reports  that  the  friars  are  still  in  the  pueblo 
of  Lubao,  and  renews  his  recommendation  that  steps  be  taken  for  their  removal. 
Copv  of  the  acting  civil  governor's  letter  of  May  30  is  attached  hereto  and  marked 
"Exhibit  No.  35."     (No.  9619.) 

66.  Mexico,  Pampanga. — June  1,  1902. — Parish  priest  forwards  copy  of  ordinance 
by  the  municipal  council  forbidding  the  ringing  of  bells  between  the  hours  of  6  p.  m. 
and  5  a.  m.  on  ordinary  days,  and  protests  that  it  is  an  abuse  of  power. 

July  14,  1902. — Acting  civil  governor,  in  a  letter  to  the  provincial  governor,  calls 
attention  to  previous  instructions  and  states  that  noninterference  in  church  affairs 
must  be  insisted  on  and  should  be  impressed  upon  municipal  councils  in  his  province. 

August  4,  1902. — Provincial  governor  returns  papers,  stating  that,  after  thorough 
and  painstaking  investigation,  he  believes  the  municipal  council  was  justified  in  its 
action,  as  the  almost  continuous  ringing  of  the  bells  became  a  nuisance. 

December  10,  1902. — Parish  priest,  in  a  letter  to  the  apostolic  delegate,  requests  that 
the  civil  governor  be  asked  to  intervene  and  remove  the  prohibition  against  the  ring- 
ing of  the  bells  at  4  o'clock  in  the  morning  for  the  period  just  before  Christmas. 

December  24, 1902. — Civil  governor  returns  papers  to  the  apostolic  delegate,  with  the 
statement  that,  in  view  of  the  circumstances  attending  the  case,  the  matter  must  be 
left  to  the  discretion  of  the  municipal  authorities.  Copy  of  part  of  the  record  of  this 
case  is  attached  hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  36."     (No.  11258.) 

67.  Angeles,  Pampanga. — August  1,  1902. — Parish  priest  requests  of  the  civil  gov- 
ernor that  the  parish  house  in  the  town  be  turned  over  to  him,  as  he  is  now  living 
in  a  private  house  and  paying  rent. 

August  5,  1902. — Referred  to  the  provincial  governor  for  report  as  to  who  is  now  in 
possession  of  the  house  and  what  use  is  being  made  of  it.  The  records  show  nothing 
further,  as  the  case  was  handled  verbally.  The  priest  is  now  and  has  been  since  Octo- 
ber 1,  1902,  in  possession  of  the  house.     (No.  12054.) 

68.  Sexmoan,  Pampanga. — August  10,  1902. — Provincial  governor  transmits  peti- 
tion, signed  by  many  inhabitants  of  the  town,  asking  that  the  friar  recently  appointed 
parish  priest  be  removed. 

September  2,  1902. — Referred  to  Thomas  L.  Hartigan. 

August  28,  1902. — Severo  Zorras  and  50  others  state  that  municipal  president  and 
two  other  persons,  accompanied  by  five  policemen,  forced  the  people  of  the  town  to 
sign  the  petition  above  mentioned. 

September  13,  1902. — Referred  to  the  provincial  governor,  with  request  that  he  make 
a  personal  investigation  and  not  trust  same  to  the  municipal  officials. 

October  10,  1902. — Provincial  governor  transmits  testimony  in  the  case  and  his 
report,  showing  that  the  persons  who  signed  the  petition  against  the  retention  of  the 
Mar  did  so  of  their  own  free  will. 

September  26, 1902.-^ Antonio  Dagal  and  11  others,  "  leading  residents  of  Sexmoan," 
confirm  the  statements  in  the  petition  of  August  28  that  persons  had  been  compelled 
to  sign  the  petition  against  the  friars,  state  that  the  investigation  by  the  provincial 
governor  was  not  a  fair  one,  and  ask  the  civil  governor  to  investigate  the  matter  in 
person;  also  complain  of  illegal  fines  and  undue  interference  in  church  affairs. 
(No.  13571— Al  to  A3,  inclusive.) 

69.  Guagua,  Pampanga. — February  2,  1903.—  Parish  priest,  in  a  letter  to  the  apos- 
tolic delegate,  complains  that  the  municipal  authorities  have  taken  part  in  the  invit- 
ing of  Seiior  Aglipay  to  the  community  to  say  mass,  baptize,  preach,  etc. ,  and  begs 
the  intervention  of  the  central  government;  also  incloses  copies  of  notices  posted  in 
public  places,  which  he  says  are  an  insult  to  him. 

February  9,  1903. — Civil  governor,  in  a  letter  to  the  apostolic  delegate,  sets  forth 
the  position  of  the  church  in  this  and  similar  matters.  Copy  of  the  record  in  this 
case  is  attached  hereto  and  marked  "  Exhibit  No.  37,"     (No.  20913.) 

70.  Guagua,  Pampanga. — The  municipal  council  passed  a  resolution,  ordering  that 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  225 

the  Catholic  cemetery  recently  established  should  be  closed.  No  particular  reason 
for  this  action  is  assigned  in  the  resolution. 

Jvly  7,  190S. — The  provincial  board  declares  null  and  void  the  resolution  of  the 
municipal  council,  and  orders  the  members  of  the  latter  body  to  allow  the  exercise 
of  the  rights  of  burial  in  the  new  cemetery,  for  the  reason  that  the  cemetery  is  not 
a  menace  to  public  health. 

July  14,  1903. — The  municipal  president  and  council  appeal  to  the  civil  governor, 
asking  him  to  set  aside  the  order  of  the  provincial  board;  state  that  the  location  of 
the  cemetery  is  healthful,  but  that  it  is  in  the  inhabited  portion  of  the  town  and  is 
overflowed  during  the  rainy  season;  cite  orders  from  the  provincial  government 
ordering  the  establishment  of  municipal  cemeteries,  forbidding  the  interment  of  the 
dead  within  the  centers  of  population,  and  other  details;  claim  that  the  resolution 
of  the  municipal  council  was  simply  in  compliance  with  these  orders,  and  that  the 
last  order  of  the  provincial  board  is  in  contradiction  of  same. 

August  S,  1903. — Executive  secretary  notifies  the  municipal  president  that  there  is 
no  appeal  in  this  case  from  the  provincial  board,  and  that  the  decision  of  the  latter 
stands.     (No.  29160.) 

71.  Calasiao,  Pangasinan. — July  12,  1901. — Captain  of  the  Seventeenth  Infantry 
reports  particulars  of  the  insulting  of  two  Dominican  friars  on  June  28,  1901,  stating 
that  the  demonstration  consisted  of  the  taunts  and  jeers  of  a  dozen  or  so  native  men, 
women,  and  children,  and  that  no  personal  violence  was  offered;  states  that  the 
reason  he  did  not  report  it  before  was  that  he  considered  it  unimportaut.  After 
passing  through  the  hands  of  several  army  officers  the  papers  were,  on  July  24, 1901, 
referred  to  the  civil  governor  for  his  information.  The  letter  of  the  civil  governor 
to  the  provincial  governor  of  Tarlac  was  sent  to  the  governor  of  Pangasinan  and  to 
the  municipal  president,  and  they  were  told  that  the  instructions  contained  therein 
were  intended  to  cover  this  and  similar  cases.  This  is  the  letter  referred  to  in  case 
No.  25,  marked  "Exhibit  No.  13."     (No.  736.) 

72.  Dagupan  axd  Lingayen,  Pangasinan. — April  11,  1902. — The  Dominicans  of 
the  Most  Holy  Eosary  of  the  Philippines,  through  their  attorney,  protest  against 
the  collection  of  taxes  on  property  of  the  order  at  the  places  mentioned  above 
while  said  property  is  occupied  by  the  military  without  payment  of  rent. 

April  19,  1902. — "Referred  to  the  Commission. 

April  24,  1902. — The  Commission  passed  a  resolution  to  the  effect  that  the  provin- 
cial treasurer  be  instructed  to  suspend  the  collection  of  taxes  on  the  property  so  long 
as  same  should  be  occupied  by  the  military  without  payment  of  rent,  and  that  a 
copy  of  the  resolution  be  furnished  to  the  parties  interested.  The  resolution  referred 
to  in  case  No.  53,  the  application  of  which  to  that  case  was  contemplated,  was  sim- 
ilar to  this.     (No.  8490.) 

73.  Lingayen,  Pangasinan. — July  3,  1902. — The  vicar  of  the  province  of  Panga- 
sinan protests  against  an  order  of  the  municipal  president  closing  the  church  as  a 
health  measure,  while  other  buildings  in  the  pueblo  remained  open  to  the  public. 

July  10,  1902. — Referred  to  the  commissioner  of  public  health,  with  directions 
that  the  local  board  of  health  be  properly  informed  in  the  matter,  in  order  that  they 
might  rescind  or  modify  the  order  so  as  to  permit  church  services. 

August  2,  1902. — Papers  returned  with  statement  that  orders  have  been  given  to 
allow  churches  to  be  opened.     (No.  11129.) 

74.  Binmaley,  Pangasinan. — July  22,  1902. — Parish  priest  requests  that  quaran- 
tine be  raised,  and  protests  against  the  closing  of  the  church. 

July  29,  1902. — Referred  to  the  commissioner  of  public  health  for  proper  action. 
July  30,  1902. — Papers  returned  with  the  information  that  the  quarantine  has  been 
discontinued.     (No.  11650.) 

75.  Maao,  Occidental  Negros. — March  19,  1902. — Municipal  council  petitions 
against  allowing  friars  to  return  to  their  former  parishes,  and'  states  that  if  they  are 
allowed  to  return  the  petitioners  will  have  to  secede  from  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church.  For  action  in  this  and  similar  cases,  see  note  at  the  end  of  case  No.  84. 
(No.  8869.) 

76.  Silay,  Occidental  Negros. — July  10,  1902. — Provincial  governor  informs  civil 
governor  of  the  manifestation  which  took  place  in  the  pueblo  of  Silay,  caused  by  the 
presence  of  two  friars.  Incloses  copy  of  a  proclamation,  issued  by  him  in  the  prem- 
ises, for  the  information  of  the  civil  governor.  Copy  of  this  proclamation  is  attached 
hereto  and  marked  "Exhibit  No.  36."     (No.  11573.) 

77.  Bago,  Occidental  Negros. — October  23,  1901. — Residents  petition  for  the 
restoration  of  the  cemetery  to  the  Catholic  Church,  stating  that  from  time  immemorial 
it  had  belonged  to  and  been  administered  by  the  church  until  the  last  three  years 
under  the  provisional  government. 

November  13,  1901. — Referred  to  the  provincial  fiscal  of  Occidental  Negros  for 

WAR  1903 — TOL  5 15 


226  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

investigation  and  r